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This book is purchased from 

The Schofield Fund 

given in memory of 

William Henry Schofield 

Victoria College, B.A. 1889 

Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895 

Professor of Comparative Literature 

Harvard University, 1906-20. 

Harvard Exchange P rofessor at 

University of Berlin, 1907 

Lecturer at the Sorbonne and 

University of Copenhagen, 1910. 

Harvard Exchange Professor at 

Western Colleges, 1918. 



offiatttla in 



<6arlg (Englislj SUxt 

rig'mal Scms. No. 139. 





Sloane MS. 2002, leaf 24, back. 
A Fourteenth-Century Master Surgeon operating for Fistula in Ano. 
















to. 133 


Original 5trit8, 139. 




M.D. OXON., F.R.C.P. LOND., 







A Master of Surgery in the act of operating upon a fistula 
in ano. He wears the cap and gown of his degree 


PLATE I. A Mastery of Surgery in the fourteenth century 

Facing page 1 

PLATE II. The instruments used by John Arderne in the cure of 
fistula, from a fifteenth-century manuscript in the 
British Museum (Sloane 2002) .... page 10 

PLATE III. The instruments used in the operation of a fistula in 
ano from the early fifteenth-century manuscript 
(Sloane 6) printed in this book. The instruments 
named from above downwards are : the sequere me 
or probe: the syringa or syringe: the acus rostrata 
or snowted needle : the fraenum Caesaris or fourfold 
thread : the cochlear or shield : the tendiculum and 
wrayste or vertile (cf. p. 112). The left-hand figure 
shows the surgeon probing a sinus in the buttock; 
the right-hand figure shows the tendiculum, wrayste 
and fraenum Caesaris in position just before two sinuses 
are laid open in the left buttock. The snowted needle 
is about to be drawn through a series of fistulae in 
the right buttock .... Facing page 10 

PLATE IV. A series of drawings to illustrate the various occupations 

of a leech page 99 



THE history of mediaeval medicine, says Prof. E. Nicaise, 1 has 
been divided into four great epochs. The first, lasting from the fifth 
to the eleventh century, was remarkable for the Arabian school of 
medicine. The second period embraced the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, and witnessed the rise of the schola Salernitana : it was the 
time of the Crusades and of that intermingling of the East and West 
from which sprang the marvellous work of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. The work of the third period was all too short, and was 
brought to a sudden close by the Black Death which ravaged the 
world in 1348-9. It is properly described as the beginning of the 
modem era, the pre-Renaissance. A mere list of the Universities 
established will give some idea of the intellectual activity of the 
time. Montpellier (1137); Paris (1176); Oxford (1200) ; Cambridge 
(1209); Padua (1222); Naples (1224); Salamanca (1230); Toulouse 
(1230) ; Orleans (1231); Valladolid (1250); Seville (1254); Coimbra- 
Lisbon (1290); Lerida (1300); Avignon (1303); Rome (1303); 
Grenoble (1332); Angers (1337); Pisa (1343); Prague (1347); 
Florence (1349); Perpignan (1349) ; Huesca (1359); Cracovia(J364) ; 
Pavia (1365) ; Orange (1365) ; Vienna (1365) ; Erfurt (1379) ; Heidel- 
berg (1385) ; Cologne (1388) ; Buda (1389). 2 The fourth period was 
retrograde. Wars abroad and economic troubles at home seemed to 
have crushed the spirit of the few survivors from the previous 

John Arderne belongs to the thirteenth century in spirit and in 
thought, although the accident of birth placed him in the next 
generation. He was well educated, and he reflects the current ideas 
of his time just as every well-educated surgeon at the present day is 
an epitome of his surroundings. Nothing is known of his history 
except for the autobiographical details given in the various manu- 
scripts of his works and a small body of floating tradition which has 
been handed down through the centuries. 

1 "La grande chirurgie de Guy de Chauliac." Paris, 1890, pp. x-xv. 

2 The dates appended to the Universities are merely intended to show when 
each was known to be actually in existence a few were created, the majority 
developed from small beginnings. 

x Forewords. 


There seems to be little doubt that he was a member of the family 
of Arderne, or.Arden, who claimed descent from Saxon times. The 
best known representative of the family was Turchill or Turketil, 
styled de Warwic in Domesday, and De Eardene in the Register of 
Abingdon Abbey, " being one of the first here in England that, in 
imitation of the Normans, assumed a surname. 1 The Ardernes were 
Lords of Watford in Northamptonshire from 1140, and spread thence 
to Cheshire and Staffordshire. In the Aldford, Cheshire, branch the 
name of John was borne hereditarily by John de Arderne (fl. 1220) ; 
Sir John de Arderne (1266-1308?); Sir John de Arderne (1307- 
1349) ; and John de Arderne (fl. 1332). 2 It was possibly the last- 
named John Arderne 3 who received a grant of land in Connaught 
from Edward the Black Prince (Appendix, p. 105), and who is 
mentioned in John of Gaunt's Register 4 as having been appointed 
Seneschal of the manor of Passenham in Northamptonshire on October 
7th, 1374. The name of John Arderne, or John de Arderne, there- 
fore, was well known in London, 5 in the midlands and in the counties 
of Cheshire and Lancaster during the fourteenth century, but there 
is no evidence forthcoming at present to show to which branch of the 
family the surgeon belonged. 

The date of Arderne's birth is fixed by his own statement that he 
was seventy in the first year of the reign of Richard II. Edward III 
died at Sheen on June 21, 1377, and was immediately succeeded by 
Richard II. Arderne, therefore, was born in 1307. 6 It is clear too 
that he practised abroad, for he says that he tried a remedy "in foreign 

1 Dugdale, 675. 

8 "Parentalia," Genealogical Memoirs, compiled by George Ormerod, D.C.L. 
F.R.S., privately printed 1851. 

3 Perhaps it was this John Arderne who is mentioned in Rymer's "Feedera" 
(vol. ii, part 2, p. 119, col. 2). He was commanded to attend the King in war 
to Guienne in the year 1324. 

* I, 337, leaf 64, back. I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Sydney Armitage- 
Smith for this reference. 

5 In London John Arderne was a Fishmonger in 1361, and Richard Arderne 
was a prominent Skinner in 1376. John Arderne, esquire, was living in the 
parish of St. Mary Aldermariachurch in 1425. (Dr. Reginald Sharpe's " Calendar 
of Wills Court of Husting." London, part 2, pp. 63 and 439.) 

8 Sloane MS. 75, leaf 146. De Cura Oculi. "Et sciant presentes et futuri 
quoad Ego Magister Johannes de Ardern, cirurgorum minimus, hunc libellum 
propria manu mea exaravi apud London ; anno, videlicet regis Ricardi 2di primo 
et etatis me Ixx. ("And be it known to present and future generations that I, 
Master John of Ardern, the least of the surgeons, scribbled this book with my 
own hand in London in the year, viz. the first year of the reign of King Richard 
the Second and in the seventieth year of my age.") 

Forewords. xi 

parts upon one King and two Bishops." l I have no doubt in my own 
mind that the king was John of Gaunt, "Koy de Castell et de Leon, 
Due de Lancastre," who was always addressed as " Monseigneur 
d'Espaigne." 2 In 1376 John of Gaunt was the best hated man in 
England, says Mr. Sydney Armitage-Smith in his valuable study of 
his life. It was undesirable, therefore, John Arderne would think, to 
draw too close attention to the fact that he had once been attached to 
his person, for the book was written in this very year 1376. The 
precaution was wise in view of the events which happened when a 
London mob burnt the Duke's palace at the Savoy in 1381 and 
killed his physician, merely because he was a trusted and valued 
friend. 3 Mr. Sydney Armitage-Smith 4 says that the name of the 
physician was William de Appleton, and that he was retained by 
the Duke of Lancaster at 40 marcs per annum for life. An in- 
teresting example of the caution which was habitual to Ardern in 
this matter is to be found in two of the manuscripts in the British 
Museum. The one 5 tells of a certain noble knight in the service of 
the Duke of Lancaster at Algebras, in Spain, who had a sudden attack 
of facial paralysis, which so twisted his mouth that it was drawn back 
nearly to his ear and prevented him from speaking. The manuscript 
continues, " I, the aforesaid John Ardern, made a cure of him." The 
second manuscript 6 gives an account of the same case, but, instead of 
giving any name to the leech who cured him, it merely says " for 
whom the King of Spain's doctor made a cure in this way." 7 The 
latter MS. is a magnificently written copy on vellum, with such 
carefully executed illustrations that it is usually exhibited in the 
British Museum as an example of fourteenth-century work. It was 
possibly a presentation copy to John of Gaunt himself; the first one 
is a poorly written paper manuscript, such as would have an ordinary 

1 MS. bought at the Towneley Sale. It is now in the Surgeon General's 
Library at Washington, U.S.A. The extract on leaf 54 is, " Hoc probavi in uno 
rege et duobus episcopis in transmarinis partibus." It is quoted in the "Johns 
Hopkins Bulletin," vol. v, 1894, pp. 21 and 67, but I am indebted to the courtesy 
of Lieut. -Col. Walter D. M c Caw, Librarian S. G. 0., for a complete transcription 
of the passage. 

2 "John of Gaunt," by Sydney Armitage-Smith, p. 258. 

J Johannes de ordine Minoram in armis bellicis strenuus, in physica peritis- 
simus, domino Johanni duci Lancastriae familiarissimus." Knighton's Chronicle- 
Rolls Series, ii, 133. 

4 Op. cit. p. 248, note. 6 Sloane MS. 3548. 6 Sloaue 29301. 

7 " Quidam miles nobilis Ducis Lancastriae apud Agezir in Hispania passus 
est subito torturam oris ita quod os ejus distractum fuit fere retro aurem nee 
loqui poterat. Ego Predictus Job. Ardern talem feci sibi curam " (MS. 3548). 
"Cni medicus regis hyspaniae talem curam fecit," says MS. 29301. 

xii Forewords. 

circulation. It was copied at a much later date, for the scribe, by 
mistake, has written Henrici de Arderne, and it belonged to Robert 

Haeser 1 says that perhaps Arderne was educated at Montpellier 
and practised in France as a military surgeon on the English side 
during the earlier and most brilliant years of the One Hundred Years' 
War. E. H., who translated his " Latin practises and consailes 
concerning the helping of all diseases," 2 in the early part of the 
seventeenth century, is responsible for the statement that he practised 
at Antwerp, and he certainly knew a few words of Flemish, for, in 
speaking of the Nightshade, he says that in Flanders it is called 
"Naghtstach" (p. 32). 

Dr. Milward 3 believed that he was present at the battle of Cre9y, 
but this I take leave to doubt. He practised, or at any rate he treated 
patients, in Wiltshire, 4 and from 1349 until 1370 he lived at Newark 
in Nottinghamshire. 5 He came to London in 1370, but I have found 
no record of where he lived. It was the year- of his grand climacteric, 
in an age when men lived a much shorter time than now, yet he 
practised with vigour and success for five or six years. By this time 
he had secured a competence and he set himself to write. In 1376 he 
issued his treatise on the cure of Fistula in ano which is here printed, 
" written," as he says, " with my own hand, in the year when the 
strong and warlike Lord " (Edward the Black Prince) " was taken to 
God." 6 It is possible that the treatise on Clysters 7 was already 
written; it is certain that the treatise "De cura oculorum" was 
written in 1377, 8 but we know nothing more than this about John 
Arderne. There is nothing to show that he was living in the reign 
of Henry IV, who came to the throne in 1399. The reference to 
Henry IV (p. 74), " With this medicine was kyng Henry of ynglond 
cured of the going out of the lure," is a side-note written in a different 
hand in some of the MSS. and has only crept into the English text in 

1 "Lehrbuch d. geschichte der Med.," ed. 3, Jena, 1875, i, 784. 

2 Sloane MS. 2271. 

3 A circular invitatory letter . . . concerning . . . British Physical and 
Chirurgical Authors, by Edward Milward, M. D., Lond. 1740, p. 23. 

4 "Hoc probavi in vicecomite Wilteshure," says the MS. in the Surgeon- 
General's Library at Washington, U.S.A., quoted in the "Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital Bulletin," vol. v, 1894, pp. 21 and 67, and I am again indebted to 
Lieut. -Col. MCaw for verifying the reference. 

B Teste all the MSS. 

6 "Et eodem anno quo Dominus strenuus et bellicosus Princeps migravit ad 
Dominum, scripsi libellum istura manu propria, viz. Millesimo ccclxxvi. . . . 
quern Deus absolvat, quia fuit flos Milicise Mundi sine pare." 

7 See postea, p. 74 et seqq. 8 P. x, note 6, of these Forewords. 

Forewords. xiii 

process of time. The Hunterian copy of the Commentary in English 
on " Aegidii Corboliensis tractatus metricus de Urinis," which mentions 
the leech of " our Lord King the most illustrious prince Henry the 
Fourth, on whose soul may God have Mercy, Amen," was clearly 
written after 20 March, 1413, and the scribe has forgotten Arderne's 
right name, for he says that it is written by Master John Arderon. 1 

It seems to me that the easiest way to correlate the various facts 
recorded about John Arderne is to assume that he was attached at first 
to Henry Plantagenet, the first Duke of Lancaster, and afterwards to 
John of Gaunt, who married his younger daughter Blanche as his first 
wife the White Lady of Chaucer's " Book of the Duchess." Henry, 
as Earl of Derby, was at Antwerp in 1338, and John Arderne is said 
to have practised there. Henry, in company with the Earl of Salisbury, 
fought against the Moors at the siege of Alge9iras in 1343, when much 
use was made of Greek fire, and gunpowder is said to have been 
employed for the first time. John Arderne had been to Alge9iras 
because he treated a knight there who was suffering from a trivial 
complaint from which he would have recovered during the long 
journey, if he had visited Arderne in England. Arderne was interested 
both in Greek fire and in gunpowder, for he gives a receipt for making 
Ignis Grsecus and for an artificial fire to burn ships. Henry of 
Lancaster was Lieutenant and Captain of Aquitaine in 1345, and was 
granted the town of Bergerac with the right of coinage in 1347. John 
Arderne nowhere says specifically that he served with the Earl of 
Derby, Duke of Lancaster, but he betrays an intimate knowledge of 
this campaign, for he gives the names of the towns in the order in 
which they were reached by the invading army and not in their 
geographical succession ; his knowledge is even remarkable, for he 
gives the towns in the order in which they were reached by a single 
column of the army, and he was writing more than thirty years after 
the events. 2 

1 "Ego Magister Johannes Arderonn hoc opusculum composui de judiciis 
urinarum per colores et contenta secundum indicium Egidii et Ypocratis, 
"Walterii, Gilis, Gilberti, Gordoni, Johannia de Sancto Amando, Ysaac, Auicenne, 
theophili, Galyeni, Galterii et tholomei in raedicinam et medicum domini regis 
illustrissimi priucipis henrici quarti cujus anime propicietur deus. Amen. " The 
MS. is in the Hunterian Library at Glasgow, No. 328, U. 7, 22 (cf. Notes, 59/32). 

2 " The forsaid sir Adam (p. 1, line 12 et seqq.) forsooth suffering from fistula 
in ano asked counsel of all the leeches and surgeons that he could find in Gascony, 
at Bordeaux, at Bergerac, Toulouse, Narbonne and Poitiers." Arderne seems to 
have had a soft place in his heart for Narbonne. He calls one of his favourite 
plaisters Emplastron de Nerbon, and says, "Istud emplastron dicitur Norbon 
quia quamvis sit nigrum tarnen bonum." ("This emplastre is called Noirbon, 
for although it be black nevertheless it is good." P. 91, 1. 31.) 

xiv Forewords. 

The campaign ended and the Duke of Lancaster returned to 
London, 13th January, 1347-8, and died of the plague at Leicester in 
1361. John Arderne may then have attached himself to John of 
Gaunt, the son-in-law of the Duke, who called himself King of Castile 
and Leon from his marriage with Constance, daughter of Don Pedro 
I of Castile, in September 1371, until his own daughter Katherine 
married Enrique III in 1388, and became Queen of Castile and 
Leon in 1390. If Arderne was really surgeon to the King of Castile 
it must have been after the year 1370, and this perhaps gives the 
reason why John Arderne left Newark after he had practised there for 
so many years. Mr. Armitage-Smith tells me, however, that there is 
no record of such an appointment in the Duke's roll which he has 
lately published. 


John Arderne is a good example of a type of surgeon who has 
happily never been absent from England. He is the earliest example 
that we know at present, but he was followed in direct succession by 
Thomas Morstede, who was present at Agin court in 1415, and was 
buried in St. Olave, Upwell, in the Jewry, in 1450 ; by Richard Ferris, 
who wrote nothing, but was revered as their master by many succeed- 
ing generations of surgeons in London. He died, an old man, in 
1566, and had seen much service in the wars of Henry VIII. 
William Clowes (1540-1604), my great predecessor at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, learnt much of him. Clowes handed on the tradition 
to John Woodall (1556-1643), and Woodall to Eichard Wiseman 
(1622-1676), the surgeon of the Commonwealth. Wiseman was 
succeeded by Samuel Sharp (1700 (?)-1778) of Guy's Hospital, and 
by Percivall Pott (1714-1788) at St. Bartholomew's. The dis- 
tinguishing mark of each was the possession of the qualities which 
make an English gentleman as well as a fine surgeon. They were 
all men of good education, wide experience, and sound judgment. 
John Arderne possessed these qualities in abundance. He preferred 
personal experience to the teaching of the schools. He would rather 
learn by experiment than by authority, and with characteristic frank- 
ness he related his failures as well as his successes (p. 83). He was 
not in advance of his time, for he believed, like every one else, in 
Astrology (p. 16). He kept his methods as secret as he could by 
giving fancy names to his ointments and plaisters (p. 89), and by 
writing his charm in Greek letters " ne a laicis perspicietur " (p. 103). 

Forewords. xv 

John Arderne wrote on Fistula, on diseases of the Eye, on Clysters, 
on Bleeding ; on Plants and their Uses, and he also published a 
common-place book containing various receipts and notes of cases 
arranged without any method. There exists also his Commentary on 
Giles de Corbeil's metrical treatise "de Urinis" (p. xiii, note 1), and he 
is the author of a " Scala Sanitatis contra plagas." By some means he 
had access to a large medical library, for he quotes the very words of 
the manuscripts to which he refers in his treatise on Haemorrhoids 
(p. 55, line 3), and it is evident that they were lying before him as he 
wrote. It is clear from the number of manuscripts which still remain 
in the various libraries (Bibliography, pp. xxxiv and xxxv) that 
Arderne's works were read and valued by his contemporaries and 
immediate successors. They were written originally in Latin, and, 
as he is careful to explain, with his own hand, but English trans- 
lations were soon produced. The Latin is of the colloquial type like 
that in which the "Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum" was written in 
the early years of the sixteenth century, neither better nor worse, and 
when Arderne was at fault for a Latin word he never scrupled to use 
its English or French equivalent. His handwriting was as crabbed as 
his style, if, as there is some reason for believing, the Sloane MS., 
No. 75, is a holograph in so far as it deals with diseases of the eyes. 
The treatise on Fistula in Ano is certainly the most interesting and 
practical of Arderne's works. John Read published an abstract of a 
part of this treatise in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but it has never 
been printed in full until now, and for this purpose an early fifteenth- 
century translation has been selected. 


Arderne's attention was no doubt called to the subject of Fistula 
by the actual cases Avhich came to him for relief. The hardship of the 
Hundred Years' War must have produced many cases of ischio-rectal 
abscess which ended in fistula. Wet, cold, long hours in the saddle 
weighted down by the heavy armour of the time, would readily lead 
to this condition in the knightly class ; whilst the sedentary habits 
and gross feeding causing chronic constipation would account for it 
in the religious and civic population. Tubercle, too, was rife in the 
fourteenth century, but it would be interesting to learn whether the 
Black Death left an aftermath of boils and abscesses. The work is 
full of detail, and shows the author to be original, thoughtful, 
observant, and a master of his art both in theory and practice. He 


xvi Forewords. 

says, very rightly, that the treatment of fistula in ano had fallen into 
disrepute because it was a troublesome condition which brought 
very little credit to surgeons, whilst it required long and patient 
treatment for which the majority of the sufferers were not prepared to 
pay. An examination of the writings of the immediate predecessors 
and contemporaries of John Arderne shows that these statemeuts are 
literally correct. To go back no farther than Albucasis, who died in 
1013, 1 it was taught that complete fistulas were incurable, and that all 
operations and the application of ointments was but labour in vain. 
Some believed that a cure could be obtained occasionally, and Albucasis 
advised, therefore, that a small copper or iron probe should be intro- 
duced into the bowel through the fistula which should then be laid 
open in its whole extent until the probe fell out. But if the bleeding 
were so severe as to stop the operation, or the surgeon was afraid of 
the haemorrhage, the actual cautery might be used. In other cases, 
Albucasis taught, a probe armed with a ligature of five strands might 
be passed from the external orifice of the fistula through its track into 
the rectum. The end of the probe was then caught by the finger 
and drawn out through the anus bringing with it one end of the 
ligature. The two ends of the ligature, the one hanging out 
of the fistula and the other from the anus, were then tied tightly 
together, care being taken to include as much tissue as possible. The 
knot was tightened on the second or third day, and as often afterwards 
as was necessary. The fistula was thus cured by the ligature cutting 
its way out, the track behind it healing by granulation. 

William de Salicet (fl. 1245), who taught surgery at Bologna, and 
was considered the most skilful surgeon of his age, had so great a 
dread of fistula that he wrote : 2 " When the fistula is complete it is 
assuredly so difficult to cure that it is better and more honourable for 
the surgeon to give up the case at once. But if he decide to under- 
take it the orifice should be dilated with a sponge tent and the whole 
track burnt with the actual cautery. If this fails the fistula may be 
laid open into the bowel by a seton of silk, horsehair or cow's hair 
pulled to and fro daily like a saw until it cuts its way out ; but," he 
adds, as a warning, " I have seen bad results from this method of 

Lanfrank, the most distinguished pupil of William de Salicet, who 

1 "Methodus Medcndi certa, clara et brevis," Lib. ii, cap. 810. Basil, 1541, 
p. 132. 

2 " Chirurgie de Guillaume de Salicet." Paul Pifteau. Toulouse, 1898, p. 139. 

Forewords xvii 

died in 1306, the year before John Arderne was born, contents himself 
with saying that fistulae are incurable, and he utters a lamentable cry 
against those who would attempt to operate even if it were only by 
applying a corrosive, 1 

Henri de Mondeville (1260(?)-1320(?)) merely enlarged the oritice 
of the fistula with a tent, and utterly condemns the teaching of the 
school of Salernum, as represented by Roger and Roland, who would 
operate and afterwards apply a painful corrosive, 2 and de Mondeville 
was in Paris what Arderue was in London, a first-rate surgeon. 

Guy de Chauliac (d. 1368), prince of the mediaeval writers of 
surgical text-books, published his " Great Surgery " thirteen years 
before Arderne wrote his treatise on Fistula. After the manner of 
text-books various operations are described for the cure of fistula, 
each with insufficient details, and the reader is left in doubt as to 
which, if any, is to be employed. 3 


John Arderne's operation is clearly a modification of the method 
recommended by Albucasis, and, like a good surgeon, he preferred a 
clean incision to fretting the fistula through with a ligature tied 
tightly. He recommends that the patient should be secured in the 
lithotomy position. A probe called appropriately enough, sequere 
me is passed through the fistula until it is felt in the rectum. The 
eye of the probe is then threaded with a ligature of four strands the 
frsenum Caesaris which is drawn through the fistula as the probe is 
pulled out of the rectum until one end hangs out of the anus and the 
other from the opening of the fistula. These two ends are knotted 
together and the whole ligature is tightened by means of a peg the 
wrayste fixed into the widest part of a gorget the tendiculum in 
the same way that a violin peg tightens the strings passing round it. 
The use of the ligature is partly to control the bleeding and partly to 
maintain a correct line while the fistula is being divided. The gorget 
or tendiculum is pushed well up into the fistula and a grooved director 
with a curved end the acus rostrata, or snowted needle is passed 
along it until the end projects into the rectum where the probe had 

1 Lanfrank's "Science of Cirurgie," Early English Text Society, No. 102, 
pp. 292-3. 

2 "Chirurgie de Maitre Henri de Mondeville." E. Nicaise. Paris, 1893, 
p. 465. 

3 "La Grande Chirurgie de Guy de Chauliac, composed en 1'an 1363." E. 
Nicaise. Paris, 1890, p. 134. 

xviii Forewords. 

been previously inserted. A shield the cochlearia, or spoon with 
a depression in its centre is then passed through the anus until the 
grooved director engages in the depressed notch. The object of this 
shield is partly to prevent the surgeon cutting down upon his own 
finger and partly to protect the opposite wall of the rectum should 
the patient struggle or make a sudden movement at the moment the 
fistula is divided. A scalpel the razor or lance is passed along the 
groove in the acus rostrata, and the fistula is cleanly divided along 
its whole length by drawing the knife, the acus rostrata, and the 
spoon out of the rectum with a single movement, the ligature or 
frsenum Csesaris coming away at the same time. Each branch of the 
fistula may be laid open in turn if the patient can bear it, or any 
farther operation can be postponed, as Arderne had found by experi- 
ence that when the main track was laid open the other channels often 
healed of themselves. 

The operation was a good one, except that his instruments were 
needlessly cumbersome, and would cure a fistula equally well at the 
present day, but the great advance which Arderne made was in avoid- 
ing the corrosive and irritating after-treatment used by every one 
else. It is difficult now to put ourselves in his position and to realize 
what an amount of originality it meant for a surgeon in the fourteenth 
century to leave a wound alone and not to try and kill it with the actual 
cautery or with caustics. Such a method was contrary to all teaching, 
and would seem to be undertaken with the very greatest risk. Yet 
John Arderne only applied a little oil of roses with the white or yolk 
of an egg, and he washed the wound with tepid water and a sponge. 
He never changed the dressings oftener than he could help (p. 87), 
but he was careful to see that they were not soiled, whilst his experience 
with simple enemata led him to prefer a clyster of salt and water 
to the powerful purgatives in ordinary use. Some of his patients 
recovered, therefore, and he was not slow to advertise the fact ; but 
the weight of authority was against him, and in spite of his success, 
surgeons preferred to mundify their wounds and use incarnatives for 
nearly five hundred years after his death. 


The position which Arderne occupied was perfectly well recognized 
both in England and France, and was identical with that which we 
occupy at the present time as consulting and operating surgeons. In 
France such surgeons were known in Arderne's time as surgeons of the 

Forewords. xix 

long robe, to distinguish them from the barbers practising surgery, 
who were surgeons of the short robe. In England the prefix of 
Master indicated the difference, and John Arderne is careful therefore 
always to style himself Magister Johannes de Arderne, Magister being 
his title as Master of Surgery, which distinguished him, on the one 
hand, from the Doctor of Physic who was his superior, and, on the 
other, from the Barber and the Apothecary who ranked below him. 
The Master Surgeons formed a small guild in London from very early 
times, and records of persons entrusted with its supervision are known 
as early as 1369. l Arderne calls himself "cirurgorum minimus" (p. x, 
note 6), and he was probably admitted a member of this guild when 
he came to London in 1370, in which case Master John Dunheued, 
Master John Hyndstoke and Master Nicholas Kildesby would be 
three of his colleagues. The guild never contained many members, but 
what it lacked in numbers it made up in influence, and, in spite of 
many struggles with the more numerous Guild of Barbers, it was able 
to hold its own for many years. The Guild of Surgeons united for a 
short time with the Physicians about 1423, and finally became merged 
into the United Company of Barbers and Surgeons in 1540. But 
it is unnecessary to trace the growth and development of the Guild of 
Surgeons, and those who are interested in it will find a fuller account 
in " The Medical Magazine " for 1899. The present treatise contains 
slight references to the struggle which was going on between the 
Surgeons and the Barbers at the time it was written. There is the 
case, for instance (p. 100), of the rich fishmonger who had a lacerated 
wound of the arm which was made worse by the incompetent treat- 
ment of a barber who had stuffed it with corrosive dressings. Arderne 
tore off the dressings and replaced them by a soothing fomentation 
which allowed the patient to have a good night's rest. 

But the human interest of the treatises here published is concen- 
trated in Arderne's description of the qualities required in a good 
surgeon (p. 4). It sets forth his ideal of the morals and etiquette of 
the highest class of surgeons the Masters of Surgery during the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and shows that it was at least as 
high as it is amongst the best men of the present day. Pity, charity, 
continence in all things, the patient first but the fee not unimportant, 
because then as now the labourer was worthy of his hire, were the 
distinguishing characteristics of the educated surgeon. 

Henri de Mondeville gives similar rules in somewhat greater detail. 
1 South 'a "Craft of Surgery," p. 17. Messrs. Cassell & Co., London, 1886. 

xx Forewords. 

I quote partly from Prof. E. Nicaise's splendid edition of his works, 1 
and partly from the contemporary translation into French, published 
by Dr. A. Bos : 2 " A Surgeon ought to be fairly bold. He ought not 
to quarrel before the laity, and although he should operate wisely and 
prudently, he should never undertake any dangerous operation unless 
he is sure that it is the only way to avoid a greater danger. His limbs, 
and especially his hands, should be well-shaped with long, delicate and 
supple fingers which must not be tremulous. He ought to promise a 
cure to every patient, but he should tell the parents or the friends if 
there is any danger. He should refuse as far as possible all difficult 
cases, and he should never mix himself up with desperate ones. He 
may give advice to the poor for the love of God only, but the wealthy 
should be made to pay well. He should neither praise himself nor 
blame others, and he should not hate any of his colleagues. He 
ought to sympathise with his patients in their distress and fall in with 
their lawful requests so far as they do not interfere with the treat- 
ment. Patients, on the other hand, should obey their surgeons im- 
plicitly in everything appertaining to their cure. The surgeon's 
assistants must be loyal to their surgeon and friendly to his patients. 
They should not tell the patient what the surgeon said unless the 
news is pleasant, and they should always appear cheerful. They 
must agree amongst themselves as well as with the patients, and they 
must not be always grumbling, because this inspires fear and doubt in 
the patient." 

De Mondeville then shows how an honest surgeon may be replaced 
and damaged by one Avho is less conscientious, for he says : " A rich 
man has the beginning of an inflammation. He calls in an upright 
surgeon, who says after examining him, ' Seigneur, there is no need 
for any operation here, because nature will relieve herself, etc. ; but if 
the inflammation gets worse, send for me.' It then happens that the 
patient calls in another man who is a quack, and he is told, ' Seigneur, 
you have a great deal of inflammation, I can feel it inside, and if you 
are not treated at once you will certainly regret it.' This surgeon 
then sets to work and makes an inflammation, which he afterwards 
cures, so that the whole proceeding redounds to his credit and profit, 
for he discovered an inflammation which did not exist, whilst the 
first surgeon is damaged both in his reputation and his pocket because 
he did not find out what was not there." 

1 " Chirurgie de Maitre Henri de Mondeville, composed de 1306 h 1320," par 
Ed. Nicaise. Paris, 1893, pp. 91 et aeqq. 

2 " Soc. des Anciens Textes Fran^ais." Paris, 1897, tome i, p. 140. 

Forewords. xxi 

" Then again, one of these second-rate surgeons will come to a sick 
man who is wealthy, and will say to him, with the voice of an arch- 
angel taking care that no witnesses are present ' Seigneur, you 
must remember that you are the one who is ill and in pain. It is not 
your son or your nephew. It is you who are kept awake by the pain 
whilst your friends and servants sleep. Others won't take care of you 
if you don't take care of yourself. You are rich enough to get advice 
and to buy health and whatever else you want if you choose to do so. 
Riches are not more than health, nor is poverty worse than sickness. 
Have you not made the greater part of your money yourself and for 
yourself, so that if you are not a miser you can apply it to relieve 
your wants ? Would to God that those who look after you so badly 
had your complaint. But all this is between ourselves, and what I 
tell you is only out of pity for you and for your good.' Then, in the 
absence of the patient, he speaks to the relatives and says, ' Seigneurs, 
this man has the greatest confidence in you, and, truly, if you lose 
him, you will lose an excellent friend. It is not to your credit either 
to let him go without advice, for if he died without advice you would 
be blamed everlastingly, even if it made him as poor as Job. He is 
really in great danger, and it is a serious case, but nature sometimes 
does better than we have any right to expect. He is sure to die if no 
one treats him, but if he is properly treated it is just possible that he 
will escape and not die. If he dies it won't be the result of the treat- 
ment, because he is nearly dead already, his only chance is to have a 
consultation, etc. I am speaking to you as a friend and not as a doctor.' 

" But it is quite another matter when this same surgeon has to 
treat a poor man, for he says, ' I am really sorry for you, and I would 
gladly help you for the love of God only. But I am very busy 
just now with a lot of difficult cases, and, besides, the season is not 
a very favourable one for an operation. You can't afford to buy what 
is necessary for your case, such as drugs and dressings, so I would put 
it off until the summer. You will then be able to get the herbs and 
whatever else is wanted and so save expense. The summer, too, is 
the best time for the poor.' When the same pauper comes back in 
the summer the surgeon says to him, ' I am very sorry that I put you 
off in the winter and told you to wait until the summer, because the 
winter is really the best time. Summer is too hot and there is a fear 
of stirring up the disease. I should advise you to wait until the hot 
weather is over.' And this goes on everlastingly, for this kind of 
surgeon never finds time to operate upon a pauper." 

xxii Forewords. 

De Mondeville classifies his patients according to their ability to 
pay fees. " The first class are paupers who must be treated for nothing ; 
the second class are a little better off, and may send presents of fowls 
and ducks; they pay in kind. The third class are friends and rela- 
tions who pay no fixed fee, but send victuals or presents in token of 
gratitude, but no money. Our assistants ought to suggest the presents 
to this class, saying behind our backs, and as if we knew nothing about 
it, when anything is said about money, ' No, indeed, the Master would 
not like it, and you would do much better to make him a little present, 
though I am sure that he does not expect anything.' Indeed, a sharp 
assistant sometimes makes more by such suggestions than the Master 
4oes by his operation, and it is just like doubling the fee on account of 
the horse when the Master makes his visits on horseback. Then there 
is a class embracing those who are notoriously bad payers, such as our 
nobility and their households, government officials, judges, baillies 
and lawyers, whom we are obliged to treat because we dare not offend 
them. In fact, the longer we treat these people the more we lose. 
It is best to cure them as quickly as possible, and to give them the 
best medicines. Lastly, there is a class who pay in full and in 
advance, and they should be prevented from getting ill at all, because 
we are paid a salary to keep them in health." 

The difficulty of obtaining payment for operations in the fourteenth 
century must have been very great, for De Mondeville still further 
emphasizes it and says, " The chief object of the patient, and the one 
idea which dominates all his actions, is to get cured, and when once 
he is cured he forgets his own obligation and omits to pay; the object 
of the surgeon, on the other hand, is to obtain his money, and he 
should never be satisfied with a promise or a pledge, but he should 
either have the money in advance or take a bond for it. As the poet 
says, ' Stepe fides data fallit, plegius plaidit, vadium valet The 
promise is often broken, the security is worthless, the bond alone 
holds good.' " De Mondeville also thinks that it is better on the whole 
for the surgeon to be paid for what he does rather than by a retaining 
fee, because a salary is apt to make him so hopeful that he will think 
the blind can certainly see and the lame can walk or even run. The 
surgeon too must beware of those who will make infamous proposals 
to him, because from time immemorial it has been an article of faith 
with the common people that every surgeon is a thief, a murderer or a 
swindler. He should also be careful to estimate the strength of a 
patient before he operates. If a patient dies of the operation and not 
of mere weakness the surgeon is held excused so long as the friends 

Foi-ewords. xxiii 

think the wound looks healthy, but if the wound looks badly the 
surgeon is credited with the death even though the patient has simply 
died of weakness. The surgeon must not put too much faith in 
appearances. The rich have a nasty habit of coming to him in old 
clothes, or, if they are properly dressed as befits their station they 
invent all kinds of excuses for beating down his fees. They say 
Charity is a flower when they find a man who helps the poor, and 
think that a surgeon ought to assist the unfortunate, but they never 
consider that a like rule is binding upon them. "I often say to 
such folk," De Mondeville adds, " Well, then, pay me for yourself and 
for three paupers and I will cure them as well as you. But they 
never make any answer, and I have never yet found any one in any 
position, whether he was a cleric or a layman, who was rich enough, or 
rather honest enough, to pay what he had promised until he was made 
to do so." Lesser surgeons must have fared very badly if this was 
the experience of the surgeon to the King of France. 

De Mondeville returns to the question of fees in another part of 
his book (Nicaise, op. cit. p. 199). "The surgeon ought to consider 
three things when a patient comes to see him and arrange about the 
fee for an operation. First, his own position ; secondly, the condition 
of the patient ; thirdly, the state of the disease. As regards himself 
the surgeon should think whether he is celebrated or at least better 
known than his colleagues, whether he is the only surgeon in the 
country, whether he is rich and not obliged to practise, whether he 
has enough cases to fill up his time, and whether he is on the point of 
undertaking more important cases. On the second point, viz. the 
condition of the patient. He either knows or he does not know him ; 
if he knows him he is aware whether he is rich or poor, whether, for 
example, he is the nephew of a bishop or of an abbe. But if he does 
not know him he ought to make careful inquiries, or rather he ought 
to get his assistants to make them, because sometimes, indeed often, it 
happens that the rich come to the leech dressed like paupers. If the 
surgeon suspects this he should say to his patient, ' Seigneur, I have 
examined your case but I must think it over, and I should like to see 
you again when I have done so, because he who judges in haste repents 
at leisure,' and in the interval the surgeon should make inquiries. As 
to the third point, the surgeon should think of the disease whether it is 
serious, if it is difficult to cure, and if long attendance will be required, 
whether few people know how to treat it, if it is chronic, and if it 
presents any unusual characters. 

" When the surgeon has considered all the points under these three 

xxiv Forewords. 

headings he ought to charge the patient boldly a very large fee, though 
he may moderate it according to circumstances. To a rich man he 
should say, ' The fee a surgeon ought to receive is a hundred pounds for 
this operation,' and if the patient is staggered by the sum he would 
continue, ' but I did not say that I was going to charge you that amount,' 
and thus little by little he lowers his fee. But he should always have 
a minimum for each operation and never go below it. In such cases 
it is more graceful for him to say, ' I am ready to do this operation as 
you and your friends wish, but I would rather do it for nothing to 
please you than for so small a fee.' And the surgeon should pretend 
that he has no living (prebende) nor capital except his profession, and 
that everything is as dear as possible, especially drugs, and ointment ; 
that the fee is as nothing compared with his services ; and the wage& 
of all other artisans, masons, for example, have doubled of late. I 
repeat that the surgeon ought to charge the rich as much as possible 
and to get all he can out of them, provided that he does all he can to- 
cure the poor. You then, Surgeons, if you operate conscientiously 
upon the rich for a sufficient fee and upon the poor for charity, you 
ought not to fear the ravages of fire, nor of rain nor of wind ; you need 
not take orders or make pilgrimages nor undertake any work of that 
kind, because by your science you can save your souls alive, live with- 
out poverty and die in your houses. Live in peace and joy and rejoice 
because your recompense is so great in heaven, as necessarily follows 
from the words of the Saviour, spoken in the psalm by the mouth 
of His prophet, ' Beatus qui intelligit super egeneum et pauperem. . .' 
For this reason surgeons enjoy such immunities and are free from all 
personal service and from all common burdens, such as the repair of 
walls, moats and roads, from the night watch in towns, and from all 
kinds of things. The Surgeons are classed as Surgeon-major and as 
Surgeons of the palace or Examiners, who are generally called 
Archiatres by the common people." 

William of Salicet, another surgeon, experienced in war and of the 
same high standard as Arderne and De Mondeville, had written in 
1275 (" Chirurgie de Guillaume de Salicet Achevee en 1275, Traduction 
et Commentaire, par Paul Pifteau." Toulouse, 1898, p. 3) in somewhat 
similar terms. He says a surgeon should grant the wishes of his 
patient so long as they do not interfere with the operation. He ought 
also to comfort his patient as far as possible by kind actions and by 
soothing words. He should hold out hope even in the most desperate 
cases, because the patient's courage reacts to these words and promises,. 

Forewords. xxv 

and they may have a more powerful influence on his recovery than 
any of the surgeon's remedies. But the matter should be discussed 
with the friends whenever there is danger, partly to save them the 
shock of an unexpected death, and partly to protect the surgeon from 
any suspicion of having caused it. Neither a surgeon nor a physician 
should talk to the women of the house with closed doors, whether she 
be mistress or servant. He should never speak improperly to her, nor 
make eyes at her, especially in the presence of the patient. Such 
actions may cause a patient to lose confidence in his surgeon, and thus 
the operation may prove unsuccessful because the patient has lost the 
good opinion he had of the operator. A wise surgeon too will do well 
to refrain from stealing anything whilst he is in attendance ; he will 
not stir up strife amongst the patient's friends or quarrel with the 
people of the house ; he will be careful, too, not to employ notoriously 
bad characters as his assistants, for all these things may spoil a good 
operation and thus detract from the dignity of medicine. Above 
all things, he must refrain from becoming too familiar with the laity. 
They are always ready to speak ill of doctors, and too great familiarity 
merely means that one cannot demand the proper fees for an operation 
with any assurance and safety. It is well known that a large fee 
increases the authority of the doctor as well as the confidence the 
patient puts in him, even though the doctor is very ignorant, because 
it is thought that a large fee secures better attention. The surgeon 
ought to observe the rules of those with whom he is living or amongst 
whom he finds himself. He should visit the poor because it is a good 
thing to have a reputation for Charity, partly because it increases his 
estimation in the eyes of the people, and partly because it enables the 
Divine Power to extend its influence over his spirit. The surgeon 
ought not to allow himself to be swayed by the entreaties of the 
patient, because if he yields the patient will lose faith in the operator, 
and the operator may himself become timid and hesitating. The 
assistants ought to be amiable and helpful to the patient, and they 
should never repeat to him what the surgeon has said unless it is 
pleasant and encouraging. Leeches should be especially careful not to 
discuss matters with the patient or in his presence, and above all 
things, they must avoid whispering or talking together in corners, for 
such actions rouse all kinds of suspicion in the mind of the patient 
and his friends. 

Lanfrank, who was in Paris in 1295, and is looked upon as the 
founder of French surgery, says in the English version transcribed in 

xxvi Fwewords. 

1380 (Early English Text Society, No. 102, 1894, p. 8) : "Needful 
it is that a surgeon be of a complexion well proportioned. . . He 
must have hands well shaped, long small fingers, and his body not 
quaking. Also he must be of subtle wit, for all things that (be)longeth 
to surgery may not with letters be written. . . Be he no glutton, nor 
not envious nor a niggard ; be he true ; humble and pleasingly bear 
himself to his patients ; speak he no ribaldry in the sick man's house ; 
give he no counsel but if he be asked ; nor speak he with no woman 
in folly in the man's house ; nor chide he not with the sick man nor 
none of his household, but courteously speak to the sick man, and in 
all manner of sickness promise him health although you despair of 
him, but nevertheless tell his friends the truth. Love no hard cures 
and undertake no desperate cases. Help poor men as far as possible 
and ask good reward of the rich. Praise he not himself with his own 
mouth, nor blame he over sharply other leeches. Love he all leeches 
and clerics, and, as far as possible, make he no leech his enemy. So 
clothe he himself with virtue that he may obtain a good name and a 
fair reputation. This is the ethical teaching." 

It is clear from these extracts that Arderne had read Lanfrank's 
rules for a surgeon, and that he amplified them from his own ex- 
perience, which corresponded very much with that of the French 
surgeons who were his contemporaries. But Arderne's teaching of the 
duties of a surgeon compares very favourably with that of William 
Salicet or Henri de Mondeville. He had a higher moral tone, or, at 
any rate, he based his warnings on morality rather than upon self- 
interest, and there is nowhere any reference to a surgeon as a common 
thief. His fees are high, but, as a contemporary writer explains, this 
is to make up for the long periods when he had nothing to do, and it 
is clear that it was extremely difficult to obtain money from patients. 

Every surgeon was taught never to treat cases which appeared 
incurable or were unlikely to run a straightforward course. This was 
due to ignorance, to the weakness of the law, and to the arbitrary treat- 
ment to which individuals might be exposed. Throughout the Middle 
Ages, and long afterwards, there was no science of toxicology and very 
little knowledge of morbid anatomy. Persons who died suddenly, there- 
fore, were usually thought to have been killed by poison, and the his- 
tories of the present day are full of accounts of the deaths of great men 
who are said to have been poisoned, when it is clear to every medical 
reader that they died a natural death from some acute disease. A 
perforated gastric ulcer, a perforated duodenal ulcer, an acute gan- 

Forewords. xxvii 

grenous inflammation of the vermiform appendix would present all the 
characters of poisoning to the lay mind. Failure after an operation 
was liable to be followed by the most undesirable consequences to the 
leech. King John of Bohemia, from whose body Edward the Black 
Prince took an ostrich feather for his crest, sewed up his French leech 
in a sack and threw him into the Oder because he had not cured his 
cataract as he had promised. 

Arderne must have led an interesting and adventurous life, and 
his treatises contain many sidelights on contemporary events. He 
appears to be the only contemporary authority for the story of the 
means by which Edward the Black Prince obtained the ostrich 
feather which has since become the cognisance of the heir apparent to 
the English throne. The passage runs as follows, " We are not able 
to cure rhagades unless the remedy can be put through the anus 
either as a clyster or by means of a suppository, since remedies applied 
outside are either useless or do very little good. We ought, therefore, 
to work with stimulating applications until the wound is clean, and 
afterwards with applications which both heal and dry, as has been 
said already in the chapter on internal piles, to wit, where Nastar is 
painted and Nastar is a kind of clyster or enema known as a glister- 
pipe. The feather of the Prince of Wales is also shown there, viz. on 
the preceding page. And note that Edward the eldest son of Edward 
King of England bore a similar feather above his crest, and he 
obtained the feather from the King of Bohemia, whom he killed at 
Cressy in France. And so he took the feather which is called an 
' ostrich feather,' which that most noble Lord King had used hitherto 
to bear above his crest. And in that year when our Lord the 
strenuous and warlike Prince departed to God, I wrote this little 
book of mine with my own hand, viz. in the year "one thousand three 
hundred and seventy-six. And our Lord Edward the Prince died on 
the sixth June on Trinity Sunday at Westminster during the great 
Parliament, and may God assoil him, for he was the very flower of 
chivalry, without peer in the world." l 

1 "Rhagades curare non possumus nisi medicinis infra anum inferamus aut 
in clystere aut niodo suppositorii quia medicinse exterius appositse parura vel 
nihil prosunt, unde primo oportet cum corrosivis operare ad mundificationem et 
postea cum consolidantibus et desiccantibus ut prajdiotum est capitulo de haemor- 
rhoid. infra anum latentibus ubi nastare depingitur et penna Principis Wallire, 
viz. folio praecedente. Et nota quod talem pennaiu albam portabat Kdwardus 
primogenitus filius Edwardi Regis Anglire, super crestam suam. Et illam 
pennam conquisivit de rege Boe'mo, quern interfecit apud Cresse in Francia. Et 
sic assumpsit sibi illam pennam quse dicitur ' Ostrich fether,' quam prius 
Dominus Rex nobillissimus portebat super crestain suam et eodem anno quo 

xxviii Forewords. 

This passage is omitted from the English translation which is 
here printed (Sloane 6), as well as from the later and different English 
translation (Sloane 76), which are often merely abstracts of what 
Arderne wrote. But it is present in the Latin texts (Sloane MSS. 56, 
leaf 74; 335, leaf 68; 2002, leaf 333; 176, back; 29301, leaf 42, 
col. 157 ; in MS. 1153, leaf 41, in Trin. Coll. Camb. ; and in the MS. 
No. 339 in the Hunterian Library at Glasgow, leaf 77). 

It was from the last MS., which was then called Sloane 2, that 
Thomas Hearn copied it in the " Chronici Walteri Hemingford." l 
In each case it is a part of the text, and is written by the same hand 
as the rest of the manuscript. The scribes have not copied from each 
other, and there is very little doubt in my own mind that Arderne 
wrote it originally, and that it contains the story current in his day 
about the source of the feather, and Arderne was in a position to 
obtain the story at first hand. Incidentally it bears out an interesting 
point, for it says that both the King of Bohemia and the Prince of 
Wales bore the feather above his crest, not as his crest, so that it was 
used in exactly the same manner as was the Garter at first, viz. as an 
ornament to be worn at jousts or tournaments. 2 It only became a 
crest in later years, and so long as it was a mere ornament or dis- 
tinguishing badge there was no need for it to be associated with a 
motto ; indeed, in each of Arderne's figures the scroll placed upon the 
quill of the feather, which is single, is left blank instead of being 
charged. This use of the ostrich feather as an ornament at jousts 
further explains the passage in the Black Prince's will, in which he 
desired that his corpse should bo taken through the City of Canterbury 
as far as the Priory, and that " two war horses, covered with our 
Arms and two men armed in our Arms and in our crests," should 
precede his corpse ; that is to say, " the one for War, with our entire 
Arms quarterly, and the other for Peace, with our Badge of Ostrich 
Feathers," with four banners of the same suite. 3 

Dominus strenuus et bellicosus Princeps migravit at Dominum, scrips! libellum 
istum manu propria, viz. anno Millesimo ccclxxvi. Et Dominus Edwardus prin- 
ceps obiit vi Idus Junii, viz. die Sanctse Trinitatis, apud Westmonasterium in 
magno parliarnento, quern Deus absolvat, quia fuit flos Milicise Mundi sino pare. 
Nastare species est clysteris sive enernatis 'a glister pipe.' " 

1 Vol. 2, pp. 444, 446, in note. 

2 ' ' Observations on the Institution of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, by 
Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas." "Archaeologia,'' vol. 31, p. 130. 

3 "On the Badge and Mottoes of the Prince of Wales," vol. 3. "Archaeologia," 
vol. 31, p. 356. 

"Et volons qe a quele heure qe uotre corps soit anienez parmy la ville de 
Cantirbirie tantq a la priorie, q'denx destrej covertj de nos armej, et deu3 home} 

Forewords. xxix 

The directions for making Nerbone plaister (p. 91) show the 
difficulties in reckoning small subdivisions of time. Arderne directs 
that the melted diachylon should be allowed to stand without moving 
by the space of a " pater noster " and an " ave maria." I asked 
a patient recently, the Mother Superior of a Convent, how long 
it would take to repeat these prayers, and she replied about three 
quarters of a minute. When I next saw her, after she had spent a 
sleepless night with a clock in front of her, she said that the question 
had interested her, and she found that a pater and an ave took exactly 
half a minute. Dr. Norman Moore draws attention (" The Progress 
of Medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital," 1888, p. 13) to a similar 
method employed by John Mirfeld, a Canon of the priory of St. 
Bartholomew, who wrote a general treatise on medicine Breviarium 
Bartholomei about the year 1380. He says, " Mirfeld treated 
chronic rheumatism by rubbing the part with olive oil. This was to 
be prepared with ceremony. It was to be put into a clean vessel 
while the preparer made the sign of the cross and said the Lord's 
Prayer and an Ave Maria, and when the vessel was put to the fire the 
Psalm, 'Why do the heathen rage,' was to be said as far as the 
verse 'Desire of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine 
inheritance.' The Gloria, Pater Noster, and Ave Maria are to be 
said, and the whole gone through seven times. ' Which done let 
that oil be kept.' " . . . " The time occupied I have tried," says Dr. 
Norman Moore, " and found to be a quarter of an hour." 

The charm against Cramp (p. 102) was obtained from one who 
was at* Milan when Lionel, Duke of Clarence, married Violante, 
the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti, at the door of the Cathedral, on 
June 5th, 1368. Five months of continuous jousts, feasts and revels 
were followed by the inevitable consequences of delirium tremens and 
epileptiform convulsions. 

The sober testimony to the profligacy of the times given in the 
receipt for making confection of Sanguis Veneris (p. 89) is the natural 
outcome of the conditions described in Dr. Furnivall's " Early English 
Meals and Manners" (Early English Text Society, Original Series, 
No. 32). The boys and girls of the upper classes were transferred 

arme? en nos armej et en nos heaumes voisent devant dit n're corps, c'est assavoir 
1'un pur la guerre de noj arme3 entiers quartellej, at 1'autre pur la paix de noz 
bages des plumes d'ostrace, ove quarter baneres de mesme la sute, et qe chacun 
de ceaux q'porteront les dite$ baneres ait sur sa teste un chapeau de noj armes." 
"Nichols's Royal Wills," p. 68. See also " Notes and Queries," Series ii, 1861, 
vol. xi, pp. 224 and 294. 

xxx Forewords. 

.from their own homes to be educated in the houses of the nobility as 
pages and maids of honour. They were well fed, spent their lives 
in a round of pleasure, and were often badly looked after. 

The account of juniper shows that Arderne knew London and its 
neighbourhood and talked with the countryfolk as he went amongst 
them. He says, " Juniper grows in Kent upon Shooter's Hill on the 
road to Canterbury, at Dorking also in Surrey as well as in many 
other places in that County, at Bedington too near Croydon, and the 
inhabitants of that country call it gorst because they do not know its 
proper name." l The Black Death does not seem to have left much 
impression upon Arderne's mind, because, like most contemporary 
medical writers, he only mentions it incidentally, and what we look 
upon as an appalling visitation had already faded from his mind, 
and its impression had been replaced by more recent epidemics. 

Arderne lived through the most chivalrous period of English 
history, and in all probability he knew personally many of the peerless 
knights and splendid champions who survive for ever in the pages of 
Froissart. To have known such men was in itself an education, and 
,to have lived in the household of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, and of 
John of Gaunt was sufficient to make Arderne the best type of an 
English surgeon a scholar and a gentleman. The chivalry of the 
age is well brought out in the extant manuscripts of Arderne's 
treatises. In some cases he mentions the names of the patients, but 
in many instances he tricks their coat-armour instead of giving names, 
and thus some early shields are preserved, amongst others that of the 
great Douglas. 

Arderne left a few traces on the sands of time, but very few. 
Johannis Argentin, a physician at Cambridge, wrote a treatise, which 
still remains in the Bodleian Library as Ashmol. MS. No. 1437. 
Tanner 2 thinks that it was written about 1476. He mentions 
Arderne no less than eleven times, and copies his style, especially his 
manner of quoting cases in illustration of his various subjects. 

Arderne's fame as a pharmacist long outlasted his reputation as a 
surgeon. Tapsimel (p. 31), Pulvis sine pari (pp. 26 and 86), Tapsi- 
valencia (p. 69), and the valences of Scabious and Wormwood (p. 97), 

1 "Et crescat in cancia super Scheteres hylde in via versus cantuariam, apud 
Dorkyng, eciam in So)>eray et eciam in aliis pluribus illius provincie, crescit 
eciam apud Bedyngton mxta Croyden quam incole patrie illius vocant gorst, quia 
proprium nonien illius ignorant." (MS. Digby 161, leaf 23, in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford.) 

2 "Bibliotheca," p. 48. 

Forewords. xxxi 

remained until the time of the first Pharmacopoeia, 1618. Dr. 
Alleyne 1 speaks thus of them: 

"Powers of Scabious, Valentia Scabiosce. Take of the juice of 
green Scabious, pressed out and strained through a cloth, and of 
Hog's lard cleared of its membranes, each as much as you please. 
Let the Lard be beat in a stone mortar, and the juice poured in by 
little at a time, for the conveniency of mixture, and giving its 
tincture ; and then put them together into a proper vessel, to be 
exposed to the sun, and so that the juice may cover the lard ; after 
nine days put them again into the mortar as before, and throw away 
that thin and discoloured humidity, which separates upon beating, 
without rubbing them together; and again put into its vessel for five 
days. And afterwards beat it again and by little at a time, mix with 
it fresh juice of scabious, and after a fresh insolation of fifteen days 
in its proper vessel in the Sun, let it be cleared as before of its watery 
humidity. Let it then stand again in the same manner for fifteen 
days longer with fresh juice, and after a little beating let it be kept 
for use in a glass or earthen vessel. This, we are told by the first 
compilers of the College Dispensatory, was the contrivance of John 
Arden, an experienced surgeon at Newark in Nottinghamshire, who 
lived in the reign of Edward III. After insertion of this, which they 
had from an ancient manuscript, they particularly direct to repeat the 
processes with fresh juice till the Lard looks of a deep green ; and 
that is made the measure of the repetition necessary. The powers 
and honey of Mullein were from the same author, and almost three 
hundred years ago were in great esteem amongst the surgeons of our 
own country, though they have now been long in disuse." 

" The Powers of Mullein ; Tapsi Valentia. Take of the juice of 
Mullen and of Hog's lard, each as much as you please ; let the Lard 
be cleansed of its membranes and fibresj and broke into small parcels ; 
then beat it with the expressed juice, press out and strain as directed 
in the preceding process. Let it afterwards be put into a proper 
vessel for nine or ten days, and then be twice more impregnated with 
fresh juice until it is quite green. Lastly, after all the humidity that 
will separate is poured off, beat it again briskly, and put it by in a 
proper manner for use." 

The first contriver of these processes, as appears from the first 
edition of the College Dispensatory, directs the medicines thus made 
to be fresh beat once in a month. 

1 "A New English Dispensatory," 1733, p. 336. 

xxxii Forewords. 

"Honey of Mullen; Tapsimel. Take of the juice of Celandine 
and one part Mullen, of despumated Honey two parts ; boil gradually 
till the juices are evaporated, adding thereto, if the Operator pleases, 
calcined Vitriol and Alum with Copperas, and again boil secundum 

The first College Dispensatory adds from the Author, that " if 
occasion requires this should be at last boiled up to a pretty thick 
consistence ; and says that it will certainly cure itchings in any part 
of the body, and is a most noble ointment. But it seems the present 
Practice hath not faith enough to rely upon it for anything, for 
neither this nor the foregoing are ever prescribed or made. However, 
it hath been thought fit to continue such extraordinary discoveries 
still upon record for the sake of any that may think proper to make 
trial with them." 

It is my pleasant duty, in conclusion, to thank those who have 
given me much help in the preparation of this volume. First, to Dr. 
Warner, the Keeper of Manuscripts, who allowed me to study the 
Sloane MSS. at the British Museum in comfort in the room which is 
doing duty as the large room; secondly, to Mr. L. Galbraith, who 
afforded me similar facilities in the University Library at Glasgow ; 
and, lastly, to Mr. Falconer Madan, who made me feel at home in the 
Bodleian. Lieut.-Col. Walter D. MCaw, Surgeon of the United 
States Army, responded kindly, promptly and fully to my questions 
about the only manuscript of Arderne which Dr. Harvey Gushing of 
Baltimore has been able to obtain tidings of in America. Miss 
Evaline G. Parker at Oxford, and Miss Margaret E. Thompson in 
London, have helped me by transcribing obscure passages which I 
Avas quite unable to decipher ; whilst my friend, Mr. J. H. ISToble, has 
assisted me with the heraldry of the various MSS., a subject of much 
interest, which I hope some day to consider in greater detail. My 
obligations to Mr. S. Armitage-Smith are great ; and I have 
endeavoured to show my appreciation of the interest which Dr. Frank 
Payne has always taken in Arderne, and the help I have received by 
dedicating to him this edition of his treatises. I have tried to make 
the text literally accurate, and to elucidate it by such notes as were 
needed to explain to myself the various difficulties which occurred in 
reading it. No one can be more conscious of the defects in the notes 
than myself, but the work has been a labour of love, and if they 

Bibliography. xxxiii 

seem extremely had it must be remembered that, after all, I am but 
a surgeon, whose business in life is to act and not to write. 


The following table shows the manuscripts which I have examined 
personally at the British Museum, and in Oxford, Cambridge and 
Glasgow. There is said to be a French version in Paris and a Latin 
one at Stockholm, but I have not yet been able to obtain any informa- 
tion about them : there is a manuscript in Washington and another 
in Dublin. 

Arderne issued his writings in the form of treatises, written in 
Latin, and with his own hand. These treatises were afterwards 
collected and were sometimes translated. The manuscripts therefore 
contain different combinations. The collection here printed is one 
of the more usual groups, but the translator has not rendered the 
whole of the last part on the preparation of various remedies. It 
is given in greater detail in the Ashmole MS. 1434 in the Bodleian 



Scec. xiv. Brit. Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 341, ff. 41-69 b. 
No. 3844, ff. 2-16 b. 

No. 3548, ff. 65-88. 

University Library, Glasgow, No. 339. 

Scec. xiv-xv. University Library, Glasgow, No. 112, ff. 38-98. 

Surgeon-General's Lib.. Washington, U.S.A., ff.41-138. 

Scec. xv. Brit. Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 6, ff. 141-154 b. [English]. 

No. 76, ff. 143 and 144. [English]. 

No. 238, ff. 99-214. 

No. 277, ff. 60b.-75b. [English]. 
No. 347, ff. 122-240. 

No. 563, ff. 63-121 b. [English]. 
No. 795, ff. 96b.-163b. 

., No. 2002, ff. 1-180. 

No. 2122, ff. 10-32. 

No. 29301, ff. 22-32 b. 

No. 8093, ff. 140-174 [English]. 

Harleian MSS. No. 3371, ff. 13-39 b. 
No. 5401, ff. 34b.-52. 

University Library, Glasgow, No. 251, formerly Sloane 2. 
Bodley's- Library, Oxford, Ash. 1434, ff. 11-107. 
St. John's College, Oxford, No. 132, ff. 68. 
Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge, No. 69. 
Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland. 

Scec. xvi. Bodley's Library, Oxford, Ash. 829, ff. 76-80 and 81-115. 
University Library, Glasgow, No. 135. 

* No. 403. 

Scec. xvii. Brit, Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 1991, ff. 142-159. 
Bodley's Library, Oxford, Eawl. No. 355 c. 


Scec. xiv. Brit. Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 56, ff. 1-100. 
No. 335, ff. 1-78 b. 

No. 341, ff. 1-40 b. 

No. 3548, ff. 26-99. 

Bodley's Library, Oxford, Digby 161, ff. 16-23 b. 

St. John's College, Oxford, No. 86, ff. 53. 

University Library, Glasgow, No. 339, ff. 232. 

Eoyal College of Surgeons, Ireland. ? date. 

Manuscripts of John of Arderne in the various Libraries, xxxv 

Scec. xiv-xv. University Library, Glasgow, No. 112. 

Sate. xv. Brit. Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 76, ff. 1-143. 

No. 238, ff. 8-96 b. 

No. 347, ff. 2-75. 

No. 795, ff. 20b.-96b. 

No. 962, ff. 123b.-248b. 

No. 2122, ff. 32-74. 

No. 29301, ff. 3-22, and 32b.-47 b. 
Bodley's Library, Oxford, Ash. 1434, ff. 117-131. 
University Library, Glasgow, No. 251. 
Gains Coll., Cambridge, No. 219. 
University Library, Cambridge, No. 292. 
Trinity Coll., Cambridge, No. 1153, ff. 99 + 3. 
Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge, No. 69 [English]. 

<. <-n. Brit. Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 563, ff. 122-129 b. 
University Library, Glasgow, No. 403. 

S(fc. xvii. Brit. Museum, Sloane MSS. No. 1991, ff. 168-224. 

No. 2271 [English]. 
Bodley's Library, Oxford, Rawl. 355 c. 

Scec. :'.<. Royal College of Surgeons, England. Transcript of E. H.'s 
[Sloane 2271] abstract. 

S&c. xiv. University Library, Glasgow, No. 328 [English]. 

ticec. xiv. Brit. Museum, Sloane 56, ff. 1-2. 

xiv-xv. University Library, Glasgow, No. 112. 
xv. No. 251. 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge No. 69 [English]. 

SCEC. xv. Brit. Museum, 1080 A, ff. 31 b.-36 b. 

xxxvi Table of Contents. 

[Sloane MS. 6, leaf 141.] 

A tretis extracte of Maistre lohn Arden of fistula in ano and 
of fistula in oj>er place} of ]>e body and of aposteme} makyng 
fistule} and of emoraide^ & tenasmon and of clistere} : of certayn 
oyntemente^ poudre^ & oyles. 

Fistula in ano. 

1. Of J>e ploge of ffistula in ano & of the manere of )>e leche & of 

instruments necessary for }>e fistle. [p. 1] 

2. Of aposteme? in >e lure causyng }>e fistul & of >e cure of ]>am. [p. 11] 

3. Of diffinicion of a fistule and place3 >at it is bred in & when 

it is curable or noujt. [p. 20] 

4. Of a maner of wirchyngin fistul in ano & >e curyng ]>erof. [p. 21] 

5. Of ano)>er maner wirchyng in ]>e same fistule and >e cure wij> 

diuerse exemplej. [p. 28] 

6. Of bubo wijnn )>e lure & J>e impossibilite or myche hardnes of 

>e cure of it. [p. 37] 

Fistula in the limbs. 

7. Of fistule3 in >e fyngers & hardness of cure of it. [p. 42] 

8. Of fistulej in }>e lawe joyntour of )>e fyngers & in fe legges, knees 

fete & ankles wij> corruptyng of ]>Q bones and J>e hardnes of )>e 
cure of it. [p. 46] 

9. Of J>e maner of cure of oon J>at had )>e fistule in >e legges aboue 

}>e ankle, [p. 47] 

10. Of J>e maner of cure of ane aposteme in j>e bojt of ]>& knee fat 

was disposid to >e fistule. [p. 47] 

11. Of >e maner of a ful hard cure in bolnyng of al a mannej 

arme. [p. 49] 

12. Of J>e maner of a cure of a man >at was smyten on the schyn 

bone. [p. 51] 

13. Of the maner of cure of a man whose legge was sodenly bolned. 

[p. 52] 

Of Mormales. 

14. Of maner of mormales & of |>e cure of >am. [p. 55] 

Of Piles. 

15. Of emoraides & of ]>e cure of >am' [p. 64] 

Of Tenesmus. 

16. Of j^enasmon & rhagadej and of >e cure of >am. [p. 71] 

Table of Contents. xxxvii 

Of Prolapse. 

17. Of goyng out of J>e lure & ]>e cure J>ere-of. [p. 74] 

Of Clysters. 

18. Of clistere? and l>e maner of J>am. [p. 74] 

Of Powders. 

19. Of >e property of Vitriol, [p. 79] 

20. Of >e pj-opertej of Alum. [p. 81] 

21. Of >e property of Vertgrej. [p. 82] 

22. Of >e propertej of arsenic & auripigment. [p. 82] 

23. Of makyng of f>em & of }>e werchynge. [p. 85] 

24. Of makyng of pulv. sine pari & of J>e wirchyng. [p. 86] 

25. Of makyng of sanguis veneris & of }>e wirchyng. [p. 89] 

26. Of makyng of salus populi & of \>e werchyng. [p. 90] 

27. Of makyng of nerbone & of j>e werchyng. [p. 91] 

Of Oils and Waters. 

28. Of makyng of Olei Seriac. [p. 91] 

fOf makyng of Unguentum arabicum. 

29. -! Of makyng of tapsimel. 

I Of makyng of diaflosmus. [p. 92] 

30. Of makyng of puhm grecus. [p. 92] 

31. Of makyng of oyle of roses, [p. 92] 

32. Of makyng of oyle of violettej. [p. 93] 

33. Of makyng of oyle of camamulle. [p. 94] 

34. Of makyng of oyle of mastikk. [p. 95] 

35. Of makyng of oyle of almaundej. [p. 95] 

36. Of makyng of water of almande3. [p. 95] 

37. Of makyng of oyle of juniper, [p. 96] 

38. Of makyng of ane enoyntment of juniper, [p. 96] 

39. Of makyng of a gode emplastre for )>e goute. [p. 96] 

40. Of the properte of walwort & makyng of ]>e juse & poudre 

of it. [p. 97] 

Of Valences. 

41. Of makyng of valence of scabious or mattefelon. [p. 97] 

42. Of makyng of valence of wormode. [p. 98] 

43. Of makyng a man slepe withottt pulverej or pille} or enoy[n]te- 

ment. [p. 100] 

44. Of J>e mane?- of wakyng of hym. [p. 101] 

Sloaue MS. 2002, leaf 24, back. 
PI.ATK I. A Master of Surgery in the fourteenth century. 


[Sloane 6, leaf 141, back.] 

Of the ploge of fistula in ano, and of J^e 
manere of J?e leche, and of instrumentis 
necessary for J?e fistule. 

4 |__L 9 J-John Arderne fro the first pestilence that was 
in the $ere of oure lord 1349 duellid in Newerk in 
Notyngham-shire vnto the $ere of oure lord 1370, and 
ther I helid many men of fistula in ano. Of whiche the 

8 first was Sire Adam Euerynghain of laxton-in-the-clay sir Adam de 
byside Tukkesford; whiche Sire Adam, forsoth, was in ham " 

Gascone with sir Henry, that tyme named Erie of 
derby and aftir was made duke of lancastre, a nohle and 

12 wortlii lord. The forsaid sir Adam, forsoth, suffrand 
fistulam in ano, made for to aske counsel at ati the lechej 
and cirurgien$ that he my^t fynde in Gascone, at Bur- 
deux, at Briggerac, Tolows, and Neyrbon, and Peyters, 

16 and many other places. And all forsoke hym for vncur- He had lost 
able ; whiche y-se and y-herde, )>e forseid Adam hastied recovery, ' 
for to torne horn to his centre. And when he come 
home, he did of al his knyjtly clothinges and cladde 

20 mornyng clothes, in pwpose of abydyng dissoluyng, or 
lesyng, of his body beyng nij to hym. At last I, forseid 
Ioh~n Arderne, y-sou^t and couenant y-made, come to hym 
and did my cure to hym and, oure lord beyng meue, 1 I 

24 helid hym perfitely within half a ^ere ; and aftirward, but lived in 
hole and sounde, he ledde a glad lif by 30 jere and more, strength" '' 
ffor whiche cure I gatte myche honour and louyng pur^ is^'nu" 1 
al ynglond. And the forseid duke of lancastre and many opera^o"*" 

28 othir gentile} wondred ther-of. Aftirward I cured hugon 
derlyng of ffowick of Balne by Snayfe. Aftirward I 


2 Arderne' s previous Cures. Ignorance of former Surgeons. 

cured by 

knights and 

and friars. 

[* leaf 142] 

gives the 
glory to God 
and humbles 

cured lohn Schefeld of Bri}twell a-side Tekyll. Aftir- 
ward I cured sir Eeynald Grey, lord of Wilton in Wale} 
and lord of Schirlond biside Chesterfelde, wliiche asked 
counsel at the most faniose leches of yngland, and none 4 
availed hym. Aftirvvard I cured sir Henry Blakborne, 
clerk, Tresorer of the lord Prince of Wale}. Aftirward I 
cured Adam Oumfray of Shelforde byside Notyngham, 
and sir lonn, preste of the same toune ; and lofin of 8 
holle of Shirlande ; and Sir Thomas hamelden, pa?-sone 
of langare in the Vale of Beuare. Aftirward I curid frere 
Thomas Gunny, custode of the frere Mynows of 3orke. 
Aftirward, in the }ere of oure lord 1370, I come to 12 
london, and ther I cured lonii Colyn, Mair of North- 
ampton), that asked counsel at many leche}. Aftirward 
I helid or cured Hew Denny, ffisshmanger of london), 
in Briggestrete ; and William Polle, and l\aufe Double; 16 
and oon that was called Thomas Broune, that had 15 
holes by whiche went out wynde with egestious odour; 
that is to sey, 8 hole} of the to[ne] party of the ersse, 
and 7 on the tothir side; Of whiche some hole} was 20 
distant fro the towell by the space of the handbrede of a 
man, so that bothe his buttoki's was so vlcerat and 
putrefied with-in that the quitour and filthe went out ich 
day als mych as an egg-shel mi}t take. Afterward *I 24 
cured 4 frere} prechours, that is to sey ffrere lohn Writell, 
ffrere lohri haket, ffrere Petre Browne, ffrere Thomas 
Apperley, and a }ong man called Thomas Yoke. Of 
whiche forseid som had only on hoi y-distauute fro the 28 
towel by oon ynche, or by two, or by thre. And other[s] 
had 4 or 5 hole} procedyng to the codde of the testicle} ; 
And many other maners of whiche the tellyng war ful 
hard. All thise forseid cured I afore the makyng of this 32 
boke. Oure lord Ihesu y-blessid God knoweth that I lye 
not, and therfore no man dout of this, fof-al old famous 
men and ful clere in studie haue confessed tham that 
thei fande nat the wey of curacion) in this case, ffor god, 36 
that is deler or rewarder of wisdom, hath hid many thingis 
fro wise men and slije whiche he vouchesaf aftirward for 
to shewe to symple men. Therfore al men fat ar to 
come aftirward witte thai that old maistre} war no}t 40 

Arderne specially skilled in Operations for Fistula. 

1 non tran- 
sed persever- 
gntibus pul- 

2 "diu 
avidius " 
says the best 
Latin text. 

bisie ne pertinacej in sekyng and serchyng of this forseid 
cure. But for thai mi$t nojt take the hardnes of it at the 
first frount, thei kest it vtterly byhinde fair bak. Of 
4 whiche, forsop, som demed it holy for to be incurable ; 
o)>er applied doutful opinions. Therfore for-als-miche 
in hard thingis it spedith to studiers for to perseuere and 
abide, and for to turne subtily thair wittes. ffor it is opned 
8 not to Jam that ar passand but to tham J>at ar perseuer- 
and. 1 Therfore to the honour of god alrny^ti that hath 
opned witte to me that I shuld fynde tresour hidde in the 
felde of studiers that long tyme and [with] pantyng breest 

12 I haue swette and trauailed ful bisily and pe/-tinacely in 
diuanudiis. 2 As my faculte suffice^ Avithout fair spekyng 
of endityng, I haue broujt for to shew it openly to tham 
that cometh aftur, our lord beyng me[ne] and this boke. 

16 ]S T ojt that I shewe myself more worthi of louyng of suche 
a gifte than other, but that I greue not god, and for the 
dragme that he hath giffen to me that I be not constreyned 
for treson. Therfore I pray that the grace of the holy 

20 gost be to this werke, that he vouch-saf for to spede it ; 
that tho thingis whiche in wrokyng trewly I am ofte 
tymes experte, I may plenerly explane tham in this litel 
boke. And this I sey that I know no$t in al my tyme, 

24 ne hard not in al my tyme, of any man, noufer in 
yngland ne in partie} bi^ond )>e see, that kouthe cure 
fistula in ano ; outake a frere minow that was with the 
prince of Wale^ in gascon & gyan, whiche rosed <fc hosted 

28 hym that he had cured the forseid sekenes. And at 
london he deceyued many men ; and Avhen he mi^t nojt 
cure soni man, he made suggestion to tham that no man 
mi^t cure tham, and that aifermed he with sweryng that 

32 }if the fistule war dried, that the pacient at the next shuld 
no3t eschape dethe ; whiche, forsofe, y-lefte & forsake of 
hym I cured perfitely. And to remoue false opinions of 
ignorant men, for witnes I putte experience. Auicen, 

36 forsop, seij), ' experience ouercomej) reson ' ; and galien 
in pantegni sei]>, ' No man * ow for to trust in reson 
al-oon but $it it be proued of experience.' And he seith 
in anofer place, 'Experience without reson is feble, & 

40 so is reson withoute experience fest vnto hym.' Nefer- 

The old 

masters in 
rates of 

but Arderne 
specially to 
their study, 
and fears to 
hide his 
talent in a 
(Matt. xxv. 

No one in 
England or 
cases of 
except one 
ininnrite in 
tlie retinue 
of the Black 
Prince, and 
he is a fraud. 

opinion of 
the value of 
practice and 
(* leaf 142 

The Qualities required in a good Surgeon. 

that some 

required in 

a good 


careful in 





nor cynical 

lesse I affenue nojt that I niijt liele al ffistulae in ano. ffor 
som ben vncurable as it shal be seid [more fully] 1 Avithin 
when I sbal trete of tham. ffirst it bihoueth hym tbat 
\f[\ profite in tbis crafte tbat be sette god afore eu?'more in 4 
all bis werkis, and euermove calle mekely with bert and 
mouth his help; and som tyme visits of his wynnyngis 
poure men aftir his my^t, tbat thai by thair prayers may 
gete hym grace of the holy goste. And tbat he be no^t 8 
y-founden temerarie or bosteful in his seyingis or in bis 
dedes ; and abstene he hym fro moche speche, and most 
among grete men ; and answere he slei^ly to things 
y-asked, that he be nojt y-take in his wordes. fforsoth 12 
}if his werkes be oft tyme knowen for to discorde fro his 
wordes and his byhestis, he shal be balden more vnworthi, 
and he shal blemmyash his oone gode fame. Wherfore 
seif a versifiowr, ' vincat opus verbum, minuit iactantia 16 
famam ' ; Mat werke ouercome thi worde, for boste 
lessenej) gode lose.' Also be a leche nojt mich laugliyng 
ne mich playing. And als nioche as he may withoute 
harme fle he )>e felawsbippe of knafes and of vnu[n]este 20 
persones. And be be euermore occupied in thingis that 
biholdith to liis cratte ; outhir rede he, or studio he, or 
write or pray he ; for the excercyse of bokes worshippef 
a leche. ffor why ; he shal boj> byholden and he shal 24 
be more wise. And aboue al pise it profiteth to hym 
that he be' founden euermore sobre; ffor dronkennej 
destroyeth al vertu and bringith it to not, as seith a wise 
man, ' Ebrietas frangit quicquid sapiencia tangit ' : ' Dron- 28 
kenes breketh what-so wisdom toucheth.' Be he content 

in strange places of metes and drinkes ]>er y-founden, 

vsyng niesure in al thingis. ftor the wise man seitb, 

' Sicut ad onme quod est mensuram ponere prodest, Sic 32 
sine mensura deperit onme quod est ' : ' As it p?-0nteth to 
putte mesure to al thing that is, So without mesure 
perissliej? all }>ing fat is.' Skorne he no man. ffor of 
that it is seid, ' Deridens alios uon inderisus abibit ' : ' He 36 
that skornej) other men shal not go away vnskorned.' 
}if ther be made speche to hym of any leche, nouther 
sette he hyrn at noujt ne preise hym to mich or co?n- 
mende hym, but thus may he curteysly answere ; ' I haue 40 

"Pienius 1 
i-a'tiu text. 

The Qualities needed in a successful Surgeon. 

1 "non 
habeo de 
eo yeram 
notitiam " 
says the 

n domibus 

aut pubem. 

i colloquia 

6 nimis 

everus nee 



Bed in gestu 





6 et si 


patient em 




no^t vrey kuowleche of liym, 1 but I lerned no^t ne I haue 
not herd of hym but gode aud honeste.' And of this shal 
honour and thankyngis of eche pa?'ty encresse and multi- 
4 pile to hym ; aftur this, honour is in the honorant & no}t 
in the honored. Considers he nojt oner openly the lady 
or the doubters or o]>er fair wy??nnen in gret mennes 2 
[houses] ne prof re tham nojt to kisse, ne touche not 
8 p?t'uely ne apertely thair pappes, ne thair handes, ne 
thair share, 3 that he renne no^t into the indignacion of the 
lord ne of noon of his. In as moche as he may, greue he 
no seruant, but *gete lie thair loue and thair gode wille. 

12 Abstene he hym fro harlotrie als wele in wordes as in 
dedes in euery place, for ^if he vse hym to harlotery in 
priue places som tyme in opene place ther may falle to 
hym vnworship of yuel vsage ; aftir pat it is seyde, 

16 ' Pede super colles pedes vbi pedere nolles.' ' ffart vpon 
hille} and thou shalt fart whar thou wolde no^t agayn thi 
wille^.' And it is seid in anoj>er place, ' Shrewed speche 4 
corrumpith gode maners.' When seke men, forsoth, or 

20 any of tham bysyde come}) to the leche to aske help or 
counsel of hym, be he no$t to tham oner felle ne oner 
homely, but mene in beryng aftir the askyngis of the 
personej 5 ; to som reuerently, to som comonly. ffor after 

24 wise men, Oner moche homelynes brede)> dispisyng. 
Also it spedep ]>at he haue semyng excusaoions that he 
may not incline to jjair askyngw, without harmyng or 
without indignacion of som gret man or frende, or for 

28 necessarie occupacion. Or feyne he hym hurt, or for to be 
seke, or som other cou enable cause by whiche he may 
likely be excused. Therfor, }if he will fauowe to any 
mannes askyng, make he couenant for his trauaile, and 

32 take it byforehande^. But avise )?e leche hym-sclf Avele 
that he giffe no certayn answer in any cause, but he se 
first J>e sikenes and the maner of it ; and whan he ha}j 
seen and assaied it, J>of-al hym seme that the seke may 

36 be heled, nejjerlesse he shal make pronosticacion to Jje 
pacient }>e perilej to come ^if the cure be diflerred. And 
}if he se ]>e pacient perse we liisily the cure, 6 pan after 
that )>e state of ]>e pacient askej) aske he boldly more 

40 or lesse ; but euer be he warre of scarse askyngis, ffor 

and not 
jealous of 
leeches ; 


friendly to 
[ leaf 143] 

chaste ; 

easy of 
neither too 
rough nor 
too familiar 

not too 
ready to 
a case, 
and always 
to see it 
be fore 
ail vice ; 

to have a 
clear under- 
about the 
fee before 

Advice to a Surgeon about Fees and Behaviour. 

The cost 

prognosis as 
duration of 

[* leaf us, 

to be clean 

to cultivate 

oner scarse askyngis settef at not both fe markette 
and the thing. Therfore for the cure of fistula in 
ano, when it is curable, aske he co?npetently, of a 
worthi man and a gret an hundred marke or fourty 4 
pounde, waf robe^ and fee} 1 of an hundred sliillyng 
terme of lyfe by ^ere. Of lesse men fourty poxinde, or 
fourty marke aske he without fee^ ; And take he no^t 
lesse fan an hundred shillyngte. ffor neuer in all my lyf 8 
toke I lesse than an hundred shillyng for cure of that 
sekenes. Nef erlesse do another man as hym fink better 
and more spedefulle. And $if the pacientes or thair 
frendej or seruauntj aske by how moche tyme he hopeth 12 
to hele it, euermore lat the leche byhete fe double fat 
he supposeth to spede by half ; that is jif the leche hope 
to hele pe pacient by twenty wekes that is the comon 
course of curyng adde he so many ouer. ffor it is better 16 
that the terme be lengthed fan the cure, ffor p?'olonga- 
cion of the cure giffef cause of dispairyng to the pacientej 
when triste to the leche is moste hope of helthe. And 
^if the pacient considere or wondre or aske why that he 20 
putte hym. so long a tyme of curyng, sife fat he heled 
hym by the half, answere he that it was for that the 
pacient was strong-herted, and suffrid wele sharp fingis, 
and that he was of gode complexion andhadde ableflesshe 24 
to hele ; & feyne he othir causes pleseable to the pacient, 
ffor pacientej of syche worde^ are proude and delited. Also 
dispose a leche *hym that in clothes and othir apparalyngis 
be he honeste, no^t likkenyng hymself in apparalyng or 28 
berying to mynistrallej, but in clothing and beryng shew 
he the maner of clerkes. ffor why ; it semeth any dis- 
crete man y-cladde with clerkis clothing for to occupie 
gentil mewnej bordej. U Haue the leche also clene haudes 32 
and wele shapen nailej & clensed fro all blaknes and filthe. 
And be he curtaise at lorde} borde^, and displese he no$t 
in wordes or dedes to the gestes syttyng by ; here he many 
fingis but speke he but fewe. IF For a wise man seith, 36 
' It semeth more to vse the eres than f e tunge ' ; And in 
an-ofer place, ' jif thou had bene stille thou had bene 
liolden a philosophic.' And whan he shal speke, be the 
wordej short, and, als mich as he may, faiie and resonable 40 

The Behaviour oj a yood Surgeon. 

1 dui'liciter 
sen no. 

2 Si mens 





prius bibite 

qnod dolet 

et sic per 





ad gaudia 


and witlioute sweryng. U Be war that ther be neuer 
founden double worde 1 in his mouthe, ffor }if he be 
founden trew in his wordes ffewe or noon shal doute in 
4 his dedej. Lere also a $ong leche gode prouerbej per- 
tenyng to his crafte in counfortywg of pacientej. U Or 
jif pacientes pleyne that ther medicynes beue bitter or 
sharp or sich other, than shal the leche sey to the pacient 
8 thus ; "It is redde in the last lesson of matyns of the 
natiuite of oure lord that oure lorde Thesus criste come 
into this world for the helthe of mannes kynd to the 
maner of a gode leche and wise. And when he cometh 

12 to the seke man he sheweth hym medicynes, som lijt 
and som hard; and he sei}> to the seke man, '}if fou 
wilt be made hole fise and fise shal thou tak.' U Also 
in another place in an omely^vpon the gospel of the sonej 

16 of Zebedee, wher fer moder askid seying, 'lord, sey fat 
my two sones sitte in thy kyngdome, fe tone on fi rijt 
hand and the to]>er on the left.' And Ynesus ausweryng 
seide, ' 3e wote neuer what 36 aske ' ; fan seid he to the 

20 sone^ of Zebedee, ' May 30 drink f e chalice fat I am to 
drink 1 ' )?ai seid to him, ' We may ' ; as $if he seid to 
fam, *^if ^oure soule or mynd couaite fat delitef, 
drinke fe first fat sorowef or akef.' And so by bitter 

24 drinkis of confeccion it is come to the ioyes of helfe." 2 
Ouer that hym ow to comforte f e pacient in monysshyng 
hym that in anguisshej he be of gret hert. ffor gret hert 
makef a man hardy and strong to suffre sharp fingis 

28 and grcuous : And it is a gret vertue and an happy, ffor 
Boecius seif , I)e disciplina scolarium, ' He is no3t worf i of 
fe poynt of swetnes that kan nojt be lynied with greu- 
yng of bitterues. ffor why ; a strong medicyne answerith 

32 to a strong sekenes.' And f eron seif a wise man, ' Be 
no cure sene heuy or greuous to the to whiche folowef 
ane heleful effecte.' H And in anofe?- place it is seid, 
' happy or blessid be fat day fat ordeynef mery jeres.' 

36 And anoj>er seith, ' he may neuer be in reste of body fat 
is oute of reste of soule ; I wil suffre lesse fingis fat I 
suffre nojt more greuous.' It semef a gret herted man 
for to suffre sharp fingis ; he, forsof, fat is wayke of 

40 hert is no^t in way of curacion, ffor *why ; for sofe in al 

and not to 
be foul- 
in onthed 
or lying. 

He should 
have a store 
of comfort- 
able sayings. 

The effect 
of mind on 

[ 3eafl44) 

The Duly of a Surgeon to his Patient. 

The leech 
should have 
also a good 
stock of 
merry tales, 

and should 
most strictly 
keep his own 
about the 

The names 
of the 
used in the 
for fistula: 

the probe, 


my lyf I liaue sene but fewe laborante in pis vice lieled 
in any sikenes : ptrfore it is to be-war to wise men pat 
)>ei entreinette no^t with sich. ffor win ; )pe wise man 
sei)>, ' All Binges ar hard to a waik liert man, for pai 4 
trow euermore yuelle^ to be nyje to pam ; pei drede 
euermore, pai suffre no pingis, ])ai are euennore vnstable 
and vnwise ; perfore a versifiowr seip of tham, ' Q?<omwus l 
nil pacior paciendi me tenet horror ' : pat is pof-al I 8 
suffre no-ping, vgglynes of suffryng holdeth me. U Also 
it spedeth pat a leche kunne talke of gode tale} and of 
honest that may make J>e pacientes to laugh, as wele of the 
biblee as of other tragediej ; & any othir pingis of which it 12 
is no^t to charge while} pat pey make or induce a li^t hert 
to pe pacient or pe sike man. ^T Discouer neuer the leche 
vnwarly the counsellej of his pacientej, als wele of men as 
of wymmen, ne 2 sette nojt oon to anoper at nojt, pof-al 16 
he bane cause, pat he be no$t gilty of couwsell ; ffor jif a 
man se pe hele wele anoper mawnes counsel lie wil trist 
better in J?e. Many Binges, forsope, bene to be kepte 
of a leche, wijxnite J>ese fat ar seid afore, )>at may nojt 20 
be noted here for ouer moche occupying. But it is no^t 
to dout pat if }>e forseid be wele kepte fat-ne J>ai shal 
giffe a gracious going to pe vser to J>e hijte of worship 
and of wynnyng 3 ; for Caton seij), ' Virtutem primam puta 24 
esse compescere linguam ' : The first vertu trow you to be 
to refreyne )>e tong. Aftur al pise it houeth that he 
knowe J>e names of pe instrumentis pat perteneth to pe 
cure of pe fistule, withoute whiche a leche may nojt wele 28 
spede hym. Of whiche pe first is called ' Sequere me ' 
'follow me' whose shap is shewed wher pe iustrumente^ 
ar paynted [fig. 1]. And it is called ' Sequere me ' for it 
is pe first instrument pertenyng to pat werk ; for a lech 32 
ow for to serche per-with pe way of pe fistule whider it 
gop, wheper by pe middej of longaon or no^t. And it 
ow to be made on pe same mane?- as wymmen vsep in 
pair heuede}, 4 and of pe same metal; and it ow to be 36 
smal pat it may li^tly be plied & replied. And be pe 
heuede^ 5 als little as pai may wele be, elle^ pai mi^t no$t 5 capita. 
wele entere pe moup of pe fistule for pe streitnes of it. 
2 MS. be. 


4 in capiti- 

The Instruments required for a Fistula Operation. 

the grooved 

ffor why; oft tyme^ ffistule in ano hath rijt smale hole}, 
so pat soin tyme pai shew no$t but pat per appereth 
bolnyng in pe mouses of pam. Afterward is per 
4 anoper instrument, put is called ' Acus rostrata,' a 
snowted nedle, for it hath pe tone heued like a snowte, 
and in pe toper an y^e like a nedel by whiche preiles 
ow to be drawen agnyu by middej of pe fistule, as it siial 
8 be seid wz'tAin in his place. And it ow to be of siluer, as 
it is paynted ; and it ow to be no gretter ne lenger in pe 
snowte pan as it is paynted, but it ow to be longer atte 
pe left, pat it contene in al 8 ynches in lenghfe. 1 IT )3e 
12 prid instrument is called ' tendiculuw,' and it ow to be 
made of boxe or of anojjir competent tree, nouper 
lenger ne gretter pan his shap is paynted. And it 
ow to haue an hole purgh in pe side, as it is peynted, ti' e P*B. 
16 In whiche hole be per putte * 2 in a wrayst, 3 by middej 
of whiche wraiste in pe ouer ende shal be a litel hole 
purgh whiche shal be putte pe two ende} of grete prede 
peramim. four folde, goyng atte firste by pe towel 4 and pe hole of 
20 pe fistule ; whiche prede is called ffrenum cesaris, and 
the whiche also goyng atuyx pe wraiste, in wraistyng pe 
skynne atuyx pe tewel & pe listule be faste constreyned 
aboue pe snowte of pe nedel, vnto j?at kittyng be done. 
24 'Siringa' is an holow instrument by pe midde^, and it 
ow to be made of the shappe as it is peynted here, 
nouper gretter ne lenger, but euen after pe shappe as it 
is peynted here ; ne haue it no^t but oon hole in pe neper 
28 ende or smaller ende, as it is peynted here [see p. 10, 
Plates II and III]. 

2 The words from here to the end of this page are reproduced in 
facsimile in Plate III. 

1 ad minus- 


' a wrayste 

the dilator, 

[ leaf 144, 



Arderne's Instruments for cure of Fistula. 

TLATE II. The instruments used by John Arderne in the cure of fistula. 

(1) The probe sequere me ; (2) The snouted needle acus rostrata ; (3) The dilator tendiculum ; 
(4) The strong thread Frsenum Caesaris ; (5) The peg vertile fitting into the hole in the wide 
part of the tendiculum ; (0) The syringe in general use with lateral openings ; (6) Arderne's 
modification of the syringe with a terminal opening only. [From Sloane MS. 2002, leaf 24.] 


^ *!<** 

The Signs and Symptoms of an Ischio-rectal Abscess. 1 1 

Of be aposteme5 in be lure causyug be fistufe, ueafusj 
and be cure of tham. 

2. I Ihof-al he principal entent was for to trute de ischio-recui 

abscess a 

4 fistula in ano, iSelwles it spedeb first for to touche som- common 

. . cause of tis- 

iveiexterius what of apostenie bredyng ber-in or ni^e, 1 sibe oft tyme tula. 
aposteme} bredyng ber bene cause of fistule or of cancre. 
ffor, after auctowrs, Apostenie y-bred in any place of be 
8 body, if it be not y-helid by )>re or four monebes, it is 
turned into a fistule or a cancre. Therfore when ther 
falleth ane apostenie in be lure or nije 1 bou shalt knowe 
it by bese signes ; bat is by bolnyng, akyng, brywnyng, signs of an 

2 per 12 ?ekyng & prikkyng. 2 And the pacient for akyng and abscess 60 

tumorem et . . 

doioreia, anguissh may nouber sitte ne hgge ne slepe. Whiche 

ardorem . . . 

atque apperyng, rhrst it is to labowr to be slakyng or esyng ot 

punc'turarn. the akyng and brennyng and of ober accidente} without 

16 repercussione. ffor in be lure ow no^t to be repercussion, 

si be it is ane emuwctory, and in emu?zctorie3 ow it nojt to 

be done ; bese bene emuwctoriej : be armeholes, be 

3"axiii beholes, be chawellej, 3 &c. And witte bou after 

inguina et Y 

fauces," says 20 Gilbertyne bat ane aposteme beyng within be lure is oiibertyn's 

the Latin J ' . . * J . . / . treatment 

text. cured Wftn be infusion of one roset in which is ceruse with litharge 

distempred, or led brent, or litarge, or all bise if bai be 
hadde, or with be jolk of an ey. And he be euermore 
24 warre of paynyng of egestion. And }if his wombe be 

* etsi venter costyue 4 be it softned bat be hardnes of be ordure brynir 

constipetur. . ' 

no$t in anguissh in egestion doyng. And be it softned 

ane emplastre of nialuej & swynes grese ; Or with A piaster 
28 vf&ier of decocciouw of maluea and branne, with oile or and pork fat 

is good if 

butter fressh, or suclie otlier, and be it jette in by a injected 
clisterye. Therfore take oyle roset and medle it with be glyrterpipe. 
s tune }olke of a rawe ey in euen porcion. Aftir putte it in a 

Su.'" 11 " 11 32 little bleddere, ban lake a Nastar of tree 5 and putle it in 
iTneum f e ^^ a( i c l e1 ' an ^ bynde it aboute wib a strong brede, and 

pe? med'ium enoynt be for ende wele Avith oyle roset, and softly putte 
Nastare ^ * n f e ^ urc an( ^ P r esse Jmt is in be bleddre with bi 

vocaTu ^ fyngres in-to be lure. )5is, forsobe, swageb and 
e in omnibus softeneb )>e brywnyug, be prikkyng, smertyng & 
corporis. a kyg, and comforteb J>e mernbre in bobe, 6 )>at is 


The Treatment of an Ischio-rectal Abscess. 

A prescrip- 
tion for a 

[ leaf 145, 

Lana sue- 
ciila what 
it is 

tion for an 
ointment for 
an abscess of 
the breast. 

bope in hote and colde. ffor, after auctores, Oile roset 
coldej) ane hote membra and hote]) ane colde membre x ; 
and it dop many oper profiles fere and in al pe 
membres of pe body. And perfore a gode leche pwruey 2 4 
hym pat he want neuer oyle roset, sipe per procedep of 
it many helpyngis to mannes body ; for why ; after Galien 
to euery akyng liote oile roset is mytigatif. Vpon pe 
aposteme, forsojje, vtward be pntte a gode emplastre and 8 
ri}t maturatif of diaqwzlon resolute with oile roset, or oile 
of lilie}, or of camamill, or dialtred, 3 or comon oyle, pat is 
oyle of olyue, or swyne grese, or gandres, 4 or maulerdes, 5 
or hennes grese. ffor whi ; diaquilon pus y-ordeyned and 12 
put-to maturep colde materie} & resoluep & mollifiep 
hard materies. Also be per made suche a vntment pat is 
ri^t mitigatiue. Recipe : tame comon malue} 6 M. i or M. ij, 
& brisse pam in a morter, and put pam in a quart of 16 
oyle of olyue^ and lat pam putrifie perin 7 dayes or 9. 
After boile pam long at pe fire vnto pe oile be wele 
grene ; after cole it and * kepe it : pis oyntment is ry}t 
mitigatiue of akyng of aposteme}, and mollifiep pan if it 20 
be put vpon [tham] hote with lana succida. Lana succida 
is wolle pat groweth atuix pe legge} of ane ewe about pe 
vdder, ful of swet, 7 no}t y-wasshe, and it opnep strongly 
and consumeth ; oyle, forsope, of propw'te holdep opne 24 
and draweth and swagep akyng. If, forsop, pou haue 
no}t lanam succidcm pan dippe a lyn clout in pe forseid 
oyntement and putte it hotte vppon and bynde it warly 
pat it fal not away. Also ane emplastre of pe forseid 28 
malue} is a ful gode maturatif and mitigatif of akyng in 
aposteme} of pe lure and of wy?men} pappe}, and to al 
oper aposteme} pat nedep maturacion. And it is made 
pus. Recipe : malue} tame M. i. or ij ; sepe pam in 32 
watir to pai wax softe, pan put pam out of pe Avatre 
and presse oute pe watre of pam, and aftir hakke pam 
small wip a sharp knyf on a clene borde ; pan frye pam 
in a panne ouer pe fire -with comon oyle or butter or 36 
swynes grese, Or, if pe pacient be riche or noble, with 
som of pe forseid oile}. And aftir vpon clene stuppes be 
it put on pe aposteme. And witte pou here pat if pou 
may haue wormed it profitep mich in curyng if it be 40 

1 oleum ros. 
cens infri^i- 
dat et super 

2 "provi- 

3 dialthsea. 

* anatis. 
8 mallardes. 



7 sudore 


Pappis [of] 

The Treatment of an Ischio-rectal Abscess. 13 

soden & made wij> J>e forseid maluej, for bat emplastre Ardeme has 
is best mitigatiue of akyng of pappes, & bryngeb in 
quytour and conforteb be place, and make)) be mater 

4 for to vapour by be pore}. And for certeyn it availe]> c 
in al aposteme} in euery place of ]>e body, and also in 
many brissurej. With pis emplastre in cures of pappes I 
liaue y-gette many worshippej and benefetes, for certaynly 

8 it is soiiCT-aynly mitigatyue. But witte bou after all 
auctours and I haue proued it for certayn experience 
bat ane aposteme bredyng nere be lure owe not to abide Anischio- 
to it breste by itself, but be leche owe bisily for to fele abscess 

should not 

12 wib his fynger be place of the aposteme, and wher-so is be allowed 

founden any sof tones, ber, be pacient nojt witty ng, warly, butsuouid 

1 ^ e P ene( i 
be it boldely opned wib a ful sharp lancette, bat be as soon as 

4. 1 v Ul ,q rt 11 it softens, 

quitour and be corrupte blode may gone oute. Or ellej, 
16 forsobe be gutte or barme J:at is called longaon, bat 

deserueb to be lure, shal be bristen wib-in be lure, and 

presed byfore bat he aposteme be bristen withoute-forpe. 

Whiche case byfallyng, if it al-oonly brest within it is of 
20 hard cure, and ban shal ber be ragadiej or frousingej, 

fforsob if it briste bobe witAin and with-out, ban may otherwise 

* J chronic 

it neuer be cured but by a ful experte cirurgien in his uiceration 

and fistula 

craf te. ffor than may it be firste day be called a fistule ; may follow, 
24 sibe a fistule is nojt ellej ban ane vlcus vndesiccable, 

and for it is vndesiccable, berf ore by consequens it is for a r.stuia 

is only an 

vncurable, sibe no wonde ne vlcus may be heled but if ulcer that 

i n ' p cannot be 

it may be dried, oom tyme it bifalleth som men for to dried up. 

28 haue ane hole apperyng outward al-oonly, persyng bnrj 
be longaon wit/an be lure by be space .of ane ynche 
or of tuo, and bisyde bat anober hole wtt/<-out, nojt 
persyng be longaon wit/j-in-forb. And I haue sene som 

32 haue 7 or 9 holej on fe tone party of be buttokkis, and 
6 or 5 on be tober party, of whiche noon of bam, 
outake oon, persed longaon. And I haue sene som haue 

2 or 3 holej on be buttokke, and 2 or 3 descendyng The results 

of a fistula. 

36 *doun into be codde of be testiculej. And I haue sene [*ieafH6] 
som haue oon hole or many in be tone buttok, and oon 
or tuo on be party of be ^erde pe?*syng als wele longaon 
as be jerde. And in bis case, as by my deniyng, sich 

40 pacientes bene vncurable, and bat for fistulyng of be 


Sequelae of an Ischio-redal Abscess. 

cured a 
priest of a 
abscess at 
house in 

tistulse are 
with uraemic 

Bernard de 
teaches are 
due to a 
between the 
muscles of 
the pelvic 
floor, the 
and the 

1 Domino 
median te. 

^erde. And fat may be knowen, for som-tyme fe 
sperme gof oute by fe hole of fe jerde infistulate, and 
som-tyme vryne or bothe. I^eferlesse I cured a preste, 
at lincolne in fe house of Maistre G iff ray Scrope, fat 4 
had aposteme in his ^erde, of whiclie als wele vryne as 
quitour come doune into his codde, and sometyme blode 
went oute by fe hole of fe jerde, and his testicules war 
bolned out of inesure. Tlierfore, first, I putte on his 8 
testicule} oon oyntement ruptorye, and I made an hole by 
whiche went out bothe vryne and quitowr ; f is i-do, f er 
shewed ane bolnyng vndernefe in fe jerde ri^t be fe 
lure, whiche I opned wijj a ruptorie; whiche y-opned, 12 
\>er went out bofe quitour and vryne. Whom y-cured 
pertitely, oure lord beyng mene * ; but for certeyne his lure 
& longaon war vnhurte. And wilte fou fat pis cure 
was ful hard. )3e?'fore in suche fingis be a leche avised 16 
and discrete. Also a leche owe to be circuwspecte in his 
askyngis, fat he enquere bisily of fe pacient if he fele 
ony tyme ventositej or egestion^ go out by fe holes of 
f e fistule. Also enquere he of fe pacient }if he fele 20 
any heuynes or greuousnes in his heued ; Or if it appere 
to hym bat be house some-tyme is turned vp-so-doune 2 2 ut si 

appareat ei 

as it shuld falle, and f e pacient may no^t for drede of quod domus 
fallyng enclyne to fe erthe; And if fe pacient fele 24 tetur - 
akyng and heuynes or greuousnes in his lende^ 3 and s" e tsi 
feblenes in his stomake. Also sey he to be pacient bus : j;ravitatem 
' I wote fat f e kynde of f e fistule is soche fat 
somtyme it is opned by itself and puttef out quitour, 28 
somtyme fikke and somtyme fynne, somtyme watery 
and somtyme blody. And somtyme it is closed be itself, 
& so by a monef or more \er rennef no- f ing out; and 
eft-sone^ it bigynnef to ake or fat it caste out quitowr. 32 
And aftirward it is opned by itself, "and rennef as it is 
seid afore, and aftirward it is sperred.' 4 ffor suche pro- 
nosticacions shewef and tokneth to fe pacient fat fe 
leche is experte in fe knowyng of fe fistule, and so fe 36 
pacient wil better trist vnto hym. And witte fou, aftir 
Bernard of Gordon, fat fe synowej closyng and openyng 
fe lure hafe festnyng with fe stomake and wif fe 
ventriculej of fe brayne, And for this cause suche 40 

4 et pnstea 

Prognosis of a Fistula in Ano. 15 

1 in C apite. pacientej ar som tyme vexed in be heued l and in be 

stomak. When be leche, forsobe, hab talked bus to 
be pacient, as it is seid, and be pacient aske & pe?-sew 
4 for to be cured of hym, aske ban first be si^t of be 
sekenes : Whiche y-sene, be be leche war bat he put The method 

. " , . , f operating 

nojt his fynger in be lure of be pacient, ne shewe no not to he 

revealed to 

pryue mstrumente} wher-of be pacient my^t wonder or the patient 
8 be aferd ; or if perauenture be pacient haue wilyly bro$t keen. '* 
in with hym any leche for to aspye, as I haue oft tyme 
sene. But considere be leche bisily be maner of be 

2 Nihil- fistule, & perceyue if it be curable, jit - a leche o\v for 

12 *to feyne perile^ and hardenes of curyng, and for to make f* leaf 146, 
pronosticacions wilely bat be sikenes askeb long tyme 
of curyng, for bat bat be medicyne} y-putte to may 
not abyde long for purgyng of be wombe, and for moche 

16 moystenes goyng out of be lure, and for many obir Questions to 
lettyngis, as for be lure is to streyte, or be buttokkes be before 
to grete or hard, or for be pacient is waike of herte or vn- onTfistuia. 
obedient for to perse w his cure or for to kepe his diete, and 

20 for many ober bat hym ow for to feyne on his owne heued 

3 quw delict bathe supposeth be necessary e. 3 And bise pronosticated, 
pno figere if be pacient stond stedfastly bat he be cured, or aske 
erastiteiit if he may be cured, ban sey be leche bus: 'I dout nojt, The 

fore neces- i *i i 1-1 e i prognosis 

saria. 24 oure lord beyug mene, 4 and bi gode pacience folowyng, of an 

4 Domino iif bou wilt competently make satisfaccion to me, as sich 


a cure nojt htle to be commended askeb, bat ne 

binge's y-kept bat ow to be kepte, and y-lefte bat ow 

28 to be lefte, as it is seyde, I shal mow bryng bis cure 

to a loueable ende and heleful.' And ban acorde bay Arrang-- 

ments for 

of couenant, of whi-che couenaunt al excusacione y-put the payment 

5 Q |!0 abak take he be half byfore handej 5 : And ban assigne 

peracto J 

medium 30 a day to bo pacient when he will bygynne. In be mene 
manibus tyme, forsofe, ordeyne be leche redy his medicynes and 

txcusatione his instrumentis : bat is to sey bat he haue first two 


spongiej or bre at be lest, & a rasour or a ful sharp 
36 launcet, and ober instrumentis named afore, as Sequere Prepara- 

me, Acum rostratam, Tendiculum ; And silke bredes, operation. 

and lyn cloutes, and girdellej, and ober bat ar seid afore 

and to be seid here-after. Haue he also redy a medicyne 
40 restrictyue of blode, and warme or leuke watre, and all 


Choice of 
a day for 

A method 
for finding 
the position 
of the moon 
on any given 
day by 
means of 
the calendar 
and the 

The best 
declare that 
no opera- 
tion, not 
even bleed- 
ing, should 
be under- 
taken whilst 
the moon is 
in the sign 
the pnrt to 
be operated 

1 Ptolo- 

2 Pythag- 

The Influence of the Moon and Planets on Operating. 

opir necesariej, pat no-ping wante pat the leche may 
nede in his wirchyng. And oner al this it is best & 
most sikir pat he kutte no$t in pe lure ne do no violence 
ne greuousnes to it in pe tyine pat pe mone is in Scorpion, 4 
or Libra, or sagittari?^, for pan of astronomye} is forbede 
per kuttyng. ffor as wille soue?-ayne astrononiiej and 
astrologiens, pat is to sey Ptholoniews, 1 Pictagoras, 2 Basis, 
and Haly, c. A cyrurgien ow no^t for to kutte or brenne 8 
in any membre of a mannes body, ne do fleobotoinye 
whiles pe mone is in a signe gouernyng or tokenyng 
pat membre. 3 

3 The Latin texts contain a chapter headed 

Nota de cognitione signorum Lunae. 1 2 

Si quis scire et invenire voluerit in quo signo cceli fuerit Luna 
omni die, primo sciat signum in quo Luna soli conjungatur et 
diem conjunctionis per kalendarium. Quo invento tune scias 
quod ab ilia hora diei vel noctis in qua fuerit conjunctio usque 16 
ad talem lioram diei sequentis completur, prima dies Lune. 
Postea computa quot sunt dies ab imprimatione prsedicta usque 
ad diem de quo queris in kalenderio. Tune videndum est in tabula 
precidente ubi inveuitur numerus ille. Quo invento, queratur 20 
in superiori capite tabulse sub quo signo Luna fuerit pr'ma sub quo 
recte descendens transeas donee directe perveneas ad signum cor- 
respondens Linealiter numero setatis Lunse predictae, et in illo signo 
existit Luna eodem die. Et nota quod in ista computatione dies 24 
naturalis ad meridiem diei incipit secundum Astronomos. Qui, 
igitur, de tempore certificari voluerit tabulam sequentem de 12 
signis discat et agnoscat ; sic, incipit Aries, Taurus, Cancer, 
Virgo, &c. 28 

[The Table given on pages 18, 19 follows here in Latin Text.] 

Sicunt volunt Astrologi summi videlicet Ptolomaeus, Pythagoras, 
Rhasis, Haly, &c., non debet cirugus incidere vel urere in aliquo 
membro corporis humani nee facere phlebotomiam dum Luna 
fuerit in signo regnante illud membrum. Nam secundum est quod 32 
12 signa zodiaci regunt 12 partes humani corporis prout patet in 
imagine predicta, ubi aries quod est signum igneum temperate sic- 
cum caput regit cum suis contentis. Luna vero in ariete existente 
cave ab incisione in capite et facie et [ne] incidas venam capitalem. 36 
Luna vero in tauro existente, cave ab incisione colli vel gutturis, 
nee incidas venam in his locis. Luna existente in gcminis cave ab 
incisione spatularum brachiorum et manuum nee aperias venam 
in his locis. Luna existente in cancro cave ab incisione in 40 Lunn i 
mammis vel pectore ant stomacho, et a laesione pulmonis, nee cro bo 
incidas arteriani seu venam ad ipsam directiouem. Luna existente j jUna , 

The Moon in relation to Operations. 


leone indif- 
ferens / 
Luna in vir- 
gine indif- 
ferens / 
Luna in 
libra bo- 
num / 
Luna in 
maluin / 
Luna in 
bonum / 
Luna in 
Capricorn : 
maluin / 
L. in Aquar. 
malum / 

Luna in 
pisce bo- 
num / 

in leone cave a laesione laterum, coatarum et ne incidas in dorso 
neque per apertionem neque per ventosam. Luna existente in 
virgine cave in ventre aut in locis interioribus occultis, nee minuas 

4 matricem mulierum deservientem. Luna existente in libra cave 
ne umbilico aut in natibus et hanc [in ano] nee in renibus, nee 
venara renibus servientem aperias, nee ventosam a^ponas. Luna 
existente in scorpione cave testiculorum, virgae virilis, colli vesicse, 

8 nee aperias venam testiculoruni deservientem nee ventosam apponas. 
Luna in sagittario existente cave ab incisione femorum nee incidas 
maculas vcl superfluitates quascunque in corpore hutnano existentes. 
Luna existente in Capricorno cave in genibus et a laesione venarum 
1 2 et nervorum in his locis. Luna existente in aquario cave ne incidis 
in tibiis aut in nervis earum a genibus usque ad inferiora cavil- 
larum. Luna vero existente in pisce cave in pedibus, nee venam 
aperias in eorum extremitatibus. 1 

A note on the recognition of the Signs of the Moon. 

16 If any one wishes to know and to discover in which sign of the The influ- 
heaven the moon is on any day, he must first discover in the Moon on the 
almanac the sign in which the Moon is in conjunction with the bod y- 
Sun and the day of the conjunction. When this is found you know 

20 the first day of the moon because it is from that hour of the day 
or night when the conjunction occurs to the same hour of the next 
day. Then calculate by the almanac the number of days from the 
new moon thus obtained to the day you want. Look next in the To ascertain 

24 previous table where the number is found, and when it is found the Moon. 
look in the upper line of the table for the sign in which the 
moon is. Coming straight down from this you cross until you 
come directly to the sign corresponding lineally with the number 

28 of the age of the moon, and this gives the sign of the moon on 
that day. And note that in this calculation the natural day 
begins at midday according to the Astronomers. If any one 
wishes therefore to be sure of the time let him learn and under- 

32 stand the following table of the 12 signs. It begins thus Aries, 
Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, &c. 

[The table is given on pp. 18 arid 19..] 

The highest Astrologers, viz. : Ptolomy, Pythagoras, Rhasis, Tlie influ- 
Haly, &c. , aver that a surgeon ought not to cut or to cauterise any Moo,,ii l tlie 

36 member of the human body nor to breathe a vein so long as the surgery. 
moon is in the house ruling that member. For the 12 signs of the 
Zodiac rule the twelve parts of the human body, as is clear from 
the aforementioned drawing, where Aries, which is a fiery sign 

40 moderately dry, governs the head with its contents. But when 
the moon is in Aries beware of operating upon the head or face 
and do not open one of the head veins. When the moon is in 
Taurus refrain from operating upon the neck or throat and do not 

44 bleed from a vein in these parts. When the moon is in Gemini 
beware of operating on the shoulders, arms or hands, and do not 

1 Supplied from Rawlinson, C 355, in the Bodleian Library. 


for finding the Moon's house. 



















































a 1 











































































































Table for finding the Moon's house. 


20 Of Fistula in general. 

The influ- open a vein in these parts. When the moon is in Cancer refrain 
W?ooni f n the fr m operating upon the breasts or chest or stomach and from 
surgery. injuring the lungs, neither open an artery or a vein in their neigh- 
bourhood. When the moon is in Leo take care not to injure the 4 
flanks or the ribs, and do not operate upon the back either by 
cutting or by cupping. When the moon is in Virgo take care 
not to operate upon the belly or the internal parts, and do not 
bleed from the veins supplying the womb in women. When 8 
the moon is in Libra refrain from operating upon the navel 
or upon the buttocks or upon the kidneys, and do not open the 
. vein supplying the kidneys, nor apply a cup. When the moon is 
in Scorpio refrain from operating upon the testicles, the penis and 1 2 
the neck of the bladder ; do not open the testicular vein and do not 
apply a cup. When the moon is in Sagittarius do not operate 
upon the thighs, do not remove spots or superfluous parts occurring 
in any part of the human body. When the moon is in Capricornus 16 
refrain from the knees and from injuring the veins and nerves in 
these parts. When the moon is in Aquarius do not operate upon 
the legs or upon their nerves from the knees to the bottom of the 
calves. When the moon is in Pisces do not operate upon the feet 20 
and do not open the vein in their extremities. 

Of diffinicion of a fistule, and places }?at it 
is bred in, and when it is curable or 


Definition of [_ i_> J ow it is to precede to ]>e curyng of ]>e fistule. 24 
rtla ' And aftir auctowrs of cirurgie, a fistule is a depe aposteme, 
hauyng oonly oon hole somtyme, and ofte-tymes two 
or bre, and oftymes mo, and bredyng in eclie membre 
of ]>e body of aposteme or of a wouude yuel y-cured, 28 

Various giffyng out quitour of diuerse colour and of diuerse 

kinds of dis- , . . -\ . , , 

charge. substaunce ; bat is to sey now white and Jnnne, now 

watrye, now as wasshyng of flesshe fat is rawe, now 

clotty ; somtyme myche stynkyng, somtyme litle. And 32 

Fistula may somtyme be holes ar closed be J)am-self, and aftir a 

af t a e l r * n a ( r ds fourtenijt or a monej), akyng goyng afore in be place, 

re-open. j^ ar e ft_ sones O pned. And when siche maner fistules 

is bredde in )>e armes or in the brest, or in J>e costes, or 36 
psioaneiis. j n pe pies, or in be knees, or in J)e legges, or in be 
coi.'i] ' fete, or in be hendo, or in be ioyntowrs [*of * bise, fat it 
corrumpeb oft-tyme be bonej and fai ycorrupte ar oft 
tvinej put out by be holej of be fistule. U Bot fistule? of 40 

of fistula. 

1 The MS. Sloane 6 is defective here. The missing folios are 
supplied from another English version, Sloane 277, made early in 
the fifteenth century. 

Prognosis of Fistulce. 21 

Juncture^ nojt comyng of outward cause ar called fe 


fistulat gout. And sich fistule} almost bene all vncurable, Festred 

and namely in Wymmen. In }ong l men forsof or waxen bad in 

4 men, I hafe scene few euer be cured, out-tak fat I haue sometimes 

, . . cured spon- 

sene tuyse or frise som waxen men by long processe of tyme, taneousiy in 
fur} benefice of nature, be cured of fe fistula in f e legge} y u 
and in J)e fete ; fat is to sey in )>e seuent }ere or fourtent 
8 or two and tuenty fro fe tyme fat fe fistule come to pain. 
And fat mi}t be for, after Ypocras, alle sekene} oufer is 
termyned after be mouyng of be mone or of f e son. H If An acute 

J ... illness be- 

lt be after be mouyng of be mone. so it is termined in be comes 

chronic at 

12 fourtened day, which is endyng of acute} sekene} and the end r a 
bygynnyng of cronice}. 

If it be after fe mouyng of be son fan be first schal 
be in be seuent monef or seuent }ere and so ascendyng 

16 vpward by seuen, &c. *1I And witte fou fat al }ong 'V^ 66 ' 
men hauyng sich forseid fistule}, if fai be in febre} and 
lene of body, ful seldom abidef fe fourtened 3 ere. To 
which for-sob noieth most vse of milk and of fruyte and Mi ]^ i' 4 

J and lechery 

20 lichery. U If be fistule for-sob be in a fleschy place of bad for long- 
fe body al-only, it is possible to be cured and fer-for fistuiae. 

fistula in ano or bredyng ui}e may wele be cured, 
z dnmmodo While} neferlesse it be nojt ouer olde or depe, 2 fat may 
freritn'imh; 24 be kuowen by fe hardnes of fe place and discoloryng of 
vei et profun- f 6 skymie and mich goyng out of fe egestionj, and 

feblynej of f e pacient, and if it haue perced f e waiej of Takfl fare 
f e vryne. H Jjerfor wake 30 fat couaitise blynde nojt o^rate for 
3 vigiiate 28 be sijt of ^our eijen, 3 fat it may no^t deme atuix curable the fee only, 
cupid^tas and vncurable. 

aciem ex- 

Of a maner of wirchyng in fistula in ano and 
be curying fer-of. 

32 When for-sof thou knowej fat he fat haf fistule Selection of 
in fe lure, or nij biside, is strong and fe place of 
fe sekenej wele colored and fat the pacient is gode 
lierted and abydyng, it is no^t to drede fat-ne fe lech 

36 schal spede wele in fe cure of it if he be experte. 
IT Which perceyued, when fe pacient and fe lech ar 

1 Jong written above, olde dc/<tl. 


Details of an Operation for Fistula. 

To be taken 
to the oper- 
ating room. 

Advice to 
patient at 
[* leaf 67] 
time of oper- 
ation to be 
brave and 

Patient to 
be in a good 
light ; 

position to 
be adjusted. 

The leech's 
mate to be 
told what to 

The rectum 
to be explor- 
ed with a 
Bnger. [Cf. 

The fistula 
to be defined 
incurable if 
the rectum 
is perfor- 

acorded in al pings, pan be pe pacient ledde to a place 
made redy Where pe lech schal do pe mynysteryng of 
cure. And all men amoued away out-take one or tuo, 
fat fe lech will haue with hym to his helping, oufer of 4 
his owne men or of ofer; fan sey fe lech fus to fe 
pacient, reward 1 yhadde to fe person of fe pacient. 
IT ' Witte jour gentilnes and jour hijnes, and also jour 
godehertynes, J>at Je gracious perfeccion * of pis cure ow 8 
not only to be recced as now to f e possibilite of my gode 
bisynes, bot also to jour gode and abydyng pacience. 
IT And for-alsmich be it nojt hidde to jow fat if je be 
vnobedient and vnpacient to my commandyngs, lustyng 12 
f e tyme of wirchyng, je may falle in-to a ful gret perile 
or tary longer }>e effecte of fe cure. Therfor bef-war, 
For he fat is warned afore is nojt bygiled. Paynful 
things passef sone when at the next folowep glorious 16 
helthe.' 2 IT Jjise things yseid, be f e pacient putte vp-on 
a bedde bifore a lijt Wyndow, and be he putte after f e 
maner of f e sekenes fat is if fe holej of f e fistule be 
in f e lefte side lye he on fe lefte side. And if fai be 20 
in the rijt side vp-on fe rijt side, or if fai be to-ward 
rigebone 3 lie he fan wide opne bof e his leggej or f e 
tone raised vp after .fat it semeth more spedeful and be 
fai hungen vp with a corde or with a towell festned 24 
aboue to a balk or a beme. 1T }?e felaw of fe lech sitte 
at fe bakke of fe pacient, aboue on fe bedde fat fe 
pacient lief in, and hold fast with his handej fe ouer 
buttoke in raisyng it vpward pat fe lech may haue gode 28 
sijt in his wyrchyng. 1T Jjan at first putte the leche f e 
schewyng 4 fynger of his left hande enoynted with oile, or 
som oyntment, in-to fe lure of fe pacient. Which ydo 
with fe tother hand putte he fe heued of fe instrument 32 
fat is called sequere me in-to fe hole of fe fistule 
* fat is next to f e lure, if f er be many hole}, and assay 
bisily on f e fynger beyng in f e lure if he fele with it 
the instrument or fynger with-out any ping atuix. 35 
Which if byfall witte he with-out clout pat pe longaon 
is persed. IT And pan witte he for certayn fat it 
byhouef nojt to cure fe pacient with no cure bot cuttyng 
with yren, or fretyng with a threde strengely yfestned. 40 

1 habito 

respectu ad 


patientis ; 



vestra et 



vestra mag- 


2 Cito tran- 
cum in prox- 
imo salus 

3 versus 
spin* dorsi, 
L e. " rig- 
bon " ejus- 

-i digitutn 
manus sinis- 
trse . . . qui 
index dici- 

f* leafCT, 
col. 2] 

The Operation for the cure of Fistula. 23 

II If pat hole for-sope be no}t distant fro pe lure bot by incision to 

, , 111 be preferred 

a nyncn al-one, pan schal kuttyng be pe moste kynde to the 
and sonest cure ; pat if it be so, pan tak pe lech Acura 
4 rostratara and putte he pe end hauyng pe ei} thur} pe 
hole next to pe lure pe lefte fynger yputte, as it is seid, 
in-to pe lure. And when he felep pe nedle wip his 
fynger, labor he warly pat he may bring out with his 
8 fynger pe heued of pe instrument pur} pe lure appliyng 
and wryping. IT Whiche ydo, be per taken a four- 
fold prede of silk white or of strong lyne or tuyne and it 
is called ffrenum Cesaris. And be it put in pe ei} of pe A ilot 
12 nedle And with pat prede anoper single threde and at 
one} and to-gidre be pe nedle drawen pur} pe lure and 
pe hole of pe fistule. Afterward pe single prede be 
fest by itself no}t cowstreynyng, bot pat it go no}t out cut - 
16 pe lech no}t willyng, par-if parauentur frenum cesaris be 
i Sic igitur kutte or brusten pan schal per anoper frenum cesaris 
geniosusin mow be bro}t in with pe forseid prede with-out any 
tione uT^" anguisch. U Therfor be pe lech witty in pis Avirchyng The direc . 

20 J'at he may do, and kon do, tuo things pan he fyndep 

in wrytyngs, *For al pings pat ow to be done about sich *** l 
qua ci'rca* w erk may no$t be expressed in lettre}, and perfor it by- col. i] ' 
fieri detent houep a crafty [lech] to be wise and sly}e wele ymagynyng leech may 
Stteris S |x. nt 24 subtile pings, pat in pose pings pat pertenep to pe he have the 
Pdeooportet perfitenes of pis werk and aboue po pings pat he has 
"rovide^- 6838 lerned in pis boke he may availe hym pur} benefice of 
tem sub- hj s ovne w itte ; For Boecius seith 51 De disciplina scolar- 

tiha bene 

iiaaginan- 9S { um He is of moste wreched witte pat euer more vsep 

tern, ut in ^ ' 

his qtiie ad pings vfounden and no?t things to be founden. 1 U ber- 

hujus opens J ' 

perfectio- for pe frene and pe prede ydrawen, as it is seid, pan 

nent super may pou chese wheper pou will kutte it or fret it with 
hpciibeiio o pe pred. 51 Iff thou will kutte it pan schalt pou take 

" acum rostratam and] 2 putte it pur} pe midde} of pe lengpe [leaf 147] 
ere. of pe instrument pat is called tendiculum, bygynnyng at pe The rure of 
s^de gretter ende. After take bope pe endes of freni cesaris, ^^ g by 
rluni," 35 drawen pur} pe middes of pe lure and of pe hole of pe 

fistule, and pur} pe middis of pe hole of pe instrument pat The ^ of 
is called vertile a wraiste . Be pai drawen pur}, and l 
be pai faste y-knettid in proporcionyng pe lengpe of pe 

2 MS. Sloane 6, leaf 147, continues. 

24 Staunching the Blood after Operation. 

freni cesaris as it bihoueth, pat is after pe distance of be 
hole of J?e tendiculi to pe hole of pe fistule ; fan take be 
tendicule and putte pe snowte of pe nedle in pe hole of pe 
which is to fistule in-puttyng it strongly. Aftirward take pe wraiste 4 

be tightened J ' & J . 

by the wip freno cesaris, and put it in pe hole of pe tendicule, 

fat is pe side of it ; whiche y-putte in, putte pi fynger in 
pe lure, and wip pe toper hand prist faste pe tendicule 
with pe snowt toward py fynger. And when pou see} 8 
tyme, be pe wraist turned aboute pat frenu??^ cesaris hold 
fast J>e tendicule pat it go no^t out. And so labour pe 

The end of leche vnto pat he bringe out be poynt of be snowte by 

the snowted 

needle to be pe middes of be lure ; and pat he streyne fast pe 1 2 
the hole in flesshe festned in pe frene wip pe wraiste and pe frene. 
protector to Whiche y-do, take pe instrument pat is called coclear 
^jur'Ao the a spone Of whiche pe holow heued be putte in pe lure 
the*fltuia 8 a g a y n pe poynt of pe snowte, so pat pe poynt of pe 1 6 
divided! snowte stand in pe hole pat is in be spone, no^t pur} 
persed, & be -pat halden of pe felaw of be leche ; pis, 
forsope, shal defende pe lure pat it be no^t hurt, pru} 
uncouenable mouyng and sodayn styrryng of pe pacient, 20 
wip pe poynt of pe rasour or of pe launcette. As 
soon aftirward pe pacient comforted putte pe leche pe 
poynt of pe rasour in pe holwnes of pe snowte pat is 
in pe spone, and, als sone as he may, boldly kutte pe 24 
flesshe festened in pe frene aboue pe snowte euen be 
pe middes ; and it y-kutte by pe middes, pe snowte 
wip pe frene shal lepe out by it-self. If, forsope, \er 
be many holes pat ow to be kutted, be it done as it is 28 
Don't try to seid. Or if it be nede, differre it to anobir tyme; ffor 

do too much . iii j , i i -, 

at a time. in som case pe tope?- holes beyng outward may be heled 
wipoute kuttyng or byndyng of prede. Of whiche it 
shal be seid aftirward, pan it is to labour to pe 32 
The methods staunchyng of blode. ffirst put a spounge wette in a 
the bieed^ug litel warnie watre and wele wrongen in pe place of the 
kuttyng, and hold it per fast to receyue pe blode, and 
lat it abide per a gode while ; perfore when bou 36 

by sponge 

pressure, trowest pe sponge to be wele ful of blode, remoue it, 
and if it be nede putte agayn anoper sponge, or pe same 
ordeyned in pe forseid maner. And when pou hast 
doon bus, be pe paci.ent raised vp warly, and make hym 40 

The After-treatment of a Fistula Operation. 25 

to sitte fast in a redy place vpon pe forseid sponge ; 
and dout not pat ne it shal be wele staunchid. Aftir- 
ward when pou deme^ dew tyme, be pe pacient put 
4 in a dewe place and pe sponge remoued ; and whepir 
be blode be staunchid. or nojt, putte in be kuttyng by styptic 

3 powders. 

puluer of boh, sangius dracon), aloes epaticMS, puluer 
of hennes feperej y-brent, or of an old lyn elope y-brynt, 
8 asshen of heres of hares y-brent, *Iuyse or puluer of L* ! ^? f 147> 
walwort, &c., Of whiche it shal be seid aftirward in pair 
place. But witte pou bat it is nojt required bat al pise 
at oonej and to-gidre be putte to, but I putte pam here 

12 bat a leche, som wantyng or no$t y-had of pe forseid 
bingis, may competently spede wip be toper his nede$ 
or occupacion. ffor why; eueriche of pise medicynes 
symply by hymself or medlcd wip be white of an ey 

16 staunchep wele blode per and in opir places. But witte The better 

. class not to 

pou b a t to worpi men and noble it semep to putte to have too 

vi j- j A 1 . homcl y 

more noble medicynes and more dere. And witte pou remedies. 

bat pe iuse of walwort or puluer of pe same, if it be had 
20 redy, is namely in euery medicyne pat is restrictiue of 
blode. How, forsope, pe poudre of walwort OAV to be 
made, or pe iuse of it to be kepte, it shall be seid aftir- 
ward. be medicyne restrictiue, forsope, y-put to wip styptics to 

be applied 

24 clene stupes and smal, or wip coton wele y-tesed, or wip on small 

pieces of 

heres of hares nojt y-brent, and with lynnen cloutis put clean linen, 
aboue, be it warly bounden ; pat is to sey be he girded on 
pe bare naked wele streit wip a lynnen girdel. After- 

28 ward haue he a list of wolnen elope, and be it HOW to, 
bounden byhynd at pe bak of pe pacient to pe lynnen bandage, 
girdel, and lat it descende atuix his buttokes vpon pe 
cloutes couerying pe lure, and be it festned fast to pe 

32 girdel vpon pe womb, and lat it abide so stille to pe 
tyme come pat it be eft-sones remoued. If pe holes, 
forsobe, be in pe buttok somdele remoued fro pe lure, A T-band- 

age is best 

pan most it operwise be bounden. And pat pus, haue 

36 pe pacient a wolnen girdel or a lynnen, wip pe whiche 

he be girded in pe flankej, to pe whiche girdel be hongen 

a lynnen cloute hauyug in brede seuen or 8 ynches, and 

in lengpefals many or mo; perf ore be pe pacient girded 

40 pat pe side of pe clout next to pe lure lye ri}t atuix 


The After-treatment of a Fistula Operation. 

A well- 
bandage aids 
greatly in 
the cure. 

Remedies to 
be used on 
the second 
or third day 
when the 
bleeding is 

own prepar- 

"Pulv. sine 
pare " to be 
used about 
the eighth 
or ninth day. 

[Sloane MS. 
277, leaf 68, 
col. 1] 

The bowels 
not to be 
moved for 
48 hours 
after opera- 

[* leaf 68, 
back, col. 2] 

but the 
wound to be 
cleansed and 
dried after a 

vivide a use- 
ful applica- 

pe buttokkes upon pe lure ; and opir cloutes y-putte 

atuix, pan be bounden two listis hyngyng about pe pie 

of pe pacient. And if bope pe buttokkes bene hurt, 

ordeyne he anoper girdel to pe toper, and be it ordeyned 4 

as it is seid afore, and on pe same wise, ffor knowe the 

leche pat competent byndyng shal giffe no}t litte help in 

curyng. But if medicyne}, forsop, may cleue to vnto 

dew tyme, pe cure shal longer be taried. fforsope when 8 

pou seest, in pe secound day or pe prid, pe blode wele 

staunched, pan take pe }olke of a raw ey, and wip oile 

roset or of camomille, or wip sangui's veneris, or, pise 

defailyng, distempre it wip comon) oile, and put it in a 12 

littel bleddre, and wip anastar of tree ich day but oones 

be it 3etted into pe lure, so pat pe wouwde be filled 

perof. And aftirward put aboue lynnen stupe} kutted 

smal wip shere}, and aboue pe stupes a lynnen cloute. 16 

And pan be it bounden as it pertenep, and lat it so lye 

vnto pe morne. And pis cure ow to be kepte by 8 or 9 

dayes ; whiche, forsope, y-fulfilled, panne owe pe leche to 

putte in pe kuttyng of my poudre pat I, lohn Arderne, 20 

made, whiche I called ' puluer sine pari,' an[d] on frenssh, 

' poudre saun} pere.' I wist neuer, forsope, ne knew 

poudre like to it, Of whiche it shal be seid aftirward in 

his place. 1 Aboue pe poudre, forsop, put coton or stupe} 24 

and bynd it. . U And so by tuo hole natural daies be it 

no}t moued, bot if voydyng of pe wombe make it 2 ; bot 2 n isiventi 

warne pe lech pe pacient that he dispose hym so pat cogerit. 

he renioue no}t pe medycyne in any maner in als-mich as 28 

he may abstene. Elle} pe fruyte and pe vertue with pe 

effecte of the medycyne schal be annulled. If pe 

pacient for-sop may no}t abstene hym fro pe pryue *In 

pe mornyng be it clensed with hote watre and a sponge 32 

and be it dryed and eft sone} be putte in of pe forseid 

poudre, And be it ordeyned as on pe day afore. And 

}itte be he comaunded for to abstene as afore, pat if he do 

no}t eft-sone} pe prid tyme be it ordeyned with pe 36 

same poudre as afore, And }itte he be amonysched to 

abstine. U Afterward wheper he abstene or not,' pe 

place wele yclensed and dried, be pe lure enoynted with 

1 The MS. Sloane 6 is again defective, and the missing folios 
are again supplied from Sloane MS. 277. 

The After-treatment of a Fistula Operation. 27 

pe fyuger dipped in vnguento viridi hard molten in ane tion for 
ostree schell att pe fyre. And on ich aside about the skin r 
wounde and within the lure and \vhere-so-euer he seep 
iNanihujus- 4 pe skynne flayne. H For why; pis enoyntment dope 
guentum away alle smertyng and fleyng. 1 And bis enoyntment is 

omnino . - 

pruritum called Salus populi, pe making of which shal be schewed 

deietet afterward. U Which enoynted, be per jetted in as by- An enema to 

excoria- Q be injected 

tionem, o tore with a nastare of tree of fe ^olke of an ey and one. through a 
And as it is seid in J>e place afore, be it reparaled in al clyster pipe. 
J>ings, renewyng eueryday one} first with pe forseid 
oyntment molten in a schell. And be per 3ette in with 
12 a nastare of tree oile with an ey. 11 And bis wirchyng 

be continued by 9 daies at the lest. 1F About the twenty Treatment 
day, forsoth, or 24 or 26, eft-sonej if pou see nede, pan it day. 
is gode bat pou putte bisily within pe lure of poudre 
16 sine pari, and fille pe place of pe fistule within and 

a et ut die- without and as it is seid be it redied. 2 IF When forsob 

turn est prae- . 

paretur. pe wonde is remoued . eft-sone^ as it is seid afore be it 

wasched and dried and be it anoynted about with Salus 

20 popwli And after be caste in by a nastare oyle and pe 3olk 
of ane ey And, if pe pacient may abstene hym fro pe 
pryue, be it no^t remoued by two daies. *Elle$ forsop [* leaf 69, 
when it is nede be it remoued. And considere pe lech 

24 bisily pe wounde ymundified if it be wele tretable and 

with-out hardnes and bolnyng and yuel colour: and som The means 
what for to cesse pe superflue moistnes which pe wonde tbe C heaUng 
sent out first . pan witte pe lech pat at pe next he may 

28 putte to cicatrizatiues as bene pise, Puluer of alum 
^ucarin combust, ' bole armenic,' sanguis draconis, Aloe, 
mirra, sarcocolla, meele of barly and of beene}, puluer of 

:! puivia galley and psidie 3 and puluer tanny, gummy arabic, terra Many reme- 

qucrcumn. 32 sigillata, &c. U Suppose nojt pe lech pat it byhouep ed but only 
him to haue in one receyte al thise forseid togidre for used, 
pai ar sette here togidre. Bot it is to vnderstand pat 
pai ar named, here togidre pat a lech know al to be of 

36 pe same vertu in regeneracion of flesch an[d] cicatrizacione 
and pat pai bene al stiptik. And to pise may be added 
ceruse and litarge of gold and of siluer. U IS pe lech 
want any of pern take of pe toper pat he may fynde, 

40 For nouper it byhouep here ne in none oper place, pat 

28 Treatment of a Fistula Operation in its final stages. 

Thereme- al ]>ings named bat hab }>e same vertue be putte in 
applied on every confection; bot tuo, or thre, suffice)) als mich as 
Into small" alle. U Tak J>er-for J)e lech of bise forseid, tuo, or thre, 
or foure and medle bam with be jolk of a raw ey, a litle 4 
oile of lynsede putte to, if it be hadde, or of sanguis 
veneris or of melle rosat', and with soft stupe} of lyne kutte 
smal or with coton . be it putt warly in the wounde, For 
whi ; it clenseth be wounde and helep and dryeb it wele 8 
[ leaf 69, * for certayne. U Or bou may put to common vnguentum 
Our author's Q^wn fat apotecharie^ makeb, bis neberlesse yknowen 
ohv" tum afore l bat bou ow to medle ber-with poudre of bole J hoc tamen 

aramcum. r I * pnenoto. 

armenic and sanguis dragonis, if bou haue it, and oile 12 
roset with watre of rose in which be resolued gumme 
arabic 1 , and bj> it wele ymedled togidre and berof be 
putte euery day in J>e wounde and about be wounde 
with coton. And for certayn it heleth wele no^t only 16 
ber bot in euery place of be body. And bis oyntment 
wold I neuer want and I calle it vnguentuw arabicum 
of gumme arabic bat entre]> J>erin and )>an schal it 
be of rede colour. U And witte bou bat with bis 20 
oyntment without any ober medicine, outtake salus 
popwli bou may finaly hele be wounde of )>e fistule, if ber 
The best be in it no ded flesch. no *\l, or bolnyng, or hardnej, or 

sign of a cure 

is that the blones, or rednes, or any ober instans bat may be-falle. 2 24 2 livor a * 

dressings rubor aut 

remain dry. 'II pat it ber be-falle any of "bise accidente? why be aiiquod 


wounde may nojt perfitely be souded be ber put in of instans quod 

,.. .i-.i-i, ,. contingere 

puluis sine pan and it schal bryng in be desired effecte. potent/ 

U And pis schal be to be be tokne of perfite curyng when 28 

)>ou seej be linne cloutej putte to with fe medicynej to 

be drye when )>ou remoue^ bam. And in-als-mych as 

bai ar more drye in-so-mych bai ar be better. U And 

bis sufficeb of be kuttyng of J>e fistule and of the 32 

curyng of it. by bo J>ings bat thurj be bisines of a gode 3 E thcde 

lech and a witty may make be forseid Averk more. 3 iist'uiS"! 

bk., Of a-no))er maner wirchyng in J>e same fis- 

ejus iunc- 
tione suffi- 


tule and be cure wib diuerse exemple';. 36 bon" s et' 

- 1 ** ingeniosi 

Reasons for If it by falle forsob bat pe fistule be depe and haue d'lctum opus 

curebyiiga- grete distance atuix }>e hole of be fistule and be lure. n 

Other methods of treating a Fistula. 29 

Or if f e pacient be ferdful for to suffer kuttyng. Or for ture rather 

,11 i . . , than by in- 

ofer notable cause} being per, fan may fe lech \\ith cision. 
kuttyng of fe frede ydrawen thurj fe middej of ]>e 
4 hole of fe fistule and fe lure kutte fe flesch, and fat 
availejj even to kuttyng with iren, outtake fat it askef 
a longer tyme of curyng. For why : bof-al it be bounden T! 'e details 

. . iij. of treatment 

njt streitly at f e first tyme }itte vnnef e schal f e fretyng by ligature. 
8 be complete in som men by a monef or thre weke$. 
H Sich cure f erfor ysewed and f e festnyng ydo on dewe 

1 Prosecuta maner, 1 pat is after fat J>e pacient may resonably suffre, 
cura et in- puruey f e leche if f e pacient be delicate or feble, or 
debito modo 12 waike of hert, fat fe f?-ede by which fe fistule is 

knytte, be so bonden fat if it be nede fat it may 
be loused without kuttyng, fat is with a lache knotte or 

2 Cum nodo slyppyng knotte. 2 U Which ydo, lye f e pacient on a 
Angiice 1 6 bedde ; or stande he or go he by f re oure^ or 5, or 6, 

vnto fat f e payne ycaused of f e byndyng cese somwhat. 
And whefer fe akyng cese at fe forseid tyme or no$t, 
putte fe pacient on a bedde and with a naister of tree 
20 putte into f e lure of f e jolk of a raw ey, medled with 

3 et cum nas- oile of rose leuke, 3 and be f e lure wele enoyntid 4 [* sioane 6, 

tare ligneo . / , ,, , ,. , j leaf 148] 

infundatur of fe same withouteforfe. And so wifoute puttyng 

in anum de j. * t , < i i A method of 

?iteiio ovi atuix of any-f mg late it aloon by a ni$t ; At morne, giving a 
ofeo ?os U '" 24 forsof e, bifore fat f e pacieut go to priue, be ^ettid ulean^oVa 
into fe lure by a nast?-e som oyle, what-so plesef to ened^nhot 1 
fe, fat fe pacient may so moche more li}t ese hym. a v t ^ched'to 
Witte fou fat bus ow fou to chaufe ]>e solk of an ey the end of 

the nastar or 

28 with oyle. Take fe nastare wif fe forseid medicyne giysterpipe. 
putte in fe bledder, and fe bledder putte in some vessell 
wif hote water, fat fe medicyne may be chauffed by 
f e hete of f e watre ; ffor why ; hote f ing esef better 

32 fe akyng. Jjan afore fe pacient go to fe priue, take 
fe leche fe forseid frede in fe lure, and be fe vtter 
knotte loused, and aftir be fe frede more strongly con- 
streyned if it may wifout anguissh of fe pacient. 

36 Ellej, forsofe, be it bounden wif tuo knottis or fre 
vnlouseable, and be fe heuedej of f e f rede} kutte away 
so nere fe knotte fat fai may nojt be perceyued of fe 
pacient or of ofer men. And witte fou fat fe leche 

4 Sioane 6, leaf 148, continues. 

30 Prescriptions for some good Clysters. 

The leech to shuld haue euermore brede of white silke, small and 

keep a stock . < i i > i 

of ligature strong ; if he haue no^t, iorsope, fan take he strong 

material, ~ . A. ' i_ "i 

and to be brede of lyne or or tuyne. And in no maner aite? 1 his raijt 
to'iteep'his shewe he no$t his wirkyng, nouper in kuttyng ne wip 4 
secret. * brede byndyng, pat his werke be perceyued of strange 
men, pat his cure be nojt litle sette by, or bat any oper 
witty man perceyuyng his work mow vsurpe it to hym- 
self ; for bus did I, perfore wake 30, for he bat is warned 8 
aforne is nojt bigiled. It byhouep a leche vse many 
cautelej, pat he adowrne 1 his faculte, which e I may noat J ntfacui- 

J tatem suan: 

note to pe laste. It seemep, forsope, vnworpi for to decoret. 
vse wele pingis y-giffe pat kan no^t gette hym mo 12 
pingis. j?e?'fore when pe pacient has clensed his 
wombe, be he putte vpon a bedde, and be his lure wele 
clensed and wyped wip hote watre and wip a sponge. 
Aftirward be it enoynted wip pi fynger atuix pe 16 
buttokej and on ich aside about be lure wip Salus 

A prescrip- popztli hette in an ostree shell. Aftirward be per jetted 

tionfora ... 

good clyster, \\\ by a nastare pe jolk of an ey as aboue wip oile. 

Aftirward be per putte aboue siche ane Emplastre : 20 
Recipe pe luyse of smalache or merch, wormode, 
Molayne, walworte, Sparge, waybrede, Mugworte, auance, 
petite consoude, wodbynd. Of alle pise herbes, if pou 
may haue pam, take euen porcion, outtake of wodebynde, 24 
of whiche, if it may be hadde, be taken pe triple or 
quadriple. If al, forsope, may not be hadde, take pe 
toper pat pou may haue, and namely pe pre first 
named wip wodebynd if pou may haue it. The con- 28 

and another feccion) is bus : Take pe luse of pe herbes, and be it 

for a plaster. 

medled wip als mich of wele clarified hony, al-wise 
mouyng on an esy fire, and boile tham so long vnto pat 
pe watrynes of pe luyse be somewhat pikned ; whiche, 32 
y-take of pe fire and keled, kepe it in a gode potte. 2 It 2 a b igne 

i, ij-ii-ii deposita et 

may laste al one 3ere or tuo ; perfore when pou wilt vse iuirigerata, 
perof, take of it als mich as it is nede, and putte perto 
als miche of whites of eiren, wele y-bette and scorned, 3 and 36 3 pr msad 
moue pam togider. Aftir be per put to pam of subtile spunats. 
mele of whete als moche as sufficep, and medle pam wele 
[* leaf 148, to-gidre ; pan putte * to a litle oyle of olyue, or of fressh 

buttre scorned at pe fire, wip als miche virgine wax 40 

Preparation of Diaflosmus and Tapsimel. 31 

togidre dissolued at pe fire by it self; pan first putte 
aboue pe iuse to pe fire wip hony and white of eyren, 
and moue pam all wayse wip a sklyse l pat pai cleue 
4 not to pe panne. When forsope it is wele hote but not 
wele y-sopen, be pe wax molten wip oile or buttre, as it 
is seyde aboue ; whiche y-molten and pe forseid pingis 
beyng hote pat is to seye pe hony, pe iuse, and J>e 
8 white of eyren be pai Betted togidre, and so euermore 
mouyng strongly wip a spatour, sepe pam on a softe 
fyre vnto pey be made oon body : whiche y-do, sette it 
of pe lire, and it beyng hote, putte to of terebentyne als 
12 moche as sufficep and moue it strongly wip a spature 
vnto pat pe terebentyne be dronken in. And if it be 
nede for to chaufe it more for pe terebentyne, loke pat it Be careful 
suffre no^t mych hete, for in seping losep terebentyne preparations 

, ,, , . . . , ., . , which con- 

lo his my^tes. pise y-do, be it yputte in a box and tainturpen- 

, , . , . , .,. tine because 

y-kepte to vse. lake of pis and wip a spatour or wit/t heatdissi- 
pi pombe strech it vpon clene lyn stupe} and softe, and strength. 
put it vpon pe lure, and aboue put a lyn cloute and 
20 bynde it, as it is seyde, in pe cure of cuttyng. pis 

emplastre, forsope, is called ' diaflosmus,' for molayne Theprepara- 

, 11 t a i tionof'clia- 

pat is called nosmus. And not oonly it availep in pis flosmus." 
forseid cure but also in cuttyng of pe fistule ; ffor why ; 

24 it helep wele alle woundes, pof-al pai be horrible, & 
also bolnyngis in wounde} and in brissures ; and it sesep 
wele pe akyngis of woundes and of brusours. And it its uses. 
esep wele pe akyngi's and pe bolnyngis of ioyntures 

28 pis, forsope, haue I ful ofte proued. I sey, forsope, 
pat pis emplastre i-had, it is nojt nede- in pe forseid 
case} to renne to oper medicynes. And witte pou pat 
per is a naturel vertu in walwort pat moste wele re- 

32 streynep blode of woundes, and akyng and bolnyng of 
woundes and of al membrej it clop best away. Witte 
pou pat pat confeccion aboue pat receyuep Smalache, 
wormode, moleyne, sparge, &c, wip clarified hony sopen 

36 togidre at pe fire and kept by itself in a vessell is called 

'Tapsimel.' When, forsobe, per is added perto white "Tapsimel, 

its prepara- 

of eiren and oyle, wip wax and whete noure and tereben- tion and 
tyne, and ar sopen togidre, pan it is called 'diaflosmus.' 
40 And pus ow pam to be p? % oporcioned : Recipe, tapsimel, 


Treatment of Complicated Fistulce. 

of com- 

Lay all the 
into one. 

[* leaf 149] 

1 solanum 
parvum pos- 
sit haberi. 

2 Naght- 

3 childrej 
Sloane MS. 
277. If. 70, 

white of eiren aua iiij ; whete floure 3 iij ; oyle, wax 
ana iij ; terbentyne 3 ij. And witte pou pat if in pe 
tyme of pe makyng of Tapsimel may be founden a litel 
pety morel l whiche berep white flows and blak grapes or 4 
beriej, it shuld for certayn make ri^t noble pe emplastre 
diaflosmus. And petite morel is called in fflaundres 
' Naghtstach.' 2 And witte port pat pe iuse of it dope 
best awey pe pustules in childres 3 moupes. 8 

If, forsope, ]>er be many holes parsed to-gidre, fan owe 
pe leche als sone as he may for anguissh" of pe pacient, 
after )>e reperacion of pe first wounde, as it is seid afore, for 
to knytte wip a J>rede, as it is seyde afore, pe toper holes 12 
strongly. Or, if he may, pat is better pat pey be kutte 
al fro oon hole to an-oper, acu rostrata, pe snowted 
nedle y-putte in pe hole, or som lynne tent, kutte pam 
to pe grouwde wip a rasowr or wip a launcete. Whiche 16 
holes, * forsope, y-brou^t into oon, be pe wounde als 
soon y-filled of puluer sine pari ; Aboue the poudre, for- 
sope, I putte stupes kutte small, or coton), or carpe of 
lynnen elope. Aftir putte aboue pe forseid emplastre 20 
diaflosmws, and be it bounden as it is seid, and ich day 
A successful oonej reparailed. I sawe a man of Northampton/a 4 pat 4 vidi et 

case. Till i v i alium homi- 

had pre holes in pe lefte buttok, and pre in pe nem sc. 

i 11 11 i* i lohan : 

testicle} codde, and al pe?*sed fro oon to anoper by pe 24 Coiyn de 

middej of longaon ; whom I cured wip cuttyng of al pe torn ia 

holes at oon tyme, of longaon as wele as of oper. Of pe 

kuttyng, forsope, of longaon, blode went strongly out, 

for pe fistule was ri^t depe ; wherefore pe pacient 28 

swowned ; perfore I putte to a sponge wette in cold watir 

aud receyued pe blode. Aftirward I put in pe kuttyng 

of longaon restrictyues of blode, of whiche it is seid 

aboue, and a gode sponge y-wette in cold watre. I made 32 

pe pacient for to sitte in a chayer, and als soon pe blod 

was cesed. And aftir refetyng of mete and drink, he went 

into his bedde and sleped wele all pe nijt, wipoute 

goyng out of blode. In pe niorne, forsope, he had hym 36 

wele ; pe seconde day, forsope, after pe kuttyng I 

filled all pe woundes of puluer sine pari, and as it 

is seid afore in all pingis, \\ith oile and an ey and 

salus popwli and diattosmws I helid hym finaly wip 40 

Treatment of Complicated Fistula:. 33 

iQuiyero, in 14 wekes. "Whiche, forsope, 1 as he seid, he vnder- 
gintimedi- 3ede pe cure of menv leches, And suffred it ten acre. 

corumcuram . _ 

subegit. And witte pou pat 1 saw neue;- man vnder my 

4 hand suffice swounyng, outake hym pis ; he was forsope 

corpulent and waike of hert, but neperlesse aboute ]>Q 

fourty day after pe kuttyng he rode. I heled auoper Another 

man fat had a fistule in pe same nianer in all pingis, 

8 outake ]>at longaon was no^t persed ; whom I cured wij> 

kuttyng in pe same mane? 1 as it is seid of pe first. I 

haue sene soni men hauyng oon hole aloon 1113 pe lure 

pat persed nojt pe longaon, whom I heled wij> puluer 

1 2 sine pari finaly ; but for pe moupe of pe vlcere was 
ouer streit, first I put aboue of vnguento ruptorio of calce 
viue & sape for to large pe moupe of the fistule ; of whiche 
it shal be treted afterward among oJnV confeccions. I haue Cases of 

16 sene som men haue tuo holes byside pe lure, of whiche oon many open- 
persed pe longaon and pe toper persed in no place, but it 
was oonly symple by itself in ]>e flesshe, hauyng no pass- 
yng to pe tot7ier hole. Of whiche was such a cure : The 

20 hole nerre J>e lure was cured AviJ> kuttyng or byndyng ; 
]>e toper, forsope, Avijj poudre sine pare y-put in and 
diaflosmo, and oon emplastre pat is called 2Jeyrbone put 
aboue, whos confeccion) shal be shewed aftirwarde. I saw 

24 also, and, oure lord beyng mene, I heled pe?-fitely a man 
pat had ffistula in ano on pe ri^t side and on pe lefte 
side ; whiche, forsope, had on pe lefte buttok 8 holej, and 
pre in pe ri^t buttok ; and wipin was longaon persed 

28 toward pe rijt side oonly. But neperlesse all pe holes of 
aiper pa? f ty of pe lure answered togidre in pe grounde 
pat was proued pus. I toke a siryng of siluer and a 
bleddre y-bounden aboute ful of sangwt's veneris, and pe 

32 siryng y-putte in pur^ oon hole and pe bleddre com- 
pressed wip pe fyngers, pe oile insetted * went out by al [,* ac ^* f 149 
pe holes togidre on bope sides, and neperlesse pe hole 
of longaon answered no^t but to oon hole oonly, and pat A method to 

36 in pe rijt buttok ; pe sopefastnes of whiche ping was rea? fistula e 

,., .. ii.i' 11 i i when there 

proued wip pe instrument pat is camel sequere me, and are many 
wip acu rostrata, wip ful gret hardnes and bisynes ; openings. 
pe cure of whiche was suche : ffirat eue>y day in pe 
40 lefte buttok pur} oon of pe holes I jetted in sangwts 



TJie Cure of Blind Internal Fistula. 

by tents. 





veneris wip pe forseid siring and bledder; whiche y-do, 
I putte in tuo tentes or pre, or lard of pork or swyne in 
pe larger holes ; after fat pe depnes of pe fistules asked, 
pe heuedes, forsope, of pe tentes war tokned wit/t 4 
precles drawen pur} pe middes wij) a nedell, pat pe 
tentes shuld no^t be drowned in pe grounde of pe fistules 
when pe tentes war put in. And I putte aboue pe 
emplastre pat is called Neyrbon strecchid vpon lywne 8 
cloutes, and dewly y-bounden aboute pe lendes wip a 
girdill and cloutes y-shapen as it is seid afore. I lef te it in 
pece vnto pe morne. At morne, forsope, pe emplastre 
remoued, per appered aboue 36 emplastre ful putrid 12 
quitour in superfine quantite. Eftsones in pe secounde 
day I reparailed it in al pingi's as in pe first day, and it 
bifell as in pe firste day ; and so it continued almost by a 
monep. When pe quitow, perfore, bigynne to lessen 16 
somwhat, and the bolnyng somwhat to cese, and pe 
colo?/r and pe substaunce of pe skynne for to turne to 
his ovne naturel habitude, pan at pe first turned I to pe 
pn'ncipale cure of pe fistule with persyng of longaon, 20 
whiche I cured finaly wip byndyng of a prede in pe hole 
of longaon. )3e tope?' hole}, forsope, beyng bisyde it I 
cured wip cuttyng and with puluer sine pare. Euermore 
continuyng pe cure wip pe siryng in pe lefte side, and 24 
wip tentes als long as pay wolde entre in, and pe em- 
piastre Neyrbon y-putte aboue, and salus pop?<li and vn- 
guento arabico, vnto a loueable endewip goddes help aboute 
half a }ere I cured hym, and lefte hym in pece. Also per 28 
bene som men pat hap fistules no^t apperyng outward, 
but pay putte out miche putred & watrye hnmowr, and 
som-tyme clere blode, and somtyme blode y-medled wip 
quitour. And pai disese myche pe pacientes and feblep 32 
pam. And oft-tymes suche maner sikenes bene toward 
pe rigbone of pe bak nij pe lure, pat pay may be feled 
wip a fynger. But wheper pay may be feled or no^t be 
pe?- done suche a cure wip whiche I haue cured many 36 
men. Be pe pacient putte vpon a bedde wyde opne 
agaynes a wyndowe, li$t shynyug, and pe legges y-raised 
vp and wip a towel y-hungen or wip a corde ordeyned 
to pis werk ; whiche y-do, be pe lure y-opned wip 40 

Sequelae of Blind Fistula. 


ene alle- 

2 et prose - 

tonges so y-shape fat when fe vtward endes bene 
streyned togidre fe inner endes be opned & agaymvard. 
Or if fe leche kanne ymagyne more couenable instru- 
4 mentis to fe forseid werk to be done, for so moche loued 
be god fat streyngf es marines witte in godes. )3e lure, 
forsofe, y-opened, and J>e sikenes bisily y-sene, be fe 
hole of fe sikenes y-filled \vij) pulue) 1 sine pare, and 
8 coton y-putte aboue ; be f e tonges warly drawen out fat 
f ai spill nojt f e poudre, or pat ]>ei hurt nojt f e pacient. 
Whiche y-drawen out, and fe legges laten doun, late J>e 
pacient long reste or fat he go, fat fe poudre be *no$t 

12 letted for to go; and abide it so stille vnto fat fe 
pacient dense his wombe ; and if f e pacient may abstene 
hymself fro f e pryue by two dayes, it war full necessary 
to hym. When fe pacient, forsofe, ow to be reparaled, 

16 fan be fe lure wasshen and dried; whiche y-wasshen, be 
fer ^ette in of a $olk of an ey wif ssa\guis veneris to 
esyng of fe ake fat comef of puluer sine pa?-e, aud to 
fe clensyng of fe vlcer of flessh mortified by fe forseid 

20 poudre. And f is cure continue fe leche by fife dayes 
or mo, fat is to sey of fe jolk and of sanguis veneris, 
vnto fat he se f e pacient wele alegedde l of f e first 
akyng. "Whiche y-do, fan owe fe leclie in fe best 

24 maner fat he may for to opne f e lure and bisily biholde 
wifin, and considere if fe sikenes be mortified ; whiche 
is knowen if fat fe vlcer seme depper fan it was sene 
afore fe puttyng in of fe poudre, and also by ofer 

28 tokenes fat a gode leche fyndef more experte of long 
exercise. In fis ferfore to be yknowen be no^t fe 
leche slowe ; for why ; f er shal folow no^t litle louyng 
ferof. Jjerfore if it be 1103 1 mortified be it eftsones 

32 filled of puluer sine pare, and be it sewed 2 in all f ingis as 
it is seid afore, wif fe ^olk of an ey, & wif sanguis 
venms, vnto fat he se efte-sones f e pacient wele alegged, 
as it is seid afore. When, forsofe, he trowef fat it is 

36 mortified, fan it is to turne agayne to anofer cure, fat 
is to sey fat he take fe jolke of an ey to whiche be 
added fe half parte of tapsimell, and als miche as sufficef 
of poudre of alu??zme 3iicaryne y-brent. And be it so 

40 made fat it may be Betted in by a Nastar of tree ; and 

but he is not 
wedded to it. 

[* leaf 150] 


Examine for 

for gangren- 
ous inflam- 
mation of 


Treatment of Ulceration of the Rectum. 

discharge a 
good sign. 

The treat- 
ment of 
ulceration of 
the rectum. 

The applica- 
tions are not 
to be too 

[* leaf 150, 

clysters are 

pis cure be continued al-oonly by pre or foure dayes : 

pe fourpe, forsope, or ]>e fifthe day aftir pis medicyne 

done to, be pe vlcer reparaled wip pe jolk of an ey and 

sangm's veneris pre or foure dayes continued. And so 4 

owe pe leclie for to chaunge his hande fro oou niedycyne 

to anoper, vnto pat he se pe sxiperflue moistenej h'rste 

goyng out for to cesse ; pat is tokne of cure or help beyng 

ni^e. Jjan, forsope, may he with vnguento arabico and 8 

salus popwli finaly spede pe forseid cure aboute four & 

tuenty wekes, or more or lesse, aftir pat pe pacient be 

obedient and bisy ; ffor why ; gret spede of werk standeth 

in pe paciens and bisynes of pe pacient. 1 And it is to 12 i Nammag- 

..,.,., ., . , . , na operis 

witte pat in all vlceriej beyng wipm pe lure, or moiste expeditioin 

,.. ., -,-, , ,. T patientia et 

ragadus puttyng out quitour or blode, pis 1 sey pat pe seduiitate 
viceroy be no3t bubones, i. e. owles, of Avhiche it shal be seid consists. 
aftirward, for pai be al vncurable 2 : pat if a leche may 16 
no^t wipoute grete anguissh", als wele of hymself as of pe 
pacient, opne pe lure of pe pacient wip tonges, as it is 
seide afore, pan owe pe leche oonly putte in of tapsimell 
and puluer sine pare medled togidre in suche piknes pat 20 
it may be jetted in by a nastare of tree. For why ; pis 
medicyne mortifiep wele and clensep putred flessh in an 
vlcere. But witte pou pat euennore aftir pe ^ettyng in 
of tapsimel wip pe forseid poudre, pou ow in pe nexte 24 
reparalyng for. to ^ette in wip a nastare of tre of pe ^olk 
of an ey wip sangm's veneris or oyle rosette, or wip 
comon) oile if pe forsaid wante. And pis cure be con- 
tinued wipoute leffyng * by pre or foure dayes. It 28 
spedep no^t, forsope, pat medicynes bryngyng in akyng 
be to moche vsed or haunted, as is tapsimel wip puluer 
sine pare. Neperlesse tapsimel wipout puluer sine pare, 
wip pe ^olk of an ey and wip poudre of bole armonic 32 
ful smal y-broke and medled wip oile of lynsed togidre, 
oyle of rose added to, or of violettw, or of sanguis veneris 
if it be had redy, And petted in wip Nastare of tre, helep 
wele vlceres, ragadyes, and excoriacions or fleyngis wipin 36 

2 Nota de ulceribns infra anum existentibus. Et notandum quod 
in omnibus ulceribus infra anum existentibus, vel rhagadiis humidis 
saniem emittentibus vel sanguinem, hoc dico, quod ulcera non sunt 
bubones, de quibus inferius suo loco dicetur ; Bubones namque sunt 
omnes incurabiles. 

Cancer of the Rectum. 37 

i HOC super- ]>e lure; bis supposed after be sleyng of flessh putred, 1 

posito post ., , , . 

mortiBea- wib enoyntyng of salus popwh, bat availeth beste tor 

tionem pu- . . . , 

tridw carnis. certeyn in euery cause wibin be lure and wiboute. 

4 Of bubo with-in be lure, and the impossibilitie 
or mych hardnes of ]?e cure of it. 

6. I -tSJ ubo is ane aposteme bredyng wibin be lure in be 

longaou wi]> grete hardnes but litle akyng. ])is I sey cancer of 

8 byfore his vlceracion bat is nobing elles ban a hidde 

canker?, bat may nojt in be bigynnyng of it be knovven 

by bo, si$t of be eije, for it is hid al wibin be lure; 

And berfore it is callid bubo, for as bubo, i.e. an owle, is 

2 Buboest 12 a best dwellyng in hideles 2 so bis sikenes lurkeb wibin be 

animal late- J ' / \. 

brascoiens. lure in be bikymiyng, but afte?' p?-ocesse ot tyme it 

vlcerate, & fretyng be lure gobe out. And ofte-tyme 

it fretib and wastetli all be circumference of it, so 

16 bat be feces of egestiones gob out continuely vnto be 

deth, bat it may newer be cured wib ma?mes cure but 

if it plese god, bat made man of nojt, for to help 

wib his vnspekeable ve?'tu. Whiche, forsope, is 

20 kuowen bus : Putte be leche his fynger into be lure The diag- 

of be pacient, and if he fynde wibin be lure ane hard 

bing as a stone, somtyme on be to party al-oonly, som 

tyme of bobe, so bat it lette be pacient for to haue 

24 egestion, it is bubo for certayn. Signes, forsobe, of his 

vjceracion bene bise : be pacient may no$t abstene hym 

fro be pryue for akyng & prikkyng, and- bat twyse or 

quando 1 '" J"^ 86 wibin ane houre 3 ; and ber gobe quitour out 

addTthe 28 ber-of as it war medled wi]> watrye blode and stynkyng. 

To bat also wele vnkunyng leches, as be pacient, 4 troweb oft en mis- 

cii^iri! 6 ' bat bey haue be dissenterie, bat is be blody fluxe, dysentery. 

patientis. when trewly it is nojt. Dissenterye is eue?-more wib The way to 

32 flux of be wombe, l)iit bubo gob out hard egestions, and 
som tyme bey may nojt go out for streytnes of be bubon) 
but bai ar constreynod wibin pe lure streitly, so bat 
bai may be feled wib be fynger and y-drawe out. And 
36 in I? 13 cas availeb be myche clisteries lenitiues of watre 
^ decoccion) of whete brenne 5 wib oyle or butter, or wi|> 


The course run ~by Cancer of the Rectum. 


Bernard de 
' Lilium 

The diet in 


[* leaf 151] 

The symp- 

Death in 

The favour- 
able signs. 

Be careful 
only to use 

Warn the 

1 in lilio 



2 squibala. 

symple decoccion of branne wipoute medlyng of any 

oper ping. Neperlesse vnkunyng leches ministrej) 

vnto suche restrictiues medicynes of dissenterie, of bole, 

and sang dracon), mastik, coriandre, sumac, mirtilles, 4 

harde jolkis of eyren, gret wyne, and suche oper fat 

availejj to restreynyng of flux of pe wombe, as J>ou 

shalt mowe fynde in 'lilio 1 medicyne,' capita " de fluxu 

ventris." And how moche more }>at pai giffe restrictiues, 8 

so moche more pai noye to pe forseid in constipand, 

i.[e.] costyuenes, and in hardenand pe squilullaw 2 ; pat 

I haue oftymes bene experte of, And I haue lerned it 

in experience in whiche I was not bigiled : ff or why ; 1 2 

constrictiues y-lefte als wele in diete as in }>e forseid 

medicynes I esed mich wi]> vse *of clisteriej of branne 

symple or of malue} and branne wipoute oyle or butter 

or any fatnes; ffor why; al fatte pingis and oile ]>'mgis 16 

norisshejj pe cancre and fedi)> it. And it is to witte 

pat pise bene pe accidentes of pam pat hap bubon) in 

pe lure : pai may ete and drynk and go, and somwhat 

sitte and somwhat slepe ; pai be menely hungry and 20 

Jnifty in mete vnto ]>G ende ; pai may no$t abstene 

pam fro pe priue. And ofte tymej comej) pe?-isshyng 

to J>am aboute auhmpne or heruest ; and it nei^yng nere, 

pay bigynne for to haue febres as it war a softe febre ; 24 

and J>ai lose as it war pair appetite ; }>ai bigynne for to 

lope ale and pai couaite wyne ; pai ete ych day lesse 

and lesse ; pai slepe vnesely ; pai ar made heuy als wele 

in mynde as in body ; and pe fallyng doune neijhyng 28 

nere, pai are made feble, and pai halde continuely pair 

bedde, and pay couayte watre aboue all pingis. Jjise 

perfore y-sene, depe is in pe jatis. 3 Xeperlesse pai a H, 8 er go 

may speke & raise pamself vp and moue almost to pe 32 esT?A mors 

breping out of pe spirit. Jjerfore wake 30 pat 30 putte 

nojt ^oure hand to pis but in giffyng clisteries, as it is 

seid afore ; whiche alegepe mych pe forseid pacientes, as 

T haue be experte, and makep euermore pronosticacion 36 

to pam or to pair frendes als wele of dep as of vncur- 

ablenes. Sich pronosticacion, forsope, shal worshipe pe 

bisynes of pe leche : perfore fliep auarice and abstene 

3ow fro false byliestis. Witte pou pat pe fyngef y-putte 40 


Cancer of the Rectum incurable. 39 

into pe lure of hyni pat has pe dissenterye, he shal fele 
noping in pe longaon but to pe maner of oper hole 
menne. But in pe lure of pam pat hap pe bubon) Make a 

4 , . , , T - f , < rectal exani- 

shal be feled a bolnyng r^t hard, as if per war an ey of inatjon to 

, T distinguish 

ane henne or of a gose. But neperlesse pe putrede, between 
i.[e.] rotewne3, and pe blode pat gope out of bope bene dysentery, 
mych liche ; pat is pe quitour is citryne or 3ellow and 
bio or wanne medled wip watry blode wip gret stynk, 
and it gope out to pe quantite of o sponeful or of tuo 
wipout medlyng of egestion3, and som-tyme wip egestion. 
But in dissenterie he shal fele fretyng about pe nauyle 
and pe flankes; in bubon, forsope, no3t so; but akyng, 
stirryng, and prikkyng, and tenasmon ; pat is, appetite 

of egestion. I se oon of Northampton-shire whos lure An advanced 

-111 case f 
was frete on euery party, so pat he 111131 wipholde noping cancerofthe 

of pe feces of egestions but pe grettest; Ifor why; his 
lure was euermore stopped vrith a grete towell of lynne 
elope; but neperlesse pe pinner egestions went out 
continuely, so pat his elopes about his buttokes Avar 
euerinore moyste ; and pe towel y-drawen out, in pe 
stede of pe lure was a rouiide hole by whiche an ey of a 
dukke mi^t Ii3tly be putte in, and I my3t se ferre into his 
wombe. Whiche died afterward of pe forseid infirmite ; 
ffor why ; he was vncurable, for pe nioupe of pe lure 
j . wip pe lacertes and pe synowes speryng and opnyng pe 

flcium luw lure was vtterly gnawen away. 1 And forby 2 in suche like 

cum lacertis 

ctnervis be it done avisily pat couaitise bryng no3t forpe blame 

ciaudenti- w to pe leche. I saw neuer ne I hard no3t any man pat cancer of 
aperientibus mi3t be cured of pe bubon), but I hane-knowen many ^ r C wl m 

omnino cor- . uraoie. 

rodebantur. pat defailep of pe forseid sikenes. Also I haue sene 
spmriginem som nau y n S a ful g refc toennyng aboute pe lure wipout, 
wiem" ^ and vntholeful smertyng 3 wip ronklyng of pe skynne 

aboute pe lure closed to pe * maner of a purse, wherfore f* leaf 151, 
pe pacientes mijt no3t wele sitte, ne ligge, ne stonde euen, 
ne fynde reste in no place, but euermore monyng and 
36 stirryng pamself as it war wode men. And superfine 
watrenes swette out fro pe place pat was wonte for to 
file many lynnen elopes putte atwix. To whiche sikenes Palliative 

-, , . i ,, ... -1,1 -11 treatment 

availep mien colde pingis in power but hote in dede methods to 

* acetum. tf\ , , . , . .. i adopted. 

v y-putte to, as bene aysel, 4 vinegre, hote by itself or wip 


The Treatment of Pruritus Ani. 

Local appli- 


An ointment 
for pruritus 


A treatment 
for erysipe- 

luyse of rubarbe, or plantayne, or virga pastom, or of 
o]>er cold pingi's in power. But for pat ofte-tymes 
suche herbes may no^t be had redy, pan it is to flye to 
oper remedyes ; pat is to sey, Take pe raw jolk of an ey 
and rnedle it wele wi]> pe poudre of bole armercic broken 
ful smal, or ceruse, or bope, and anoynt it aboue pe sore 
wi]> a penne or fej>er or wip a spatule; pis, forsope, 
sesep pe brennyng and pe akyng, and be pis oft tymes 
done agayn$. Also in euery remouyng it availep mich 
pat pe yuel or sore be wele fomented or soked wip 
vinegre and watre y-medled togidre and chaufed; ffor 
wby; pis gretly euaporeth noyful hete. And aftir pe 
fomentyng, pe place wele y-dried, be it reparaled as it is 
seid afore, wip pe ^olk of an ey and bole. When pe 
customable watrynes, forsope, is sene to cese, and pe 
pacient felep as it war vnsufferable ychyng, pan be per 
putte to euery day oones ane oyntement made of blakke 
sope and poudre of bole and sulphur and frankensence 
ymedled to-gidre. And pis oyntment shal drie, and shal 
make skales to rise fro pe sore ; whiche y-sene, be pe 
lure anoynted als wele wipin as wipout wip vnguentu? 
&\\>um sharped wip bole and wip quik-siluer, and pis 
shal cese pe hete and it shal cicatrice pe fleeng. 1 And if 
it bene anoynted wip salus popzdi, it profitep mych. 
At pe last, forsope, agaynj pe disesyng ychyng be it 
anoynted wip tapsimel, In whiche be puluerej of alume 
^ucarine brent, of attrament, and of vitriol ; pis, forsope, 
dope heste away ychyng for certayn, als wele Avipin pe 
lure as wipoute. Or if pou haue nojt redy pe forseid 
tapsimell, be pe same done wip scorned hony, and pe 
ferseid pulueres medled per-to. Or per may be made 
a medicyne to pe maner of pe forseid tapsirael of pe 
luyse of celidone and scorned hony, to pe whiche pe 
forseid puluerej ymedled, I haue proued pat it dope 
heste awey ychyng. 2 Also pe luyse of celidone y-medled 
wip vinegre and Avarmed at pe fire, and wip a fether 
anoynted up pe foreseid sore, pat is to sey in pe 
bigynnyng of pe sikenes, it quenchip wele pe wickid 
hete and keped fro recidmacion, 3 pat is fallyng agayne. 
And it quenchip wele herisipiam, pat is wilde fir 




1 et hoc ca- 
lorem seda- 
24 W et esco- 



2 Pruritus 


3 bene calo- 
rem noxiura 
extinguit et 
a recidina- 
tione pro- 

Cases treated with Greek Powder. 


1 "feu sau- 

2 Acetum 

3 Ulcus 

* bene 

* ficum sun- 

or few sawage 1 in euery place of pe body. And pe same 
dof leuke vinegre 2 put aboue by itself ; Or vnguentum 
album sharped wip quicsilue?'. Also oile of citonior : 
4 curef pe herisiple and wickid vlcere}. 3 Also pe luyse of 
celidone, imbibed in a sponge or in ly?me clones, and 
y-putte leuke to pe front and to pe temples, it cesej) 
pe akyng of pe heued. And pis I proued oftymes in 
8 pe second pestilence. Jjer come a man fro Burdeux in 
Gascon vnto Xewerk, pat had ane horrible sore, fat is 
to sey peces or gobeth's of rede flesshe and rawe in 
parties hyngyng dovne to pe lengpe of ane ynch. And 

12 })ai occupied hope his buttokes on aiper party of pe lure 
to ]>e *brede of pre fyngers ; and per went out per-of 
ri^t mich watrinesse and some-tynie blode wi}) gret 
hete and stynk, so pat his buttokkes war cauterijid ; 

16 and pei grew to pe liknes of pe womb of a fissh pat is 
seid creuyse or lopster when he spermep or friep. And 
pose superfluites partyngly grew in pe hole skynne ; 
and when pei war mortified euen to pe rotes, per 

20 appered holes fro whens pai went out. I mortified, 
forsope, pe superfluities wip a poudre pat is called 
Puluer greke, pe confeccion of pe whiche shal shewe 
aftir. And for pat pe mich watrynes goyng out in 

24 pe bigynnyng ouercome pe forseid poudre, perfore I 
putte aboue, aftir pe puttyng of pe poudre greke, of pe 
moste subtile mele of barly abundandly, pat is called 
alfita, aboue pe poudre greke; and so I quenchid pe 

28 forseid superfluites wipin pre or four puttyng to, so 
pat pai bigan to dry and to welk and fall away. 
Puluer grek, forsope, is ri$t desiccatiue and wele cleuyng 4 
to ; and no^t oonly it restreyneth wele watry moistenes 

32 but also blode, and it mortifiep pe curable cancer and 
pe blody fike 5 in eue?y place. A man had vpon his 
buttok a blody fyk puttyng out blode and somtyme 
quitow, and it was like to a Mulbery ; to pe whiche I 

36 putte aboue puluer grek by oon nijt, and in pe mornyng 
I pulled out rijt Ii3tly wip my fyngers pe fike half 
mortified ; pe whiche y-drawe out, blak blode went out 
afte?-. Afte?- a litel goyng of pe blode, forsope, I putte 

40 to puluer grek, and pe blode was restreyned. Aboue pe 

Recites a 

and its treat- 

[* leaf 1521 

Graecus an! 
its uses. 

A case of 
and its 


Fistula in 
the fingers 
not to be 
mistaken for 
whitlows ; 

they take a 
long time to 

I* leaf 152, 

Some cases 
seen early. 

Fistulce of the Fingers. 

poudre, forsope, coton y-put atuyx, I putte aboue pe 
emplastre Nerbon vpon a lyn cloute, to kepe pe poudre 
fat it shxikle nojt falle away. And pus, pis forseid cure 
continued, lie was hole wipin a shorte tyme. 4 

Of fistules in pe fyngers, and hardnes of cure 
of it. 

[_J_J h aue sene oft-tymes pe fistule be in pe fyngers 
and in pe pombes, als wele of men as of wywzmen ; als 8 
wele of $ong men as of olde men; pe cure of whiche 
many men knowejj nojt : ffor why ; it bredep oft-tyme 
in pe fynger or J>e pombe of som men in )>e extremite 
of pe flesshynes mortifying al pe ouermore iuncture, 12 
fat is pe flesshe wip pe bone. And somtyme it bredij) 
in )>e middes iuncture, and pat is more perile ; and 
somtyme in pe lawer iuncture by pe hande, and pat is 
werste. !N"eperlesse pe fistule bredyng in pe extremite 16 
of pe fynger deceyuep sooner pe pacient pan in oper 
places ; ffor vnkunnyng men seip pat it is pe whitflowe, 
whiche pou shalt knowe pus. If per byfal to any man 
in pe extremite of his fynger akyng wip inflacion, and 20 
when pat it bristep it makip a litel hole, and oute of 
pat hole per gop out a litle docelle of putrified flessh" or 
rede, to pe gretnes of a whete corne, and per gop but 
litle quitour of noon out perof, pan witte pou pat per 24 
cleuep a fistule to pe fynger. And wipoute doute if 
it be wipoute help any long tyme, as by a monep or 
fourty dayes, it shal nojt mow be cured wipoute lesyng 
of pe ouermore iuncture wip pe bone, and perauenture 28 
of pe ouermore and pe neper-more bope ; pat I haue 
oftymes proued. ffor why; oftymes pe bone of pe 
fynger is frete or guawen or it bigynne for to ake, pat is 
proued pus. fforsope I haue heled som men pat seid 32 
pat pei feled noon yuel but by a fourtni^t; *And when I 
saw pe forseid tokne of pe fistule, pan al-sone I departed 
in-als-mych as I my^t pe skyn of pe fynger ri^t foule 
wip a rasour and sheres ; and pe skynne y-put of, I fonde 30 
al wipin putrefied, and neperlesse pe fynger was nojt 
but a litle bolned. And poudre creoferoboron y-putte 

Treatment of Fistula in the Fingers. 43 

to mundefye pe corruption by al a nijt, and aboue [ treat " 
pe emplastre sangwtboetos. In pe mornyng wlien pe 
filpe was dissolued and drawen out, I perceyued pe 

4 bone of pe fynger to be tabefacte, i.[e.] corrupte, and 
frete & loused fro pe toper iuncture, and pat was 
meruaile. And in som men I haue perceyued pe bone 
corrupte in party and nojt in all fully ; and somtyme 

8 two iunctures vtterly niortefied and corrupte. ffor why : The signs 

not obvious 

it is certayne pat bones shul no$t be corrupte wipin a at first, 
fourtnijt if pai war vncorrupte afore fat tyme. Jje cure 
of pe forseid is such : If sicli ane yuel or sore come of 

12 newe, and he haue had no cure afore, and if pou perceyue The dead 
pe forseid tokne of fistulacion, fan alsone be J>e skyn be n reinoved. 
flayn wij> a rasour, as it is seid afore. Aftirward if per 
be any filpe perin, be pressed out. Aftirward, forsope, 

16 be }>e wounde filled of )>e puluer creof eroboron ; fat y-do, 
be per putte aboute of the emplastre Sangiw'boetos wij) 
stupes, and so be it lefte by oon day and a nijt hole. 
Aftixwarde whan pou remoues pe emplastre and hap 

20 mundified pe filpe y-fonden, It' pou fynde pe bone of it 
blak and putrefied in pe hije party, it bihouep of neces- 
site be drawen out. Or if pe vtter party of pe bone 
be losed al aboute fro pe flesshe and pe naile, pof-al it 

24 be no3t blak, it bihouep be departed and pat alsone as it 
may, pat pe bone pat is corrupte aboue infecte no^t 
wip his corruption) pe bone pat is festned to hym ; 
whiche if it bifal, it bihouep bope be drawen out. ffor 

28 why ; a corrupte bone or a lesed may no^t dwelle or abide 
in pe flesshe, for no cure beyng mene, pat ne it corrumpe 
ouper pe flesshe or pe synowes. Or pe flesshe shal 
caste it out when it is in a wounde or in aposteme, or in Treatment 

32 a can ere or fistule. }2e bone forsope y-drawen out, be dead bone is 
pe place y-filled of pe poudre creoferoboron, and aboue reraoved - 
pe emplastre Sangzw'boetos ; and be it lefte per by als 
long tyme as it is seid afore. Aftir forsope, pe 

36 emplastre remoued, if pou se pe hole y-clensed wip 
pe forseid poudre, pan be per putte eftsones of pe 
forseid emplastre wip pe poudre, renewyng pe emplastre 
ych day tuyse. And so wip pe forseid emplastre, or wip 

40 vnguentw? viride lefe no^t to hele it vnto pe ende. If 

Treatment of Fistula in the Fingers. 

A means of 
the growth 
of proud 

of the 

[* leaf 153] 

by opera- 

Licium is 
made in this 

A case treat- 
ed by a lady 
was so neg- 
lected that 

pe?- growe, forsope, any superfine flesshe in j>e hole, 
as it fallep oft tymes, pat pou shalt know pus : pe 
superflue flesshe bygynne for to growe fro J>e bone in 
middes of pe hole, and nojt fro pe sides of pe flessh". 4 
And wipin pre dayes or foure, if it be not niette or 
agayn-standen it passe]? )>e sides of pe gode flessh, for 
it growej) wip hastines ; whiche flessh, forsope, may be 
drawen out in ]>e bigynnyng Avip J>e poudre of creofero- 8 
boron. If it excede in grete quantite, pan it bihouej) 
for to putte to poudre of arcenek, or ane hote iren. 
Aftir pe puttyng to of pe poudre, or of pe hote iren, 
per is to be putte-to larde enoynted wip pe iuse of 12 
porres, for to lese * pe mortified flessh" ; whiche y-lesed, 
pe fynger is to be enoynted wip ane oyntment made of 
sape & brymston. In pe hole, forsope, be putte vnguen- 
tum viride vpon a stupe ; and euery day be it tuyse re- 1 6 
moued, and pus euermore sewe pe forseid maner. If pe 
bone, forsope, of pe fynger or of pe pombe be corrupte 
in party bot no3t lesed fro pe naile, pan aftir pe mijt be 
pe corrupte shauen away, and pan be put perto liciu??i, 20 
pat is carpe wette, in ane oyntment pus y-niade : Take 
liciu?H, pat is pe iuse of wodbynde, i.[e.] caprifoile, and 
hony and poudre of white glasse ana ; be pai medled to- 
gidre and made ane oyntment ; pis oyntment engendrep 24 
flessh ; it fleep pe fistule ; it murcdifiep pe filpe or 
putrifaccion of pe bone, ffor why ; glasse makep flessh 
for to grow vpon pe bone; hony purgep and remouep 
pe stynk ; licium hap vertu for to muwdifie pe filthe or 28 
pe putrefaccion of pe bone, and for to hele pe wonde, 
and for to sle pe cancre and pe fistule. And licium is 
made pus : Take pe leuej of caprifoile and brisse pam 
in a morter, and priste out pe iuse, and putte in a brasen 32 
vessel or of glasse, and drie it at pe sunne, and kepe it to 
vse. It is pe beste medicyne ; If pe fynger, forsope, of 
any man haue be long vnheled of vnwise cure, or of 
negligence of pe pacient after pat pe bone is take out 36 
As somtyme it bifell of oon pat was vnder pe cure of a 
lady by halfe a jere, after pat pe vppermore iuncture of 
pe bone of pe fynger was drawen out. ffor why ; pat 
lady entended for to haue heled hym al-oonly wip drynk 40 

The Treatment of a very chronic Fistula. 45 

of Antioche and oper pillules ; and for cause pat the 
naili of pe fynger abode stille, she trowed perfore for to 
haue souded pe place of pe fynger in whiche pe bone 

4 pat was drawen oute stode bifore ; whiche, forsope, mijt 
no^t be, for pe flessfi and pe skynne wip pe naile pat 
went aboute pe bone bifore war infecte and putrefacte 
of pe bone; wherfore of necessite al mortified and cor- 

8 rupte bihoued to be drawen out of pe flessh and pe skyn 

or pat it shulde come to helpe. Jjerfore a long tyme 

ouerpassed, Avhen he come to me and pe fynger ysene, first 

I putte in poudre creoferoboron, and aboue pe emplastre 

12 Sanguiboetos in pe maner seid afore. Aftirward, it 

remoued, I perceyued pat it was of hard substance and it had to be 

dressed with 

mobedient to pe poudre; pan putte I to poudre of arsenic 
arsenek. In pe day, forsope, folowyng, I biholdyng pe 

16 fynger I perceyued pat pe arsenek had wroujt litel or 
nojt. ffor pe place wher arsenek is putte in, if it wirch 
perfitely, shal bycome bio & bolned aboute pe extremites 
wipin a nijt and a day ; Aftir in pe prid day per shal 

20 departe in sondre in pat blones, pat is to sey mortified 
fro pe quik. But pat worchyng shal better done and 
soner if pe secounde day after pe putty ng to of arsenek 
be putte to larde wip pe emplastre sanguiboetes. The 

24 place, forsope, of pe forseid fynger strongly agayn-stode and touched 
to pe poudre of arsenek. ffor be place was drye and actual 

. cautery 

inveterate, or olde, in substaunce. Jjis y-sene, wip som 
men it is to wirche wip cauteries ; pan, forsope, a 

28 cauterie putte per-to, I brent pe fynger in pe extremite 
of it wipin vnto pe bone; pe pacient, forsope, almost 
feled noping. Aftir pe brennyng, forsope, I putte in 
to pe hole pe fattenes of lard wip pe iuse of porres ; 

32 pe second day, forsope, a gret quantite y-inor*tified, pe t* leaf 153, 
flesshe and pe skyune went away wip pe naile; pan 
pat tyme I putte-to pe emplastre Sanguiboetes; In pe 
mornyng, forsope, pe poudre Creoferoboron wip pe 

36 same emplastre. And so aftirward by seuen dayes, ich for seven 

. , .. . . , . days before 

day wirchyng as it is seid, per was }itte perfore in pe the dead 
wounde pe endes or heuedes of synowes ; whiche, pe be removed, 
bone remoued, war festned, apperyng wip a maner blaknes, 
40 and pe flessh" mortified on pe to party e. Jjis y-sene, 


Of Fistulce in various parts. 

days with 

eft-sones I couchid softly pe heuedes of pe synowes and 
pe side mortified -with ane hote iren, puttyng in pe 
shauyng of lard wip pe iuse of porres. In pe mornyng, 
forsope, pat superflue flessft was remoued, and fan I 4 
putte in pondre of Creoferoboron for to mundifye it, and 
aboue pe em piastre forseid, and so aft/nvard cowtinuely 
and for nine by ]>re dayes : pan, forsope, putte I to pe enoyntment 
made of liciu???, seid afore, contimiely by nyen dayes. I 8 
enoynted, forsope, al aboute pe fynger vpon aiper side 
wip ane enoyntment made of sope and sulphure, and als 
sone pe fynger was flayne, and put out as it war scales ; 
and als sone pe bolnyng bigaune for to cese; pan, for- 12 
sope, I putte-to vnguentu??t viride vpon stupes, And pe 
fynger bigan for to soude. But a litel after pe puttyng 
to of vnguentum viride, per bigan for to growe vpon pe 
heued of pebone of pe iuncture rede flessn" to pe gretnes 16 
of a pese ; and pat y-sene, I distroyed it wip a cauterie ; 
And pan I made hym suche ane oyntement desiccatiue. 
~R,ecipe: Sulphur, auri -pigment?', tartar., alume, vitriot, 
sape and oyle ; whiche ich day puttyng to oones, he 20 
recouered helpe perfitely. 

and the 

Cases of 



8. Of fistul in pe ]awe ioyntour of pe fyngers, 
and in pe legges, knees, fete, & ankles, 
wip corruptyng of pe bones, and pe hardnes 24 
of pe cure. 

[_OJum-tyme also the fistule gutte byfallep in pe 
fyngers of }ong men, and oft-tymes of $ong wywmen, in 
pe lower ioynture by pe hande, and it makep holes in 28 
pe skynne som-tyme on pe to party and ; som-tyme on 
bope partyes. When pe knowes, forsope, pe holes to 
be on pe bope parties, witte pou pat pe pacient is 
Amputation incurable, But if pe fynger be holy cutte away be pe 32 
iuncture where it is festned to pe hand. If pe bone, 
forsope, of pe hand ni^e to pat fynger be corrupte also, 
he is incurable but if it be drawen out. But witte pou 
pat it is nojt mich to entremette of pe cure of suche pat 36 
pe help of pam be vndertaken. ffor I haue but seldom 

Cases of Fistulas in the Lower Limit. 47 

sene any suche scape wipout depe wlian pe sikenes 

was helped, ffor be fluxe or ]>e rynnyng per y-dried, Signs of 

J J v J ' incurable 

or stopped, or staunched, pai dye sone after. Suche flstuiae. 

4 bingia slialt pou knowe pus : be fynger or ]>e hand, 
or ]>e fote, or pe legge, or any ober membre in whiche 
is sich a fistule stynkep gretly ; it hap streite holes ; be 
wondes hap hardnes wib whitenes and redenes; and 

8 when be wondes he rennyng ban be pacient hab hymself 
miryly and glad ; and when pai ar stopped be pacientes 
hene pale in be face and lene and fehle. Also it falleb 
of-tyme in be legge, in be knee, in pe fote, and in be 
12 ankle. In be legge and in be fote I haue cured it, and 
in J>e ankle ; But in be ankle and be kne also it bristed 
out agayn aftir litle tyme. 

9. Of pe maner of cure of oon pat had pe 
fistule in be legges aboue pe ankle. 

I \J I on tyme I heled a man bat had a fistule goutte in A powder 
be legge aboue be ankle and be fote wib be emplastre gout. 
Sanguiboetes, and wib a poudre bat is * made bus : [* leaf 1541 

20 Rec/^e auripigment/, sulphur, calx vine, and black sape 
ana ; be pai poudred and putte to tuyse in be day. 
Aboute be wounde, forsobe, I anoynted it wib comon) 
oyle or vnguentwm album vnto pat he come to perfite 

24 helpe. Also I gaffe hym drynk of Antioche. Aftir be 
cure, forsobe, I sawe hym neue?-, perfore I know nojt 
how long he liffed. 

10. Of be maner of cure of ane enpostcme in 
28 the bu5t of the knee that was disposed 

to the fistule. 

I 1 I Ion aposteme come to a man in the bowyng of be Treatment 

i L -L i * r,i i of a patient 

kne, bat was hard to breke for vncouenable emplastres with an in- 

32 putte ber-to first; be?-fore I putte first pe?-to be skynne in the ham, 
of lard bat diffieb wele apostemej ; And nebe?'lesse after 
bre dayes I mijt no^t perceyue signe or tokne of rupture 

or of brystyng. Whiche y-sene, I wold briej haue opned wl "V ul . d 

36 it wib a fleobotome or wij> a rasoJir, but be pacient for- opened. 

48 Treatment of an Acute Inflammation. 

soke it ; fan, forsof e, put I to ane herbe y-brissed fat is 
called pede lyon, fat it mi^t make a rupture in fe skyn, 
for it was to fikke; and in fe nijt fe pacient put it 
The piaster away, Jpan made I ane emplastre to hym of mele of 4 
\vhete and of clene hony medled togidre, and I putte it 
to ; & aftir fe second puttyng to it brest in f e ni^t, and 
Tper ranne out f erof quitour wif-out niesure ; f e qui- 
toure y-f listed out, I putte in tentes of larde to fe 8 
lengfe of a fynger, fat fe hole shulde no^t be stopped 
byfore fat f e aposteme war purged. In f e mene tyme 
Thedis- fe pacient felle into fe febres ague}, And als sone fe 
ceased when flux or be rennyng of be quitour in be aposteme cesed, 12 

he became J 

feverish, m party e for negligence fat tentes was no}t put m 
by cause of fe sikenes, and in party for distemperaunce of 
hete fat dried it. And so, f e hole y-closed or stopped, 
it biganne eft-sones for to bolne binefe and for to gedre 16 
to a newe aposteme ; f e whiche y-sene, I opned f e hole 
wif a spature and expressed fe quitour gedrid to-gidre. 
Aftirward I putte in ich day of lard, renewyng it ich, 
by a fourtnijt and more. And neferlesse I perceyued 20 

and the in n ojt bat be aposteme dried any-fing, but more and 


nearly be- more for to harden and wax rede, and putte out quitore, 
fistula. liquide and watry, somtyme mych and somtyme nofing. 

Jjerfore I perceyued fat fe place was disposed to fe 24 
fistule, for it had ane hole or a mouf e and a depe wonde, 
and it putte out quitour of diuerse coloures and liquide, 
wif hardnes of fe place and yuel habitude or hauyng; 
f erfore I putte in tentes anoynted wif anoyntement fat 28 
is made agayns f e fistule, fat is f us made : Recipe auri- 
pigment, sulphur, calx viue, blak sape; fe whiche, for- 
sof e, y-putte in fyue tymes or seuen, I perceyued it nofing 
to amende. I made a ventose to be putte to, and it wolde 32 
no^t drye ; f is y-sene, I perceyued fat rewme fat is a 
flowyng or rennyng mijt no$t cese, for fe place in 
whiche was f e aposteme is of moiste substaunge. And it 
is to witte fat in fe place byside fe bowyng of the kne 36 

Ardeme has in be ueber party is a place fat hap no flessh but fat- 
seen the 
popliteal nes aloon : As I haue sene ber in dede men, ]>e skyn of 

space in 

dead men. f e flessh y-persed and fat fatnes bene eten or wastedde. 

Jjan I putte in fe hole vnto fe ground a tent of tre, 40 

Treatment of a Patient with a Plugged Vein. 49 

soimvhat brode, and aboue I cutted f e skyn by f e middes 

wif a rasour. In f e wonde, * f orsof e, I putte a cloth C* leaf is*, 

depped in fe wliite of an ey. In fe morne, f orsof e, it 

4 remoued, I put in a poudre fat is f us made : Recipe 
vert-grese, vitriol, auripigmentzm, alume ; Aboue, forsof e, 
carpe, And aftirward ane emplastre fat is f us made : 
Recipe : apii, i.[e.] smalach, Mogwort, Wai wort &c. as 

8 aboue. And so Avif f is poudre and f is emplastre he The patient 
was sone af tir cured. Or if f ou wilt, aftir f e cuttyng a stimuiat- 
f ou may hele wz't/t diaquilon. But it is to witte fat he and piaster. 
12 bat owe to make incision in bis place bat he be-war of Beware of 

L . n j j cutting the 

be grete veyne bat is called sophena, fat comef doun vessels in 

by the f[i]e to fe legge, fat it be nojt kutted, for it Se ham 8 ' 
liggef ni^e fat fatty flesshe &c. 

11. fble arme of a certane manne biganne sodenly [leaf 155 (m 

" 1 

bracl?ii XU ^ ^ r ^ a ^ P r *k * n ^ 6 ^ U ^ ^ f 6 armel an ^ afterward hand)} 

gretly to bolne fro f e shulder to f e fyngers ; f e pacient, ^seofa! 
forsof , hauntyng or vsyng fe medycinej of ladiej, as it wa" treated 
war by a monef, eue?-more had hyniself worse. At fe b y ladi es. 

20 last he sojt & asked my help. And when I biheld his 
arme gretly bolned & replete of redenes & of brennyng & 
hardnej & akyng, ffirst I made hym ane emplastre of Ardeme 
tartare of ale, i.[e.] dreggej, & of malue^, & hony, & salt, with a 

24 & bran, & schepe^ talowe boiled togidre to thiknej, & the swelling 
streched vpon stupej and folden \viih a lynne clofe. I 
put fe emplastre on his arme, and alsone he feled alege- 
ance of akyng. }3e 3 day, forsof, remeuyng fe emplas- 

28 tre, fe bolnyng in party was slaked. Bot in fe bu$t of 
f e arme al f e colleccion or gedryng abode stille, schew- 
yng as it schuld gadro to ane heued. \)e which y-sone, 
I putte to ane emplastre maturatyue of maluej y-sof en and after- 

32 and y-brissed, with grese 3 daies or 4, and neferles I maHow 
perceyued neuer fe soner for to be matured, bot fe plaf 
bolnyng abode mych stil. And in fe bu^t of fe arme 
fe skyne appered rounde wit/i diuerse colowrs to fe 
2 ad moduin 36 maner of a tode, 2 alwaiej denying tokne of rupture. And 
in fe ground or bothme of fat gedryng was felt ane 
hard fing, as it war ane nutte rijt in fe bu^t vnder 
a vena epatica. a Which y-sene, I putte to al a nijt ane 

a a "i.[e.] lyucr vayne" overlined. 


The Sequelce of a Plugged Vein. 

The arm 


ad the skin 
place, dig- 


dark blood. 

lard and a 
n ; 

it healed by 



ments used. 

The patient 

emplastre of column dong l & porris a & garlek y-brissed J fimo 

* . ?. / J . columbine. 

wit& pe myse of apu and a gode handful of salt. And in 
pe mornyng remeuying it, pe place was ful of litle 
bladders in maner of pustule}, and per went out as it war 4 
water; pis y-sene, where pe sore semed pikker I putte 
vpon a elope schapen to pe brede of pe sore ane vnte- 
ment made of blak sope and sulphure & of arsenec ; aboue 
pat, forsope, )>e emplastre seid afore, fie second day, 8 
forsop, fat emplastre & oyntement remeued, pe skyn was 
vtterly bristen, and \>er appered a litel hole of "be arme, 


an d jjgj- \vent out vnder blak water and hoklyng in maner 

^ 8 rou ^ e - )^ an I roade putte aboue pat place chauywg 12 

O f lard; aboue, forsope, ane emplastre Jms made. Jlecipe: 

luyse of apii, wormode, Mugwort, netle, walwort, hony, 

white of ane ey, ana, and tempred with mele of ry. And 

if pou may no^t haue al pise pings, pe iuyse alon of 16 

apii b wit7i hony and white of ane ey and mele availep 

mych. And pan bigan pe ded flesch for to disseuere, 

And in pe arme wher war bifore pe bladders euermore 

we nt out droppes of white watire when be arme was bare 20 

witA-out pe emplastre. And in middej of pe more wonde 

appered pappe3 of gret flesch ; and euermore per appered 

(a certayne 1 ? ) 2 redues in pe skyn. To pe pappe^, forsope, I 2 e t semper 

made sich a poudre ; ~Recipe viridis [seris], vitriol, auripig- 24 borirTcute. 

mewtu?, alum ana ; And I put it to ich oper daie ; 

aboue be poudre, forsobe, I putte carpe, and at be last 

' r ' 

aboue pat I put a litel clouth to pe quawtite of pe 
wounde enoynted wz't/i vnguento fusco or albo or viridi. 28 
)3e rednes, forsope, and pe watry place} I enoynted 
wtt/i ane oyntement made of blak sape, and poudre of 
sulphwr; aboue, forsope, a dry lynnen cloute, whiche I 
lete lye stille to pat it wold fall away bi it-self. And 32 
pan pat place put away from it al dry skynnej ; than ef t- 
sonej I anoynted \vith pe forseid vntement vnto pat pe 
rednes & pe water went vtterly away. Jje forseid wonde, 
forsope, was fully cured in pe forseid maner. Witte pou 36 
pat pis anoyntmewt is best to al spotte} or filpe} of pe 
skyn which giffep oute watre and makep redne}, for it 

* " lekej " overlined. 
"smallach " overlined. c Obliterated. 

man was smyten on his legge vpon J>e shynbone, A patient 

Treatment of an Inflamed Leg. 51 

driej) mich and dobe away rednes in Query place of be 
body, out-tak in be ei^en. 

Bot witte bou bat after be puttyng to of be oynt- [leaf 155, 

4 ment fat is )ws made Recipe sape, sulphwr & arsenec 
ber appered a blak litel cruste to be biknes of a seme 
of a scho, ]>at was hard for to parte with be forseid 
corrosiue} for it was mich ritted. To which I putte aboue 

8 a cautery, i.[e.] a bry?myng iren, bat be pacient almost The cautery 
feled it no^t. After J>e cauteriyng forsobe, I putte to Je 
schauyng of larde, as it is seid aboue, in sewyng al pings 
vnto ]>e ende. 

12 12. [A] 

but neberlesse be skyn was nojt cleuen l alsone after be ieg and an 


smytyng. Afterward, forsobe, be J>rid day it bolned formed. 
and bigan to ake. berfor he went to a man bat haunted 

16 or vsed sich cure vnto be tyme bat ber come in his 
legge ane hole, rounde and depe, and ful of blak filth in 
maner of brent flesch ; whome whan he come to me I 
heled hym bus. ffirst I wasched be wounde vrith hote 

20 wyne, or water in which was decocte )>e croppej or be 
iuyse of plantayne or sich, or in vryne. Afterward I 
putte to ane emplastre made of iuyse of playntayne, Ardeme's 
of rubarb, of smalach, of hony, and whete or rie mele & 

24 white of eyren y-medled togidre ; or ane emplastre bat 
is called sangwiboetes. Afterward, be place sumwhat 
mollified, I putte to poudre Creoferoboron, -with J>e andstimu- 
medicine of arsenec y-medlet ; aboue be poudre stupe^ powder. 

28 or carp ; aboue al-togidre, forsobe, )>e emplastre of apii, 
mugwort, walwort seid afore. After" J>e puttyng to 
forsobe of bis poudre, I did pe cure in al bings -with 
lard & wt'tA oper bings, as it is seid aboue, vnto be 

32 clensyng of be wounde. Afterward, forsojj, -with vn- 
guento viridi & vnguento albo and carp I wrojt in maner 
as it is seid aboue vnto be ende. Afterward, forsob, when 
ber growed or wex any superflue flesch in be wounde, I He treated 

36 wztAstode it or mette it vrith poudre of creoferoboron or flesh, 
of litarge vnto be fulle curyng of be wounde. If any 
pustule^ wex in be leg about be wounde, pou may 

1 " Broken" over lined. 


Two cases of Swollen Leg. 

with swords 
and axes 
must be 
treated like 

Bruises from 
the kick of 
a horse or 
from stones 
should first 
be scarified. 

A patient's 
leg swelled 
suddenly on 
a Christmas- 

fomented it, 

and by cock- 
crow the 
patient was 

The juice of 
marigold is 
very useful 
in inflamma- 
tion of the 
breasts and 
in whitlow. 

[leaf 156] 

A prescrip- 
tion for 
tartar water. 

cure pam wztA vnguento albo, as it is seid aboue. 
fforsop if pe wonde be in pe leg of swerd or ax or 
sich oper, be it cured as ben oper woundes. If any 
man, forsop, be smyten in any party of pe legge 4 
violently and without \vondyng of pe skynne, as fallep 
oft-tyme of )>e smytyng of ane horse fote, or of a stone 
or of sich oper, fan is it gode sone in pe bigynnyng for 
to garse J>e place y-smyten and for to draw out blode 8 
per-of, and afterward for to putte to emplastre^ 
repressyng )>e akyng and bolnyng. 


man in pe day of pe natiuite of our lorde sodenly 
had his legge gretly bolned fro pe kne to pe ankle}, 12 
with redenes and gret brennyng, so pat he my^t no^t stand. 
I (smeared ?) a pe legge on ych side, and epithimated wt'tA 
pe iuyse of solseqwz, i.[e.] marigold, and a litil vinegre 
putte perto, 1 and made paui a litel leuke b ; be which 16 
y-do, lynnen elopes wette in pe same iuyse I laide warme 
aboute his legge, and when pe elope was dronken of pe 
iuse I laid hym in his couche ; And for certayn afor pe 
cok kraw pe akyng and pe brennyng was cesed and 20 
pe pacient rested wele. And witAin pre daies witAout 
any oper medicyne he was perfitely cured, whar-of many 
men wondred. Also for certayn pe iuyse of solsiquii, 
marigold, epithimated bi it-self or \vith vinegre destroyep 24 
meruelowsly apostemej in pe pappes of wymmen, and 
pe felon, and pe carbuncle and ^ekyng, 2 and rednes, and 
blone}, and brennyng pat comep of pe forsaid pings. 

\_A-j chanon was on a tyme seke, and when he bigan to 28 
wex hole par was made a grete gedryng to-gidre of 
humowrs descendyng doune in his legge. After a tyme, 
forsop, per wex puscele} brovnysch and clayisch. 3 He, 
forsop, putte pat he schuld dry pe pusche} watre of 32 
tartar pws y-made : ~Recipe tartari Bb i or ij, and putte it 
in ane newe erpen potte, and, pe moupe of pe potte 
stopped witA clay, putte it in a strong fire and lat it be 
per a ni^t and a day or more if pou witf. Afterward 36 
tak pat tartar and hyng it in some place in a lynnen 

a Obliterated. b " warme " overlincd. 

" antrace " overlined. 

1 quern 
curavi cum 
addito pa- 
rum de aceto 
et cum dicto 
succo tepido 
tibiam suam 
[MS. Digby 
161. leaf 22, 

2 Pruritus. 

3 pustnlse 
fuscse et 

Treatment of a Mormale or Ulcerated Leg. 53 

sacce or pokette, and vnder it putte a brasen vessel to 
receyue fe watre fat distillef droppyngly to fe maner Thetreat- 
of lye out of f e sak ; f is watre is seid for to dry pusche} ulcerated 
4 wele, bot nef erlesse it availed no}t to hym. At f e last, canon!* 
forsof, fer grow in fat party of fe legge a large 
wounde, And about fe ankles f re or four smale wounde} 
to fe brede of ane halfpeny. And fe legge semed of 
8 }elow colour medled \\iih rednes fro fe calf to fe ankele}, 
And fe skynne kast euermore out many skale}. When, 
forsof, he had vsed a certayne tyme lede or puluer 
incarnatyue and sawe fat it availed hym nofing, fan 
12 he vsed a long tyme ane entrete fat is called entractuw Arderne 
i^Quse titu- nigruw, 1 blak entrete, which is made of white lede and the"caseas 
Dyueiyn. rede and comon oile and tartarye fcc. ; bot nef erlesse he inflamed 

,, ,, . , sore on the 

perceyued none amendyng ferol, ior it come to a mor- i eg . 
1 6 male ; f e which, when I had sene it, I aff ermed it to be 
a mormale. And I did sich a cure to it : f is is f e cure 
to fe mormale ffirst sewe fe pacient legge strongly His treat- 

sere'^ihiam Wit ^ a ty nne clobe 2 ; After wasche Wele fat legge SO bandaging 

foititer et 20 sewed vfith hote watre, after fat fe pacient may suffre. foment!- ' 
lum stricte And so after be waschyng lat it lye by a natwrel day, * ms> 

in panno 

lineo. fat is ane hole day & a ni3t, kepyng fe legge fro aier 

and fro cold, be second day, forsof, remoue fe clofe 

24 and muwdifie fe wouwde or fe wouwdes if fai be many, 

and putte in euery wounde a litel pece of lynne clofe then cold 

. , compresses, 

moisted in cold watre. Afterward putte of f e oyntement 
Postea of dyuylyne in be circuite of f e wouwde 3 aboue f e hole 

pone de isto 

unguento 28 skynne so fat it touche no waie? fe Avounde? wttft-in. & 

in circnitu J ' ' 

vuineris. couer it \vith a lynne clofe y-wette. Do fus euery day 

tuye}, renewyng fe oyntment and muwdifying f e wounde} 
and fyllyng fam of a lynne clofe y-wette, as it is seid 
32 aboue. bis is fe oyntment : l&ecipe coperose, sal nitri, afterwards 


a cinens geneste, a cineris b nigri testudinis, atrament^', ointment, 
ana, parte 1 ; viridz's grec^ somwhat ; Of quikke-siluer 
double to fe quantite of one of f e forseid ; Of bore} 
3G grese resolued at fe fire and mumlified, fat sufficef. 
ban medle first fe ashes \vith fe grese, afterward fe tofer 
poudre}, and when fou hast wele y medled, put it in a 

3 a " aschen of lirome " overlined. 
** b "of blak snaile " overlined. 

Treatment of a Mormale or Ulcerated Leg. 

and finally 
La ri Crank's 

though he 
had to use 
the knife. 

[ leaf 156, 


It is best to 

cutaway the 

dead flesh in 

an ulcerated 


and then to 
apply a 

Lan frank in 
his book 
gives advice 
about the 
cure of a 

box and it schal be blak oyntment. With pis oyntment, 
forsop, I cured fully pe gretter wondej of pe forseid legge, 
doyng in pe maner seid afore ; J>e lesse wonde$, forsop, 
cured I with vnguewto viridi, i.[e.] grene oyntment of 
lanfrank. Jjer was dede flesch of bio colowr to pe brede 
of a peny ; pat dede flesch, forsoj), was mich pikke, and, 
pat y-se, I kutte with a rasour a litel pe ouer party of pat 
flesch ; Afterward I putte to larde, and so at pe last with 
larde & with cuttyng I dissolued, i.[e.] lesyd it vtterly. 
}3at flesch pe?-for remoue, eftsonej with pe oyntment of 
dyuylyn * aforeseid and a elope wette in water I held pe 
wounde opne to pe brede of a peny, 2 And pan eftsonej per 
brest out a wounde aboute pe side}, and it bygan to large 
it vnto pat it was almost of pe same gretnej as it was afore. 3 
)5at y-sene, I putted in four tymej poudre of litarge and 
anoynted it about with vnguewto albo, and putte in pe 
wounde a lynne elope wette in pe water of herb robert. 
Which cure semed to me more p?-ofitable, and sowded 
better pe extremite} and glowep 4 pam vnto perfite halpe. 
*If pe mormale be euen aboue pe schyn-bone, pat it be 
more sikerly and more sone cured it is profitable to cutte 
pe dede flesch and putte it away if pe pacient consent. 
And if it be cutte, alsone after pe cuttyng is to be putte 
iu a cloute wette in whyte of ane ay al a ny^t. Afterward 
putte in poudre of white glasse and of alum ^ucaryne, 
i.[e.] alww glasse, or alum plume or of bope. And if 
pou se pe bone mortified, witte pou pat it is incurable 
or vnnep for to merowe be cured. If pou trow it be 
curable, it is to be helped with some cure of pe mormale 
in pe boke of lamfrank. Also, as it is seid aboue, som 
tyrne a man is smytyn som party of pe legge violently 
wit/<out wondyng of pe skynne, as of ane hors fote or of 
a stone or staffe or sich oper, and pan is it gode sone for 
to scarifie pe place y-smyten and drawe pe blode penne$, 
and after put on enplastre^ repressyng akyng and boln- 
yng. ffor oft-tymej pe mormale comep of sich pings. 
Agayne pe mormale be per lesnyng* of vena basilica, 
i.[e.] lyuer vayne, of pe rijt arme or on pe left ; after- 

l cum un- 
guento de 

12 Dynelyn. 
'* usque ad 
festum Scti 
Apostoli et 

ig sequere 

3 circa fes- 
tum Scti 

* et conglu- 
20 tinavit. 





a " minnuschyng " overlined. 

A Treatise on Hcemoivhoids. 55 

ward, if it be nede, of pe sophene. At pe last be he 
scarified* in J)e leggej. 

I A I 

tretys of J>e emoraide^y-drawen out after lam- [leaf 15T] 
4 frank, a discrete maistre of pe kyng$ of fraunce ; which made oVpaes 86 
tuo bokej of cirurgie, be lesse and pe more. Also after 
maister bernard de gordon in his lilie. Also after maister 
bartelmow in his passionarie. Also after maister Richard Chiefly a 

. . compilation. 

8 in his Micrologie. And after maister Eoland, and mayster 
Guy; And after Roger Bawn And maister lamarcii, 
And maister Gilbertyne ; And after oper experte men 
whos doctryne I haue beholden & sene, and which I haue 

12 founden moste experte in practicing, with helpe of our 

lord. I schal schew pam in pis boke. Emoroys on Etymology 
greke is said flux of blode, and it is seid of emak, fat is Emeroids. 
blode, and rois, flux. Greke}, forsop, callep emeroys use the word 

16 flux of blode in what-ener parti of pe body it be; Bot general" 5 

1 Apud anence latyne men l pis worde is appropriate to pe flux of the 8 Latin n 

blode of J>e lure ; And pe veynes apperyng in )>e lure when M 

2 quando pai flwe, 2 i.[e.] ren, and ar bolned and ake)>, pai ar called 

20 emeroydej, bot neperle} vnproperly, sauand pe pece of be 
comon puple. ffor when bai send out no blode, bot ar 
bolned, and akep, and ychep or smertej) pai ar called 
by ober names anence lechej. Lewed men and vnex- The un- 

J _ learned call 

24 perte men callej) al J>e infirniitej bredyng in fe lure everything 
emeroydej, or pilej, or fics. ffrench men calle)? emeroydej Frenchmen 
fics, men of London callej) J>am pilej. Neferlesse it is "figs," 
noct to strife agaynej fe vse of spekyng, bot raper it 

28 spede]) |>at lered men and experte knawe Jje maner of 
spekyng and vse it. ffor John Damascen seij> ' It is 
hexiy for to chaunge noying custom, and most if it be 
olde.' Neberlej of be name is no stryuyng whiles be but there 

-r-\. t nothing 

32 sekenej bene knowen. Dmerse auctowrej, forsof, hap much in a 

, , name if all 

putte diuerse names to be sekenej of t>e lure, and also are agreed 

i -jj- j AJU- as to the 

pai haue assigned dme?-se causes and spicej, And pai condition. 
haue ymagined many maners of curacions ; Of whiche 
36 some more profitable and ofter experte bene sewyngly to 
be noted vnder compendiowsnej to be vtilite b of helyng. 
)3erfor for to trete schortly it is first to witte pat be 

' ' garsed " overlined. b "i.[e.J profite" overlined. 


Piles, Condylomata, Warts Causes and Symptoms. 

Varieties of 
piles : 

" the deaf 
piles " of 

mata, why 
so called. 

The cause of 
mata ; 

their appear- 

their causes; 

the symp- 
toms of the 
variety : 

of the 



Piles due to 

emeroide3 if fai sende out blode fai ar seid ry}tfully 
emeroyde}. If \er appere, forsof, in fe lure bolnyngs 
bio or blak, or redne} to f e quawtite of a bene or gretter, 
fat is to f e quawtite of a testicle of a cok or of a hounde, 4 
as I haue oftyme sene, som tyme occupiyng f e to half of 
J>e lure only, and som tyme bofe, sich bene called of 
Avicen deef emeroyde}, for f er rynnef noting out of 
Jam. And sich bolnyngs forsof, if fei be gretter, 8 
puttyng out no blode, fai ar called condilomata, of con- 
dilo of greke, fat is fe closed fist of a man. Condilo- 
mata, forsof, schewef pe schappe of a fist y-closed, 
And condilomata bredef of gret malicious or malencoli- 12 
ous blode. After lamfrank, forsof, fe lesse bolnyng} if 
f ei be blak or bio fai ar called attritos, 1 or atreos, for fe 
blak colowr of fam. If fai be rede fai ar called uve, 
i.[e.] grape^, and fai haue fe schap of a rede vyne or 16 
grape. And fai fat bene of blode and of colre ar called 
morale}, 2 and fai ar like to mulberie} when fai bigynne 
to wex rede. And som bene called verucale} 3 for fai ar 
like to warte}, and sich haf fair bygynnyng of malen- 20 
colye. And som bene of blode, fof it be bot seldom, 
which ar called fics, 4 If fai be made of ventosite 4 with 
grete strechyng of fe skynne. Al fe forseid may be 
reduced vnto tuo fings : Oufe? 1 of hotene} of humowrs, 24 
or of mych aboundyng of blode. If fat hotene} be in 
cause, fat is blode and colre, fise schal be fe signe 
brennyng witA greuozts prikkyng, and smertyng, and vn- 
slepyng, and som tyme wt'tA ychyng in fe lende} and 28 
vfilh tenasmon and gret costyuene} of fe wombe, and 
frist, and feblene} of goyng. Signe} of cold cause, fat 
is of gret blode and malencoliows, bene fise bolnyng 
vfiih hardne} and derkne} and akyng bot not scharp as 32 
of hote cause fe colour of fe bolnyng bio or blak, 
smertyng in fe lure, wztA lousene} of fe wombe and 
akyng, and greuowsne} or heuyne} of fe fie}. Signe} 
if fe em[er]oide} be of multitude of blode bene fise, fat 36 
is to sey of fe veyne} apperyng in fe legge}. And it' 

1 " blakej " overlined. 2 "mulberiej" overlined. 

3 ' ' warty " overlined. 

4 4 "after gordon, and bai ar as war white bledders " overlined. 

Piles, their Pathology and Uses. 


J et medi- 
cinas vena- 
rum aperiti- 
vas suimmt. 

3 Sympto- 

pai ren, pat pai ren mych & oft-tyme, and pat pe 
pacient be of sanguyne habitude, ffor why ; in pam is 
multitude of blocle * fat vsep not fleebotomye, and pat 
4 drynkep copiously and oftymej wyne, and fat etep 
scharp pings, as onyons, lekej, caule^, corny ne, and pat 
takep medicynes apertyue^ of veyne^, 1 as bene scamonye 
i.[e.] aloe and euforbiu???, as wittenessep all auctowrs 
8 togidre and experte men. Emeroide3 ar caused of malen- 
coliows blode, which is pe fece of clene blode aboundand 
in our body; which blode, forsop, for his yuel quality 
and odiow to nature, discretyue vertu enforcep for to cast 

12 out to pe helpyng of al pe body, helpyng pe vertu ex- 
pulsyue of al pe membrej togidre. And so purj pe 
strengpe of nature it is putte out fro pe vayne kilyuz, 2 
pat liep to rig-bone of pe bak, which properly is recep- 

16 tacle of malencoliows blode. Which kylis, forsop, is 
diuided into fiue brauchej pat bene ended about pe 
party of nature a ; which veyne$, forsop, when pai ar 
sorn tyme filled of melaucolioMS blode pai distende, i.[e.] 

20 strechep, so pe veyne^ pat ouper pe blode brestep out or per 
ar gendred bolnyng^ of diuerse spice^ and schapej. And 
also oper sinthomata, 3 i.[e.] pe?'ile^, as scharp akyng and 
prikkyng, brynnyng, ychyng, smertyng, thenasmon, i.[e.] 

24 inordinate appetite of egestion, wit/i ful mich enforsyng 
and nepe?'lesse he may do none egestion whan he coniep 
to pe pryue. If, forsop, pe blode brist out it is called 
pe emoroyde} ; but if pat it flowe temperatly it dop 

28 many helpyngs and preseruep pe body fro many sekene^ 
adnste and corrupte, as is Mania, malewcolia, pleuresis, 
lepre, morfe, ydropisy, mormale, quartane, passions of pe 
splene, and so of oper like. Bot as it p?-eseruep fro 

32 pise when pat it flewep temperitely, so when it is 
wont for to flewe and afte?-ward cesep vtterly al pe for- 
seid sekenes ar gendred. Also when pai flewe ouer 
temperance pai bene cause of ptisyk or of ydropisy. 

36 Wherfor seip Galiene and ypocras after lamfrank ' Ich 

long lastyng and ouermych puttyng out of blode is moste 

mi^ty cause for to make ydropisy.' Jjerfor in pam in 

whome malencolios blode is multiplied temperite fluying 

a " i.[e.] lure " overlined. 

[* leaf 157, 
Those who 
are subject 
to conges- 
tive piles. 

The cause of 

The path- 
ology of 

Anatomy of 
the vena 

of piles. 

Uses of piles 
when they 
only bleed 


The varieties of Bleeding Piles. 

What con- 

H\v to stop 
the bleeding 
from piles. 

The cause of 
the bleeding 
in piles. 

[* leaf 158] 

The impa- 
tience of the 
present gen- 

piles are 
often con- 
cealed piles. 

of blode of fe emeroyde^ helpef mych, ne it is no$t 

vtterly to be restreyned. It is called temperite vse when 

f e pacientes felef f amself more li$t fat jjai war wont l ; * cum pati- 

hauyng better appetite, and etyng and slepyng more 4 sentiunt 

swetely or softely, and sich o]>er. Bot when Jje pacientes soiito et 

felen famself more heuy, and fer schewe malice of c'oiorati. 

appetite and foule colowr of body, fan is fe flwyng ouer 

mych; wherfor it is alsone successyuely to be restreyned 8 

and turned away. Jperfor sife ]>er is nojt a litel 

hardnej in restreynyng of fe emeroidej, ferfor many 

f ings ar be noted of J>e restreyning of fain ; fat is to 

sey fat fe leclie wytte whefer fe flowyng be done 12 

of anathemasy or of diabrosi or of rixi; fat is whefer 

fe flowyng be made of opnyng of veynej, fat is 

called anaf emasis ; or of fretyng of f e veyne^, fat is 

called diabrosis; or of cleuyng or twynnyng, fat is 16 

called rixis. f erf or if fe blode ybro^t to fe lure be 

aduste for when blode is aduste it is scharped 2 or if 2 quiaciim 


false flewme or colre be medled, fan oft-tymej f e veynej adu ftu" r 

ar freted and fai make fe fluxe. And for certayne sich 20 

flux is of hard restreynyng. ffor why ; fe substance of 

f e veyne yf reted may no^t be * sonded 3 wttA-out disese 

and heuynes, sife fat it nedef a medicyne corrosyue. 

And men now-of-daiej bene vupacient and yuel tholyng, 24 

And for-fi flowyng of diabrosi a is of hard curying. And 

f e secundary is rixis b which also is cured with corrosyue^ 

in fe bygynnyng. Anathemasis c is more Ii3tly cured 

fan fe ofer, bot perauenture nojt without corrosyue}. 28 

jjis I sey, if fe flowyng be olde, Anathemasis is made 

for aboundance of blode or for ventosite descendyng 

doune. Eixis, forsof, is made of ouer myche dryne$, of 

cause witAin-forf e or of cause wi't/tout-forfe, or of hardnej 32 

of filfe^or forane hote aposteme, or any scharpe flowyng. 

Also flowyng emoroydej somtyme ar hidde within, w?t/iout 

any bolnyngs schewyng outward, fat of som fai ar 

denied to be dissenterikej and yueh wrong. 5 ffor why, in 36 5 <i u * a 

. quibusdam 

fe inward emoroide? first gof out egcstion and afterward judicantur 

, , . , .,, .. -j T -T dysenteric* 

gof out blode with egestion to-gidre. In ciliaca passion, et male. 
forsof, gof out blode and efterward egestion. Ciliaca 

a "fretyng" overlined. b " clyffyng " overlined, 

c " opnyng " werlined. 

3 non con- 

4 ex duritie 

Signs of danger in Bleeding Piles. 59 

passion is akyiig of be wombe vtith puttyng out of blode 'J" h y ? 
sewyng. Also afte?" gordon, scilicet de morbo, ' In euerv 

, , 

from dysen- 

bing bat gob out of be body bene 3 comon cause? ; teryand 

' passio iliaca. 

i aut ratione 4 Ouber by reson of be membre. or of vertue. 1 or of 

membri aut 

virtutis. humour. If it be bi reson of be membre. bat is for be Bernard de 

. . , Gordon's 

membre is oue?' bmne. If it be for vertue, ban it is Liiium 
for vertue retentyue is feble, and vertu expulsyue strong, quoted. 
8 If it be for humowr, bat is for ouber it is malencoliows 
or for it is scharp, or subtile, or watrye. Also emoroidej 
ar caused of scharpnes of blode and oue?' mych hete 
brennyng be blode, as in colorik men bat bene of hote Piles are due 
12 nature; for blode when it is brent it geteb scharpnes, as of blood, 
it is seid afore. Also oue?' mych flowyng of blode is 
made oube?- for multitude of blode, as in bam bat 
drynkeb mvch wyne or ober metej or drynkei bat to eating 

1ft u- v u li j and drinking 

AO multipliep blode, or in bam bat bene sangyne com- too much, 
plexion. Also it is made for yuel qualite of blode, as for 
it is oue?' scharp or subtile or watry, as in bam bat vseb yj^f^ 
rawe fruyte^, ffor raw fruyte} gendrej) watry blode. }je 

20 causes, forsob, y-knowen, propre cure may be done to. 
Signe$ of dedly flowyng bene bise, bat is to sey : 
fflowyng of blode bryngyng to swouwyng is mortale a ; 
Also flowyng of blode witA coldne^ of extremitej is mor- Danger 

24 tale ; Also flowyng bat comeb sodeynly and with bleeding 
hastinej is mortale ; Also flowyng of blode bat bryngeb sudden 
to pale colow?', or grene, or bio, or browne is werst and 
mortale ; Also quantite of blode passing 4 pouwde is yuel, allor - 

28 and if it come to 24 it is deb. fflowyng of blode w/t/t 
lijtnyng of be body is gode. In bam bat boleb 
emoroidej be vryne schal be in cokmr remissed white 
with powdry resolucions blak or bio residentej in be 

32 bothme of be vessel. After Egidi de vrinis, white and Quotes 
remisse ow for to be of malencoliows blode oue?' aboundant corbeii de 
in be body, wherfor naturel hete is febled. ffor why ; 
digestion waxeb raw, and of rawnes of digestion is be 

36 vryne discolored, * And it appereb \vikh poudry resolucions r i ea f iss, 
which bene resolued of malencoliows blode blak and erbi 
abouredyng, and by contynuel waiej bai ar drawen to be 
bladdar and putte out wit/t be vryne. And for bai ar 
40 heuy and erbi bai satle in be grounde. }3e same vryne 
a ' ' dedly " overlined. 


The Treatment of Bleeding Piles. 

How noli- 
and lupus 
are pro- 

The blood is 
not confined. 

Choler and 
are cribbed 
in the gall 
bladder and 
in the 

The signs of 

of bleeding 
piles by 
herb pills. 

is best in 
the overfed 
and idle 
whose piles 

also may betokne in men vice a of pe splene, and in 
wymmen witAholdyng of menstruej. And witte pou 
pat after gordon in ' clarificaci'one de vicio splenis ' }>at 
innatural humozirs may be gendred in oper place fan in 4 
pe lyuer, as in pe stoniak colre peassyue, 1 i.[e.] grene, and 
also colre eruginows, of which is gendred ' noli-me-tangere,' 
and lupus. And also in pe veyue^ ar gendred vnnaturale 
humowrs. Bot pe splene hap no vertu of gendryng 8 
any ping, sipe it is noping hot a receptakle of malencolie, 
which is ane odious humowr to nature and to al membris 
of pe body for his yuel qualitej. Also witte pou pat 
pe blode hape nouper house, b ne receptakle, ne prison; 12 
but colre and malencoly hap prisons, pat is to sey colre 
in pe chiste of pe gall and malencoly in pe splene. Also 
witte pou pat if pe pacient of emoroidej be of malen- 
coliows complexion, pise bene tokne$ : smalnej c of 16 
body, discolorwed, erpi, angry, waike of hert, heuy, and 
only ferpful and couaitows. And witte pou pat if pe 
forseid pacient sende out blode blak and pikke and 
stynkyng, pat pis flowyng is no3t to be restreyned, hot if 20 
it ouerflowe & pe pacient be febled. In euery-ping, for- 
sop, pe vertu of pe body is to be kept bifor al oper 
pings. Agaynj pe flowyng of pe emoroidej distempre 
pou moste subtile mele of whete, -with iuyse of millefoile, 24 
and make perof piling, and giffe hym euery day in pe 
mornyng 3 or 4 of pam distempered vrith wyne of 
decoccion of millefoile, or plantayn, or burso pastoris, or 
rede netle, or paruencw. Bot if pe pacient be of san- 28 
guyne complexion, and lifyng delicately and in ydelnej, 
and blode be aboundand, pan pof per be sych flowyng 
it is no^t to be restreyned hot if it ouer flow, pat is 
knowen by pe toknej aforeseid. J)erfor if per faH ouer 32 
mych flowyng, it is spedeful pat it be restreyned; for, 
after galien, blode is norischyng of al me?nbrej, als Avele 
of sadde as of softe, and al hap bigywnyng or spryngyng 
of blode ; and fcr-als-mych it is seid pe frende of nature, 36 
pe?'for if pe frende be destroyed pe enemy waxep mi^ty. 
Jjerfor, after gordon, to pe curyng of pe emoroidej 
is fleobotomy competent, if vertu and age sutf're it, 

a " sekeiies " overlined. b " duellyng " overlined. 

c "or Iene3 " overlined. 


The Treatment of Piles ~by Phlebotomy. 61 

bobe for it avoidej) matery goyng afore, and also it 
wit/idraweb be matery to be contrary.* 'And fleobotomy uioodtobe 
ow to be done of be basilic veyne of be arme for mater *> the 

' basilic vein 

4 goyng afore, and afterward of be sophenis at be hele, be or the 

~. * external 

vtter sophe turneb be flowyng of be emoroide} and saphenous. 
restreyneb be emoroyde} for euermore. Whiche fleo- 
botomy, forsob, continued *fro }ere to }ere, and namely I* fcanw] 
8 about be fest of seynt Micheli, bifore and after one} or 
twie}, or when-someuer be pacient felej? tyklyng or The Weeding 
ychyng or prykkyng in be lure, ban be he minusched as annually 6 
it is afore seid, and alsoue he schal be cured. Also witte Michaelmas. 
12 bou bat fleobotomye of be inward sophenis of be leggej 

prouokeb be emoroide} and menstrue} ; And of be vtter Bleeding 
sophenis streyneb be emoroidej and menstruej, and we- internal 

' . saphenous 

serueb for certayne fro be forseid passions. Sophenej lia<1 for P iles 

i c i and men r - 

16 bene bo grete veyne^ bat ar strecned fro be kneej vnto rhagia. 
be ankle^ of bobe partiej of be legge}. )3e maner of 

doyng of bis fleobotoraye is bat it be done about be ^^ my 

hour of euensong or latter, bat is in be regnyng of saphenous 

20 malencoliows blode, bat is fro be 9 hour of be daie 

vnto be 3 hour of be ni?t. Also witte bou bat fleo- Evening is 

' ' ' the proper 

botomye to be done vnder b be hele and in saluatella of tim e for 

1 phlebotomy. 

be handej, oweb no^t to be done wt a blode iren bot 

24 with a lancete, for hurtyng of be synewe^, but if fat 

nede make it. Also witte bou bat he bat schal be laten Treatment 
blode oweb for to putte his fete in hote watre, and eft- phlebotomy, 
sone bam owe to be putte agayn, bat be blode go out 

28 bette?- ; And be pacient ow to abide still in be watre, 
vnto bat be blode fat appered first blak dhaunge into 
fairer colow. Be bis doct?-me boldly kept, for if it be 
no^t done competently it profiteth nobing or litel ; ffor 

32 certayne I haue cured for euermore, wiih on latyng blode 
al-only of be vtter sophene, many men bat boled be 
emoroidej many jeres, vnto be feblyng of be body. 
Bot witte bou bat, after gordon, bat bof-al fleo- 

36 botomye make blode fluxible, neberlesse if it be done 

of be vtter sophene} it draweb be flowyng to be opposite ; 

1 et ita facit. and so it makyng x be flowyng for to be turned fro 

be lure bat it flow nojt to be costomable place ; and 

40 forbi it profiteb to al bat ar cured of be emoroide}, 
a " opposite " overlined. b " at " overlined. 

62 Treatment of Piles ly Purgatives. 

and also to al pat ar disposed to pe emoroide}, for 
The patients to be laten blode of pe outward sophenis, one? or tuyei 

should be * v~* 

let blood m ver and alse otte m autu??ipne fro }ere to }ere. fror 
twice every why ; sich fleobotomye for certayne preseruep fro pe 4 
autumn even emoroide}, and avoidep paciente} fro al yuel humowrs 
piies g be '* * and kepep pam in hele. And per be no blode-later redy, 
be per made ventosyng with garsyng atuix pe buttoke} at 
pe rigebone ende or aboue pe veynej, for it dope pe same 8 
pat pe forseid fleobotomye, bot nojt so expertly, bot nede 
The patient ^Q^Q no lawe. 1 And it is to witte pat if pe leche may i Ad quod 

must be faciendum 

purged gette pe ri}t reule by al pings in euery wirchmg after myrobaiani 
bled. crafte, fleobotomye ow}t neuer to be done in pe emoroide} 12 tumcon- 

byfore purgacion y-done, and pan sewyngly mynischyng. qu ia myro- 
Also after gordon, in ouer mych flowyng of pe emoroide}, 
and also of menstruej, is competent a medicyne laxatyue 
to purge corrupte humours pat inducep pe flowyng, pat 16 comprfmen- 
pe cause cesyng, pe etfecte cese. To which ping to be done eos^mnores 

fotoe b best 8 al pe mir[obalan)] a [con]ouenie/*t ffor mira- "nt^Myr"- 

fn^^nes^ 6 bolan) laxep afore pam and streynep after pam . . . . a j^m' hoc 

and pai avoide al yuel humowrs. Jjerfor be pai preparate 20 ^J>^_ 

. a decocte byfor pat pai be taken, for bi Non debent 


decoccion pair a decoqui 


back] *and so pe strength of laxatiueyng shuld be febled, bot fumantur, 

bai ow to be resolued in rennyug liquore, as in mylk or 24 decoctionem 

J eorum gum- 

raisins and whey, vfiih racyns & liquorice, ellea walld pai schrenk b niitas in 

liquorice ' * fumum re- 

may be used, j,e s tomake and lefe yuel tokenea byhynd c pam: and so soiveretur 

, - ,. , , . , et sic vis 

of be racyns and of pe liquore ar pai reuled pat pai bryng purgandi de- 

r*n--\ t u i j /^ i ii OC bilitaretur. 

in no harme. Which, forsop, resolued and pe kirnelle^ -^o 

cast away, lat pam lie al a ni^t in pe same liquor, and in 

pe mornyng pe colyng be giffen to drynk. jjis medicyne, 

forsope, of mirobolan) is ful noble, sipe it purgep humo^^rs 

of nijt placej, pat is citrine} colre, 2 kebuli} fleume, 3 Indi 32 gj,"*^^. 1 

malencoly, i.fe.l blak colre, bellerici and emblici colre 3 kebuii 


aduste. And so may al pe humowrs be purged ; wherfor 
be mirabolan) hadde in reuerence, ffor pai availe mich to 
pe emoroide} and menstrue} to be purged. And pis medi- 36 
cyne for certayn curep euery flux of pe wombe, pat is to 
scy diaria, dissenteria, liencaria. Also it is to wytte pat 

A portion of the leaf is missing. b "ronkle " overlined. 
c ' ' after " overlined. 

Treatment of Piles ly Diet and Medicines. 63 

in pacientj of be emoroide^ be ]>er neuer giffen medicyne} 
apertyues of veyuei noube?' be ]>e moube, as scamone, or but never 

J \ scammony 

aloe, or euforbium, comyn, lekej, onyans, garleke and sicb. or aloes. 
4 ober scharp bing} ; ne be bar nojt putte opon be place, out 
take aloen and comyn, which tuo, putte outward, streyneb, 
and witft-in-forb taken opne]> veyne}. Bot it is to wytte 
bat in be forseid fluxes of be wombe mirabolan) ow to be J h , e m yro- 

balans may 

8 dissolued in gote mylk, 1 if it may be had, or in iuse or bejdvenin 

goat s milk. 

water of fumitere or of playntane, or in rayne water or 

rose water, or of veruene, or of anober stiptike herbe as 

millefoile or mynte. Also witte bou, after al auctowrs, 

12 bat pose pings bat restryneb emoroide} restreyneb men- 

struej, and econverso : And be same sekenej bat comeb of what is good 

. , , . -TO f r P iles is 

be vice of menstruej, comeb also of be emoroid, & econverso : equally good 

. , for menor- 

and so by sewyng a bat ]>ai acorde in cure, perfor in cold rhagia. 
16 cause be J>ai giffentpat hetep and ingrossep J>e mater of 
flowyng of blode, als wele of be party of mete} as of 
medicyne}. Of J>e party, forsob, of mete^ be ber giffen 
milk, mele of whete decocte, frese bene^, with canel, gret 

tritica f faba* ^ w y ne > r ^3 e 2 an( i ^y^te. Of be party of medicyne be ber Remedies to 
fera cum giffen note of cipresse 3 and be lefej, mirre, thure. mastike. the treat- 

cinnamomo, ' ment of 

vinum Iadanu7?i, storax calamita, anyse rosted, and sich obe. piles. 


rube. And excercice and strong frotyngs and swetyngs availejj. 

pressl CU 24 And if pe cause be hote, be ber giffen lentes b vrith vinegre, 
4 Portuiaca porcelane, 4 sour milk, soben barly brede, substance of colej 

6 cauiisdua- j?e tuo watrej 5 bat it is decocte in y-cast away, perej, 
abjectis. coyncej 6 & melde^, 7 & sich obe?'. Medicyne} restrictyue} 
e Mespiia. 28 bene bise ; Camphore, accacia, spodin, coriandre, sangwe's 

7 Cotonea. , . . ' 

hEemat. draconts, sandali, lap[isj omoptoes, 8 bole armoniac, ypo- 
9 Hypo- quistid, 9 galley cupule, sumak, mirtett, 10 

quistidos. . , , ., . 

. . . . c plantane, cincloile, qumquineruie, nbbewort, 
32 bursa pastoris, millefoil, c forsob 

a " it fohve)) " overlined. b " growel " overlined. 

A portion of the leaf is missing. 

The Latin text of this mutilated passage runs : pysidiae, 
balaustia, plantago, quinqueneruia, sanguinaria, millefolia et 
similia. Corpora ergo patieutis haemorrhoides sine menstrua super- 
flua existente pletharico i.[e.J pleno sanguine ex virtute forti prse 
ceteris attendendum est ut in initio phlebotomia fiat de utraque 
basilica brachii. Deinde mulieri menstruosae ponantur ventosae 
magnas sub utraque mammilla. Deinde mundificetur secundum 
exigentiam humorum peccantium. Deinde liga brachium ligatura 
dolorosa. Deinde fiant localia remedia. Et id quod intelligendum 
est, &c. 


Treatment of Piles by Local Applications. 

[leaf 160] 

Local appli- 
cations for 

Styptics for 

piles lead to 
ulceration of 
the rectum. 

men are 

of pe pacient} emoroidej or menstrue^ beyng plettorike . . 
. . . . c beyng strong. "Which, is to be take hede to 

afor al o]>er J>ings 

fteobotomy of basilica of bope pe armes. 4 

And it is to vnderstond pat pis is wont to availe aboue 
al oper ping} : 'Recipe luyse of plantane, muscilage 
dragaiwte & guwme arabic ; be pai medled to-gidre, and 
o party be take be pe moupe and anoper be cast in by a 8 
clistery ; and be pis continued, and without dout it schal 
cure perfitely, vniuersale purgacions goyng afore, after 
barnard gordon. Also corall brent and gu?nme arabic, 
y-medled and y-dronke with cold watre, streynep pe flux 12 
of blode, of what place so-euer it flowep. Also caneH 
hape pis prop-trie, 1 pat if per be take of it to pe wejt of 2 
penys eueryday with cold water, it streynep at pe best pe 
flux of emoroides & of menstrue}. And if pe forseid 16 
poudre be giffen with watre of plantane it schal be more 
effectual. Also vitriol, i-[e.] coprose, streynep pe flux 2 
of enieroirfes and driep humowrs, if it be made with luyse 
of moleyn, or of plantayne, or verueyn, or rubarbe, i.[e.] 20 
sengrene ; ffor why ; of pe medlyng of pe iuyse of any 
of pe forseid cold herbes pe hete of pe vitriol is repressed ; 
wherfor it constreynep with drinej. Bot it is to wytte pat 
pe emoroide} hid with-ln pe lure 3 ful seldome bene made 24 
without fretyng of longaon or kynnyng a of it, And 
perfor certaynly sich maner emoroydej may no$t perfitely 
be cured bot with a medicyne eauteri^atiue, as is vitriol 
combuste be it self or medled with quick-lyme, in a grete 28 
case, pat is in a grete fretyng. Also puluis sine pari in 
pis case putte in helep wele, bot disesily or angerfully ; bot 
pat is nojt to charge. 4 ffor to a strong sekenej answerep a 
strong medicyne, and namely in strong men. I calle, forsop, 32 
delicate men feble men. ffor al pingj bene hard to a waik 
hert man. To a strong hert man, forsop, is noping grete. 
To emoroide^ hid wt't/iin pe lure, wheper pai be with fret- 
yng or clyffyng or wMout, pe most noble cure schal be 36 
ich day to caste in in mane?- of clistre, or ich oper day, al 

See note on page 63. a " cleuyng" overlined. 

i Item cin 
liabet bane 

2 . cum succ 


3 sine 
& ejusdem 

4 sed de hoc 
non est 

The Treatment of Piles by Local Applications. 65 

medicynej temperatly liquide in swbstance with a schort 
and no maner streit nastar of tre. To strong men perfor 
tak pulut'u sine pari, and medle it with a litel tapsimel, A strong 

.... . local remedy 

4 nouper to pinne ne to pikke, bot pat it may most com- for piles, 
petently be pristed out and jetted into pe lure. If forsop 
pou haue nojt tapsimel, in-stede of it tak hony cotted 
with a litel vinegre and scorned, and medle it wit/t pe 
8 forsaid pulm's, and vse it, for it euenly availep as tapsimel. 
If pe pacient, forsop, be delicate, pan tak of citrine oitment A milder 
parte 1, vitriol combust, partes ij, alom jucarine als mich 
as of bope, and be pai medled to-gidre and jetted in : pis, 

12 forsop, wirkep nojt so violently as puluis sine pari for pe 
vertgrej pat entrep not here, ffor-sop when pou has 
done pus onej, or tuyse, or prise, after as it fallep pe 
pacient for to withhold pe medicyne long or schort tyrne, 

16 It bihouep pan for to chaunge pe cure and giffe clisterej Examine 
mitigatiuej, of jolk of an ey, with oile of rose, and pulm's as soon as 
of bole armoniac, and aloes epatici, or sang dragon, by 3 p 
daies or more. When pe pacient, forsop, felep hymself 

20 aleged, pan assaye bisily wheper pe inner place nede ony 
maner of pe first medicyne, i.[e.] of pe pulm's with tapsi- 
mel, pat if it so be, be it eft-sonej done, as it is seid afore, 
als oft as it is nede ; Af terwarde be it mitigate, as it is cleanse it 

24 seid. When pe place, forsop, is mundified, pan be it ointment 
heled with pe jolk of an ey & water of xoset, in which be healed. ' 
resolued gurarne arabic, addid per-to pulm's bole, sano: 
oiibani. dragon, ceruse, aloes, gait, psidie, mumme, olivai * mastike ; 

28 * and pe lure first enoynted within with lynsede oile & oile [* leaf 100, 
of roset, pe forseid medicyne be jetted in. with a nastare 
and so continue it vnto pe last ende, or on like maner 
after pin owne witte & bisines. And witte pou pat 

32 when per is putte vitriol, or puluis sine pari, or any 
pulurs corrosiue within pe lure aboue fretyngj or cliffyngj, 
pan aboue pe pulm's corrosiue owe bole armoniac to be 
putte, for to defende be puluis corrosiue bat pe humidite vitriol is 

better than 

36 m pe lure quench nojt & wescn away pe pulms corrosiue. bole ar- 
ffor why; bole with his drynes and viscosite consumip 
pe moistenej, and vitriol wirkep better and more strongly. 
If, forsop, pou haue no bole, pan putte most smal meel 

40 of barly in his stede, for it is rijt mich desiccatiue. Jjise 



The Treatment of Piles by Corrosives. 

Nettle juice 
is a good 
remedy to 
stop bleed- 

The hairs of 
a hare and a 
powder of 
burnt hen's 
feathers are 
both good 
to stop 

Tinder, too, 
is good. 

stops bleed- 
ing, and so 
does the 

The applica- 
tion of cold 
is a styptic. 

Clay with 
vinegar may 
be uned, 

f ings restreyuef blode : ventosing putte with scarification,* 
putte ex antipasi, b and mirre, and lasper of grene colour 
hauyng in itself naturale droppes of blode, Saphir rede 
eoralle rubye, c l and fyme of wilde swyne. Also f ise 4 
restreynef blode, of f e vertu of fair qualite} : luyse of 
walwort, luyse of rede netelt broken d with al his sub- 
stance, salt y-put f erto. Or luyse of nettel y-dronkyn 
restreynef blode in euery place of f e body and of euery 8 
cause, e and in bof e kynde. e Bot it is to wytte fat to a 
woman in menstrue} and to fam fat hauef fe emoroidej 
owe f e rote of it to be giff en with f e croppe} of f e same 2 
3 daies continuly, \vith rayne watre or rennyng watre. 12 
Also of fam fat restreynef blode bene f ise : Mumme, bole 
armoniac, sang dracon, thure, aloe, vitriol combust, puluer 
of heres of ane hare, brent or no}t brent ; pulm's of he/me} 
fefers brent, medled with white of ane ey ; Alphita, i.[e.] 16 
subtile & clene meel of barly 3 ; Also a been clouen by f e 
midde} and putte vpon a wonde and bounden faste, 
streynef. 4 Bot f is haf e no stede bot to so streyt a wounde 
fat f e been may take within his extremite} f e extremite} 20 
of f e wounde, as of prikkyng of a smal knyfe or sich a 
f ing. Also aschen of ane olde lynne clof e y-brent streynef 
blode ; f e white of an ey and barly mele y-putte aboue or 
witAouten. Som-tyme it bihouef for to bynde f e heuede} f 24 
of f e veyiie with ane nedel putte vnder f e veyne, and afte? 1 
for to bynde with a f rede aboue f e nedel. Som-tyme it 
byhouef for to cauterize fe wounde with an hote iron. 
Also blode is stopped with coldyng of fe membre y-hurte, 28 
wherfor oft-tyme} is blode restreyned in som men with 
one} drynkyng of colde watre. And som men puttef fair 
testicule} in cold watre ; And som men lappef fair testicule} 
in clay with vinegre or watre, or temperate with iuyse of 32 
plantayne ; And f is is profitable to fam fat bledef at f e 
nose. And it is better if fe fronte and temple} of fe 
pacient be emplastred of f e forseid clay, and also if it be 
putte vnder fe armehole} ; fis, forsof, quenchef fe feruowr 36 
of blode and drawef to f e opposite. Also puluere} y-putte 

a "garsing" overlined. b " on \>e contrary " overlined. 
c " rubye " has been crossed out. d " brissed " overlined. 

e e "i.[e.] of man & woman" overlined. f " endej " overlined. 

1 corallus 
rubri, et 
stercus porci 

2 ra dix 



3 Item faba 
per medium 

* sanguinem 

Various Styptics. 


1 Pulvis ex 
pilis leporis 

2 Item facit 
porrns et 
succns ejus, 
item folia 

3 Item sue- 
cus ebulse. 

< cum sum- 

<* antheae. 
6 et cribran- 


in pe nose may more strongly streyne & availe. * Puluer 
of here} of ane hare y-brent 1 aboue alpings streyne]) pe flux 
of pe emoroide}, y-medled with white of an ey and -with 
4 here} of ane hare no}t y-brent ; coton of softe stupe} 
y-putte aboue. And som men with pe forseid puluer 
alon and pe white of an ey anoyntej) pe emeroide} with- 
out puttyng to of coton, and alsone cese}> pe flux and 
8 }>e akyng. Witte pou pat aloe and comyn, recepte bi 
]>e moupe, opne]) veyne} ; and putte to wz'tA-out-forp 
restreynep. 2 |3e same dop leke} and pe iuyse of pam pe 
lefe} of moleyne y-brissed and put 'to with pe white of 

12 an ey streyne}) pe emoroides and helep pam sone. Also 
Iuyse of orpyne 3 y-dronken with wyne helep al fics, 
without and -within ; wherfor it is called fics-herbe. 
Also lana succida y-dipped in pe iuyse of porre}, a pe 

16 lefe} remoued away, and hote putte to bolned emor- 
oides, and when it is collde eftsone} renewed, and oft 
tyme} so y-done, it is a certayne remedy agayns pe 
bolnyng of emoroides ; And if pulm's of comyn be pntte 

20 perto, it schal spede better. To emoroide} y-bolned and 
apperand as war a chykyn torde, brisse wele blak sope 
with pe tendrons of moleyne 4 and putte vpon; and pe 
prid day pai schal no}t appere. Oile of violette with 

24 white of 3 eiren well stired to-gidre and putte to, on a 
wonderful mane?- mitigatep pe akyng and brynnyng of 
pe emoroide}. Agayn} ouer mych flux of emoroides and 
of menstrue} pe best medicyne cowstrictiue and desiccatyue 

28 is made on pis maner. In pe best luwbarde} ynk be 
dissolued a gode quantite of guwimc arabic; which dis- 
solued putte in of pulm's of bole armoniac, mastic, 
mumme, sumak, rede coralle, bdellii, galle}, psidie, acacie, 

32 anteros 5 ypoquistidos subtily puluered and sarced, 6 ana ; 
and medle pam to-gidre so pat pai may be }ette into pe 
lure by a nastare. With pis medicyne was cured Deme- 
trms, kyng of Perse}, of a cnsten man pat was halden 

36 prisoner with pe same kyng ; which cristew man was 

made ful riche, and was sent home to cristew me/me} lande 

by pe comandement of pe same kyng, and many prisoners 

of cristen men war late go free with hym. Panis cuculi 

a " leke} " overlined. 

[* leaf 161] 

but after all 
the burnt 
hairs of a 
hare are the 
best for 
bleeding in' 

Aloes and 
taken in- 
cause bleed- 
ing from 
piles, ex- 
ternally they 
stop it. 

for piles. 


Black soap 
and mullein. 

Gum arabic 
dissolved in 

cured Deme- 
trius, king 
of Persia, by 
the hands of 
a Christian. 

68 Treatment of Piles by Medicine. 

alleluya, i.[e.] wodsour, is a treyfole growyng vnder 
Cuckoo busche} and berep white flowre}, is a ful sour herbe. Ane 
wrapped in handful of pis herbe without any brissyng be lapped in a 
leaves may ly n clouth y-wette in water and pristed out, or in lefe} of 4 

be tried in J \ > > 

piles, con- rede dok, and be it rested vnder hote aschen pat it be 


and dead no}t dryed ; afterward be it draw out and brissed, and put 
it vpon emoroide}, or fics, or condilomata, or dede flesch, 
wher-so-euer it is It fretep softly & remouep al pe forseid 8 
ping}, aboue any ping of pe world : perfor when it may 
esily be had it noyep noit for to assay. A Eial ping l l experi- 

J J ' mentura 

expert, pat wonderfully and happily amendep pe errowr regale, 
als wele of pe first digestion as of pe seconde, and dop 12 
I leaf lei, away wicked colowr & vnnatwral, *and it restorep natural 
A stomachic colowr and makep it gode : Recipe cynamom, ynyh galang 1 , 
who'ha^e reubarb ana ; be pai subtily puluered, to which be done 
plles ' }uccary 2 euenly, and brese pam to-gidre. Vse pe pacient 16 2 ( A^ b r ls 

pis puluer in bygynnyng of his mete to pe we}t of 5 sacchari. 
drams in wyne ; pis medicine is profitable to pam pat 
hape pe emoroides, for pai ar oftyme discolored. And it 
is to witte pat if it may be done on gode inaner per owep 20 
neuer to be putte to in pe place remedie} mitigatiue} bot 
pe bodi war first muwdified with farmacie, i.[e.] medicyne 
laxatiue, as is of pe forseid mirabolan) and fleobotomye, 
A soothing for ellej be mitigatiue} availep lest. A mitigatiue of 24 


for inflamed akyng to emoroide} bolned, \vith prikkyng and bryn- 
nyng : Make ane emplastre of comon malue lefe} decocte 
in watre and after well y-brised, w?'t/i swyne grese, oile of 
rose putte to, or of violete, or of lilie, or of camamille, or 28 
of comon oile if pe toper be nojt had. It schal be made 
pus : pe lefej of malues decocte and pe watre expressed, be 
pai wele fried in a pan vrith some of pe forseid oile3 ; after- 
ward streche pam on wolle y-tesed or subtile stupe} of 32 
line, and putte pam to hote ; and wonderfully it myti- 
Liiy roots gatep pe akyng. If pe rote of lilie may be had and be 
added to it. sopen wz't/i pe forseid malue} it schal be more effectuoMS. 

Jjis emplastre is comone yno}, ffor in wynter may lilye 36 
rote} be hadde when malue} failep, and pan may pou do 
witTt pe rote al-on as it is seid of pe malue} ; if pai hope 
may be had pe emplastre is more effectuows. Also pe 
akyng and bolnyng of emoroides is mitigate wit/< pe }olk 40 

Arderne s own Ointment for Piles. 69 

of ane hard ey rested, and oile of rose and crocus done 
to ; -which, y-brissed to-gidre and wi'tTi wolle putte to, it 
mitigatep wonderfully in euery cause. And it schal be 
4 better if per be added to opium in litel p?-oporcion. Also 
ane emplastre of be white of ane rawe ey and oile of J h y*i cipe , 

forArderne H 

violette bette to-gidre and putte to is seid wonderfully for ^ t oint ' 

to be mitigatiue. Also be eiren sopen hard, and J>e white 

8 of pam \vith oile of rose or of violet} or of bobe vrith 

coton be putte to hote, it cesep pe akyng of be emoroide} 

in one ni}t, and dot it away. J?is is pe medycine which 

I, lohn Arderne, made, pe which I wold neuer wante, for 

1 2 it mitigatep wonderfully euery bolnyng of emoroides, and 

akyng and prikkyng with brynnyng, and it dop it away : 

which owe to be made pus : Recipe Moleyn and swyne} 

1 succum grese x wele y-clensed of pe litel skynne} and smal y-kutted ; 
etaxungia 16 and be pai wele brissed togidre in a morter or in a basyn 

porci a 

peiiicniis vnto pe grece be wele imbibed of pe iuyse : and pan lat 

mandate. . 

pis grese vrith pe luse stand stille 9 daie} or more vnto pe 

2 quo viso grese shew grene : which y-se, 2 eftsone sone} be it brissed 

iterum cum J 

svicco eadem 20 \\ith pe same iuyse, And when pe grese is perfitely imbibed 
tundatur. , and colored of pe iuyse, putte away pat pat is superflue of 

pe iuyse, and eftsone} brisse pe grese without any iuyse Arderne 
and putte it in an erpen vessel, and kepe it to pin vse ; ointment 
24 And }?is medicyne is called tapsiualencia. And witte pou Valencia." 
pat pis medicyne owe fro monep to monep one} to be j^ 11 ^ 
brissed, and in pe brissing for to putte in litel hi litel of stirred once 
oile of rose, or violet, or camamille, pat pe valence may a month - 
28 competently imbibe it. And if per war added to of gode 

3 et si de popilion 3 pe helpyng of pe medicyne schal be more effectual, 
leonadditur. Jjerfor when pou hast nede for to vse perof, tak lanam 

succidara, if *pou may haue it, and if pou may no}t, tak [ leaf 162] 
32 oper clene tesed wolle and putte per-on of tapsivalencia The oint- 

.,,,., . nient may 

with pi fynger or w*tn a spature imp?-essyng it, and be per i>e spread or 

i , IP, applied with 

made ane emplastre more or lesse after pe discrecion of pe the finger or 
leche, and putte it on pe lure. Bot witte pou pat afore pe 

36 puttyng to pat pe lure be wele fomented vrith a sponge 
y-wette in hot watre of decoction of malue} and branne, and 
be it hote putte to and abide long peron. ffor win ; sich fo- 
mentacion availep mich more for certayne pan hote stuphis, 

40 and more hidep pe rede bolnyngs and lessenep pam, as I 

7*0 Fomentations for Inflamed Piles. 

haue of-tymej proued. After pe fomentacion and desiccacion 

of pe lure, be pe bolnyngs anoynted with oile of rose 

chaufed in ane ostre scheH; and putle in wele -with pi fynger 

pe oile atuix ]>e runcle} of pe skynne ; And af terward putte 4 

and it should to pe forseid eiuplastre menely chaufed, And be it bounden, 

place with a pat it falle no^t away, with lynne cloiite^ and a girdel 

atuix pe bottokke^, as it is seid in pe fistule}. And with- 

in one ni^t pe akyng schal be cesed. )3is inedicyne, for- 8 

The remedy sop, passep all oper to pe akyng, bolnyng, brynnyng, prik- 

for piles, kyng, and smertyng in pe lure, of which blode rennep 

no^t; And he pat hape pis medicyne, hym nedep none 

better. Bot neperles it is gode for to kune many Inter x 12 l Sed tamen 

' bonum est 


should know 

of others. pat one aeiailyng he may go agayne to anoper. And it is plena scire 
to wytte bat in akyng and bolnyng of pe emoroide}, pat 
noube?- stuphej of hote stones, and thure & coluer fyme 2 and 2 et fimo 

. * columbine. 

sicn oper, ne syttyng aboue vessele^ WUA herbe^, as many 16 
Foments- fole? dop, 3 be nojt so competent as fomentacion. ffor 3 sicutmuiu 

tions for in- stolidi 

flamed piles, certayn, fomentacion made wttt watre of decoccion of faciunt. 

comon maluej or furfur colace, 4 hide]) wele and mitigate]) 4 vei furfu- 
and dissoluef Jje emoroides about })e lure. Also witte 20 
J>ou pat in akyng of pe emoroides per owe to be putte 

Hippocrates nobing cold in acte bot hote. ffor after ypocras cold pingj 


in acte bene enemys to bone}, to synowe}, to tepe, to 
brayne, to be lure, to pe bladdre, and to pe nerw^ of pe 24 
rigebone. 5 And forpi pe medicyne when it is applied vpon 5 vesiss, ac 
pe wolle, 6 it ow a litel to be holden agaynj pe fire, pat pe medulla. 
actuale coldnes be done away, and paw put it to. When unam" 
a lech sep any man hauyng grete ake and many bolnyngs 28 
or fewe, more or lesse, aboute pe lure wa'tfrouten, with ful 
mych akyng and payne, pan it is spedeful pat afte?- pe 
puttyng to of ane emplastre mitigatiue, and fomentacion 
inBamcd done tuise or brise If be forseid bolnyngs begynne nojt 32 

piles should 

be lanced to abate bat pe leche with a lancet or a blode iren smyte 


warly pe bolnyng^ ful of blode, pe pacient no3t wittyng, 
and receyue he pe blode in a sponge wette in hot watre 
and expressed and putte to pe bolnyng. And do pe lech 36 
pis boldely, for per is no perile per-in. ffor why ; I haue 
proued pis ful oft tymej for to be most soiie helpyng. Jje 
fleobotomy y-done, be per putte vpon of valence or some 
oper equiualent medicyne, and be per done fomentacions 40 

Treatment of Thrombosed Piles. Tencsmus. 71 

and enoyntyngs vnto f e bolnyng} and fe akyng} vtterly 
defaile. If f e leche, forsof, may no^t wirk fus, make he and . th 
be pacient for to be fleobotomed of f e vtter veyne} of f e * f * < . wa . d8 

4 leggej in the euyng as it is seid afore. Also if fe leche 
se any men haue aboute f e lure without rounde bolnyng}, 
in f e endej a of which apperef blak spotte^, witte he fan 
for certayn fat in f am is blak cluttered b blode ; which 

8 forsob yknowen, be ber done *fomentacions and enoynt- [* ieafi82, 


yng}. And afte?-ward tarye nojt f e leche for to opne with a 
launcet be forseid bolnyngj in f e place of be blaknes Throm- 

J ' bosed 

f e pacieut no^t wittyng ftor f e pacient schal fele no piles should 
12 greuance fer-of ; I haue proued it forsof e oft-tymc}, And 
with fis cure al-on I haue sene ful many for to haue be 
cured for euermore, and fat rijt sone. IT And be f e lech 
war fat none of fam fat standef about perceyue when he shouicTbe 
1 6 opnef with f e lancet or sich of e?* f ing sich maner bolnyng}. i e e s t the" 6 
ffor if barboi-s knowe fis doyng f ai wold vsurpe fis cure, to know g or 
appropriand it to famself vnto vnworschip and no^t litel 
harme of maystre^. U If any man, forsof, haue as it war 
i pendentes 20 purse^ l aboute f e lure wt't^oute, hyngyng in mane?- of a 
marcidse. welked gri[pe], which ar wont for to bifalle of inflacion and 

ouer miche extension of ernoroides had afore ; fan if f e 
pacient consent fe lech may without perile kutte away 
24 with a lancet or a rasowr al fo burse3, first y-bond with &. 
f rede, and afterward sone hele fam with vnguento arabico. 

tyme a sekenej bat is called tenasmon, berfor 

16. A nd for bat fai bat haj>e be emoroides habe oft- Tenesmus ; 

28 here we make mencion ber-of. Tenasmon is a sekenej definition. 
\vithiu j?e lure bat makef be pacient for to. desire purgyng 
of his womb byneb-forb ; ffor it semeb hym euermore 
bat he mi^t haue egestion, and when he comef to fe 

32 pn'ue he may no^t haue egestion. H Cause of bis seknes Causes are 

i i i . -, -i .1 piles, ulcer- 

bene som tyme emoroides hid WitAin be lure, or pustule^, ation.purga 

, / i ^ i 9 tives. or 

vei rropter or excoriacions in longaon, or for chynnyngs ot longaon z chronic con- 

fissiiras i-i 11 i T FIJI LMJ- stipation. 

longarioni. which ar called ragadie, or for hote humowr imbibed in 

36 longaon, or for fat cold humowr is inuistate fer, or for 

apostemej, or for vlcere^, or for takyng of laxatiue rnedi- 

cyne. Signe} of hote cause in thenasmon bene hotenej, 

brennyng, and prikkyng. Signej of coldne^ is fat cold is 

1 " heuedej " overlined. b " coagulate " overlined. 


Treatment of Cutaneous Piles Tenesmus. 

The signs 
and sym] - 
toins of 


The treat- 
ment of 

[* leaf 163] 

Clysters of 
goat's milk. 

i et simili- 
bus calidis 

feledin fat place, and it is helpid of hotene^. U If it be 
for apostemes, fer is grete akyng & greuows. IT And if it 
be for vlcere^, ]>er is gret akyng when any-fing is putte 
J>er-in. And if it be for emoroide^, ]>er apperef bolnyng 4 
and inflacion and akyng in f e veyne^ fat ar about f e 
circle of f e lure. And if it be for fece}, it is knowen forfi 
fat f e pacient long tyme afore went no^t to sege. U And 
if it be for medicine laxatiue, it is knowen for fer was in 8 
it Diagredium or scamonie or pulpa coloqm'wtidis or aloe. 
U And if it be for outward cause, it is knowen by schewyng 
of f e pacient. U Pronosticacion is f is : If fat f e thenas- 
mon last long, it bringef to fe colik and iliaca passion, 12 
and to vnslepyng and feblenes of vertu, and malice of 
folyng, and to passions of fe heued, and to swownyng. 
And cause of fise is continuel akyng. U If it be for out- 
ward cause, Sitte fe pacient in ane hote bath of swete 16 
watre \vith oleo laurino and sicli ofer hote apertyue^. 1 
U And if it be for aposteme and fe bodye be plettorik, be 
fer made fleobotomye of basilica ; And if fe apostems be 
hote, be fer made clisterie^ of iuyse of endyue, scariole, 20 
coriandre, oile of rose and white of an ey. After fat f e 
sekene^ haf preceded, be fer added to fise henne} grese 
fresch, and f e dusty a meel of f e milne, and a litel hony. 
And al bise be giffen leuke in acte. 2 *And if f e 24 2 e t omnia 

' jsta dentur 

aposteme be cold fro fe bigynnyng, be fer made ane actutepida. 
oyntment of f e iuse of apii and oile of rose, and 
camamille, and branne, and iuse of caule^. After fat fe 
sekenes hafe preceded, be fer added to fenigreke and 28 
liwnesede, and be fai ministred euermore hote in acte. 
H Witte fou fat in thenasmon fer is nofing more pro- 
fitable fan ^ettyng in by a clistery of gote^ mylke ; And if 
fou haue no^t gote3 mylke, tak cow mylk, and put fer- ~ J 
to a subtile whete meel, and boile fam togidre in maner 
of children pappe ; adde f er-to f e raw ^olk of an ey in f e 
decoccion, and a litel fresch schepe} grece after f e lique- 
faccion, and cole it, and putte in hote bi a clisterie ; fie, 36 
forsof, is mych mitigatyue. U Also f e ^olk of a raw ey 
tempered with bole armoniac to sich f ikknes fat it may 
by a clistery be ^ette into f e lure, cesef at f e best thenas- 
a " flying " overlined. 

Treatment of Tenesmiis. 73 

mon ; and pis haue I proued oft tyme^. 1F If tenasmon 
be for ragadias i.[e.] chynnyng}* wit/iin pe lure, cure pe 
ragadias and thenasmon schal be cured. IT A remedie 
4 agayn3 thenasmon of what euery cause it be, after Bernard 
of Gordon, cap ito de thenasmon; Hecipe fenigrec, semen Bernard de 


lini, malue bismalue, camamille, mellilote, i.|e.l pe clyster for 


croppe3 of caule^, ana ; be pai bnssed and boiled in watre 
8 vnto mene pikkene^, and be it coled, and be it warme cast 
in by a litel clistery. ffor, for certane, outward fomenta- 
cions and suffumigaciows profitep no^t so mych as medi- 
cyne3 putte in by a clistery, and pat haue I oftyme proued. 

12 U Agayn^ greuows ychyng and vnsuffrable in pe lure take pe Treatment 
cheiidon. iuyse of celydome, 1 of moleyne, ana, hony scomyd als Unjf 
mych as of ]>e iuyse^, and boile pam togidre to pe wastyng 
of pe iuyse3 ; after sette it downe i'ro }>e fyre and kepe to 

16 vse. When pou wilt vse per-of agayn3 ychyng, tak per-of 
als mych as pou wilt and putte per-to of pulm's of vitriol 
combuste and alum combuste and orpment, and if nede be 
boile it agayne vnto it be ane vntement haldyng fastyno^, 

20 and putte a litel J?er-of into pe lure agayn3 J>e ychyng, and 
sone it schal cese, and in euery pa?'ty of pe body for 
certay[n]. And pis oyntment is called tapsimel, of tapsi- bytapsimei. 
barbasti b & melle c ; fforsofe pis is a noble oyntment. 

24 U Ragadias may we nojt curebotif we bryng in medicyne3 Treatment 

. . -, ofrhagades, 

wttAin pe lure, ouper wtt/i clistery or wztA suppository ; which is 
ffor medicyne3 putte Avt't^out-f orpe p?-ofitep ouper litel or ukeration of 

TITI f /-.,-, t -I i t i M.T. the rectum. 

no3t. Wherfor first it byhouep for to wirch wzt/t corro- 
28 siue3 to pe mundifiyng, and afterward vfiih consolidatyue3 
and desiccatiue3, as it is seid afore of pe emoroides hid 
w/tftin pe lure. II Agayn3 ragadias, after maister Eic/tarJ A ferric 

. . . -r. M j * M ointment re- 

in micrologio suo, Recipe one made oi eiren, or one oi rose, commended 

2 et succo 32 & white of ane ey raw, and iuyse of lyuane, 2 & cimbalarie d Richard the 
ana; medle pam togidre & put J>am in. HAgayn3 Englis 
ragadias wit/an be lure be made sich ane oyntment after Anointment 

, . ' invented by 

Gilberts ; Recipe one of rose and oi violeues ana 51.] Gilbert the 

ia i , i T- i , i ii -i Englishman. 

<jo gote3 or schepe3 talow siss. be pai al molten togidre at 
pe fire, and sette pam doune, and movie it continuly \viik 

a " cleuyng " ovcrlincd. 

b " moleyn " overlined. " hony " overlined. 
d " penny worte" ovcrlhied. 


Treatment of Promise of the Rectum. 

[leaf 163, 

Prolapse of 
the rectum, 
treated by 
and a 

of gallic or 
tannic acid. 

Put back 
the pro- 
lapsed bowel 
and kep it 
in place with 
a dressing. 

The remedy 
which cured 
K. Henry of 
this com- 

a spature ; and when it is almost cold putte in pulucr of 
R. tn'asantalorww ss. and medle hem togidre ; it hele)> 
wonderfully. U Also oile of linsede putte in availed agayn^ 
pe forseid sekene} ; it is forsoj) ri^t desiccatyue. 4 

17. A gayn 3 goyng out of pe lure : If vertu and age 
_X~V_ suffre be per fyrst y-done fleobotomy of pe vtter 
sophene of ]>e legge; Afterward be pe?- done suff'umigacion or 
fomewtacion of gaH, or of pe rynde of a grene oke or dry ; 8 
of pe rynde of pome-granate pat is called psidia, and of pe 
flourej of granate fat ar called balaustia ; of pe rote of cam- 
fery decocte in rayne watre. And if it be in somer ]>ise may 
be added to, or ellej by ]>am selfe : verueyne, moleyne, 12 
plantane, gawel, 1 psilliu??i, iuyse of coriandre, berberi?, i.myrr.ha 
porcelane, bursa pastoris, rede rose, tanesey, wormode, 
horsmynt, and sich ope?- stiptikej. UOf pise of which 
pou may haue best make ane hote fomewtyng with rayne 16 
or rynnyrag watre, vinegre added perto ; And after pe 
fomewtyng be sprenkled aboue pulm's of bole, of sanguis 
di&conis, of herte^ home co?wbuste, bark-duste, psidie, 
balaustie, mumme and sich like. H Afterward, if it may 20 
be done on any maner, be pe longaon putte into his place, 
and -be it fast bondyn with warlyne^ 2 pat it go no^t out. 
Also agayn^ goyng out of pe lure be it fomented -with 
watre of decoction of caule^, and after anoynt it Vfith aloe 24 
and vnguentzm vetws broken togidre. U Also agaynj pe 
goyng out of pe iure,chaufe or make hote apostolicon; which 
chaufed, be longaon touched with it, and alsone it schal entre 
agayn. IT If it be nede do it oftymej when it gop out ; 28 
Afterward be it bathed in watre of plantane, of porrej, of 
peritory, or of peritorye 3 alon. With pis medicyne was 
kyng henry of yngloud cured of pe goyng out of pe lure. 

2 ligetnr 
cum cautela. 

3 sed soli us 

[leaf 164] is. T) [A treatise on clysters.] 32 

JL3e a leche wele pz^ruied pat he haue a couenable 4 
instrument for clistryej to be ministred ; pat is pat he haue a 
pipe of tree, namely of box, or of hesel pat availep mych, 
or of salowe, to pe length of 6 ynche^ or 7 with on hole 36 
alon ; ffor old men vsed pipes holed in pe side. Bot witte 
pou for certayne pat, as I haue lered be experience, a pipe 
with one hole availep more, and jettep better in pe 

ment on the 
clyster pipe ; 

Arderne's Enema Apparatus. 75 

liquore. H Afterward haue he a swynej bledder, or a 
netej bledder, no^t blowne to myche, which pou schalt 
preparate pus for to be kept. Take pe forseid swynej or his appara- 

4 netej bladder when it is dry, and putte perin a sponeful of ^genemkVa. 
comon salt, of water als mych, of hony als mych as of 
watre ; latte Jam be dissolued togidre in pe bledder by 
tuo daies naturale, And euery day tuyes or pries be pe 

8 bledder twrned or shaken about, pat it may be wette of 
pe liquore on euery side. Afterward be pat putte out 
tat is pe?'-in, and be J>e bledder blowne, and be be His method 

/ of preparing 

mouth bonden pat pe wynde go no^t out, and hyng it in the bladder. 

1 2 ane vmbrose l place vnto pat per be had nede per-of . 
jjis p?-eparacion, forsop, kepep pe bledder fro corrupcion 
long tyme, And fro fretyng of wormej, and makep pe 
bladder strong and able to pe vse of the forseid werk. 

16 U Be pe clistrye made ber after my mane?-, for it is lilt bot The simpler 

the enema 

no^t lesse effectuale. Many pings bene profitable to pe the better, 
confeccion of clisteries, if pe lech mijt haue a) redy. Bot 
oft-tyme pe leche may no^t fynde in euery place al ping} 

20 necessary to hym ; perfor it schal no$t vnworschip 2 a lech 
for to spede profitably vrith fewer pings and lijter. Old 
lechej, forsop, ordeyned costiuows 3 clystryej, greuows and 
lijt, and pai putte in cassiam fistulam, mirobalan), rerepigre 

24 and oper laxatiue^ ; which clisteriej, forsop, after pair 
receyuyng, made pe paciente} more cowstipate, i.[e.] en- 
costyued, pan pai war before ; And perfor long tyme} and 
oft tymej I haue proued and bene experte a Ii3ter mauer 

28 of clystrying and more effectuoMS, as wele in childre and 
wymrnen as in men, als wele in $ong men as in olde men ; 
And in diuerse case} as in wounded men, constipate 4 men, 
and febrows men, and in colica & yliaca. And I spedde 

32 effectuowsly wit/i sich a clistre pat is per made. U 'Recipe Prescription 
malue} comon and grene camamille, or drye if pou may si, r n pie ery 
haue it, and brisse pam a litel, and sethe pam in watre eneina - 
vnto pe watre become grene ; pan tak whete branne als 

36 myche as sufficep, and putte it to pe forseid herbis and 
boile it a litel ; afterward cole it, and to pe colyng adde to 
ane handful of salt and clene hony or oile ; and be al wele 

1 " schadowye " overlined. z " ne schame " overlined. 

3 " i. of gret cost " overlined. 4 " costyue " overlined. 


Useful Ingredients for Clysters. 

Salt and 
water are 
enough for 
an enema. 


useful in 

Herbs to be 
used in 

and salt in 

require skill. 

better than 
those of the 
Lombards in 

resolued, mouyng it vfith a spature or w/t/t pi hande ; pis 
confection, forsop, may be kept by a fourtni^t if it be 
nede. IT If maluej, forsop, or camamille may nojt be 
hadde, vrith water & branne and salt wit7out any olper 
ping pe forseid nede schaH be sped wele yno^ for certayn. 
ffor whi ; for certayne if a lech wanted aH o]>er ping}, 
vrith water alon & salt boiled togidre and 3ette in by a 
clistrye bn'ngep out sqwiballej. 

Bot witte pou fat pise bene necessary to pe confeccion 
of clistrie^, fat is to sey, Hony, oile, batter, salt, swynej 
grese, sope white and blak, oile of camamiH, oile of rwe, 
& oile of malue^, sanguis veneris, &c. Of which forseid 
white sope may euer more be necessary to a leche, for it 
y-putte in pe forseid decoccione and ]>er schaken wele 
\vith pe hande mych strength ej) }>e clistrye ; and pis may 
euer more be had redy. Also hony when it may be hadde 
dope grete help in euery clistery. IT jjise bene herbe} 
necessary to )>e werk of clistry, scilicet Violette, malue^, 
camamiH, mercuriah's, watercresse, caule lefe^, peritorie, 
&c. Of which som wirchep mollifying, as malue^ ; some 
dissoluyng, as camamiH, peritorie, and ope/*. Bot wytte 
j?ou pat in clistrying pe leche owe for to augmente and 
lessen J>e p?-oporcion of salt afte?- pat pe vertu of pe pacient 
may thole, i.[e.] suffre, for pe tendernes of longaon, and 
after pat he sepe pe pacient strong, softe or hard for to 
avoiden. ffor grete quantite of salt makep sone pe clistery 
for to haste to pe goyng out, And mene quantite bryngep 
no^t out so sone. Jjerfor be pe lech waker in pis pat he 
be no^t negligent ne fole-hardy in his wirchyng. ffor it is 
werk of a perfite maistrye. ffor pe which I haue geten ane 
hundrep tyme^ grete honour with lucre in diuerse place^. 
ffor whi ; at london when lumbardej of-tyme3 ministred 
clisteriej on pair maner to colic men and ope/ 1 men con- 
stipate,* ne my^t no^t availe, J I, forsop, \viih pe forseid 
maner of clistriyng, at pe first tyme wit/iin pe space of a 
forlong or of tuo, I deliuered pe pacient for certayne, our 
lord beyng mene. U When pou wilt forsop giffe a clistre, 
Tak of pe forseid decoccion half a quart at pe moste and 
putte it in pe bladder, and putte pe gretter ende of pe 
a " encostiued " orerlined. 







1 Ego cum 
ijandi primo 
vice infra 
OD unius stadii 
vel duorum 
deo medi- 
ante, de- 
liveravi pro 
[Sloane 56, 
leaf 24.] 


On Clysters. 77 

pipe into pe bladder, and bynde it faste ; and anoynte pe 
forper end of pe pipe with fresch swynej grese, or with 
butter, or with popilion, or with comon oile, or with hony. 
4 And putte in pi fynger, anoynted first with some of ]>e Directions 
forseid ]>ings, into pe lure ; And alsone putte in pe pipe of ciysTer." 8 ' 
pe clistre into pe lure. And pan ow pe leche for to presse 
pe bladder with pe liquore atuix his honde^ and $ette in 
8 pe liquore. And if he fynde as it war ane obstacle in 36 
wombe lettyng pe entryng of pe liquore, as it oftymej 
fallej, fan draw agayne a litel pe pipe, and he schal fele 
pe liquore entre, and pan jette in al pe liquore ; which 
12 y-^ette in, make he pe pacient for to lye grouelyng aboue 
his bedde, and frote & robbe his wombe vpon pe nauyl 
with his owne hand or with anoper marme^ ; *And enforce [* leaf 165] 
he hymself als long as he may for to wit/ihold pe clisterye, The use of 

J ' clysters in 

16 And when he may no longer hold it, go he to a sege diagnosis, 
made redy with a basyne standyng vnder-nepe and per do 
his nede^. And se pe lech pe egestions, wheper it be blode 
or putride flemme &c, or wormes or sqwiballe^ indurate, 

20 or wheper colre go out or quiter &c. And pus may pe 
leche be certified what is to do in euery cure. IF Ouer 
pat pis is namely to be written, pat when pe lech ministrep Tne use of 
clistery to any man, pat in $ettyng in pe liquore with pe prognosis! 

24 clistery pe liquor alsone stirt out vpon pe hande^ of pe 
leche, so pat pe pacient may no$t withhold it ne receyue 
it ; and pat dure 2 daies or 3, for certayne sich a pacient 
is disposed to pe dep without dout, pat is if pe liquor 

28 Betted in be no3t oue?- scharp of pe salt, jjerfor be pe 
leche circu?uspecte, 1 for ful seldom haue I sene pis reule 
faile for certayn, hot neperlesse it holdep no^t cue?-, pat is 
if pe sekene} go agayne to wele-fare. 2 IT Also it is to 

32 witte pat when pe leche hape wele clensed, bi pe clistery, pe 
wombe of fece$ and ope?' superfluite^ seid afore, pan pro- 
fitep it mych for to jette in a clistery made of decoccione 
of malue^, if it may be hadde, and of branne and of butter 

36 & oile or swynej grece. If malue}, forsop, may nojt be A soothing 
had, pan be it made only of decoccion of branne and of clyster< 
pe toper seid aboue, and be it 3etted in by pe clistery. 

1 " biholdyng aboute hym " overlined. 
2 " or myjtynes " overlincd. 


The rationale of Clysters and their action. 

The use of 
clysters in 


clysters act. 

[* leaf 165, 

enemata re- 

may be given 
and to pre- 
vent illness. 

Be J)is clistery forsojje made wz't/iout any salt, And pan 
owe pe pacient for to wit/ihold it strongly by al a ni}t and 
longer. And pis schaH conforte pe bowelle} and schal molli- 
tien pam, and schal kepe pam fro constreynyng vnto pai 4 
be filled wiih new fece}. Elle}, forsop, of pe voidene} of 
be bowelle} fie bowelle} schuld be constipate, as I haue oft 
tyme sene. U It is to witte pat in curacione of pe colic 
no medicyne so sone helpep as clistery ; ffor why ; pis 8 
bryngep out hard sqraballe} of what euery cause pai be 
witftholden, And it avoidep soueranly ventosene}, and 
wonderfully puttep out viscose tiemne & putrified. Wher- 
for I haue oft-tyme} cured many paciente} with clistery 12 
without any oper medicyne, And oft-tyme} within 3 houre}. 
And per for it spedep for to wirk first \viih a clistre in 
colic & yliaca passions ; ffor pe lower bowelle} avoided of 
pair superfluite}, pe ouer bowelle^ may more li^tly putte 16 
out fro pam pair superfluite^ to pe lawer bowellej. U As 
auicen seip, al pe bowellej of a rnawnes wombe ar con- 
tinued with venis miseraicis, out-take longaon, for longaon 
is no^t continued to pam. Wherfor pe lyuer may drawc 20 
to hym fro ouer bowett somwhat, And by pis is it 
schewed pat if ane hole man bi any case be distitute 
of appetite of * mete and drynk, pat he may no mane? 1 
ete, pat by pe infusion into pe lure by a clistrye of any 24 
norischyng liquore, as of any potage or mylke of almande} 
or sich oper, pe lyuer mygth draw perof to hymself and 
so norisch pe body. U Jjerfor witte pou pat clisterie^ no^t 
only availep to seke men and constipate, as of pe colic or 28 
of sich oper, bot it availep to al men beyng in pe febre}, 
als wele acue^ as crenic, i.[e.] long tyme lastyng, And to 
eue?*y inflacion of pe wombe, and to ventosite of it, and 
torcions, i.[e.] gryndyng. And som-tyme it availep mych 32 
in som fluxe^ of pe wombe ; And for certayn it availep 
mich to hole men, constipate and no^t constipate, if pai 
be purged twyse at lest or 3 or four tyme} in a jere witft pe 
forseid clisterie} ; pat is tuyse in wynter, and in vere as it 36 
war after lentyn one}, in somer one}, or ofter tyme if nede 
be. U ffor why ; pe benefiteof it may no man nouwbre ; 
ffor as it helpep fair in necessite, so it p?-eseruep pam pat vsep 
it fro harme & necessite : be it perfor had in reuerence. 40 

Of Atramentum or Vitriol. 79 

atramente^, i.[e.J of vitriole}, bene many 
kynde} ; And pat is better pat is more grene and pat is 
founden in pe yle of Crete a ; and it is called comonly dra- ^t" 01 - 
sp'ecfes, 4 gante, bot 11031 dragagante, 1 ffor dragagant is a white guwme 
and clere like vnto gimme arabic. Also per is a spice of 
vitriol pat is called vitriolum romanu??i, i.fe.1 coporose ; The 

2 . t ' varieties. 

viridioris And it is or 3alow colowr in reward of 2 pe grenner vitriol. 

8 And per is one of white, colour bot no}t schynyng, and 
pat is seid to availe to pe cure} of ei3en. Vitriol is hote b 
and drye c in pe 4 degre after platear, 3 And per ar 4 The different 
maners perof : Indicum, pat is foureden in ynde, and pat 
1 2 is white ; Arabicum pat is founden in arabye, and pat is 
}elow ; And ciprinura pat is founden in Cipre, and pat 
is grene ; And romanu? pat is coprose, pat is more grene 
is competent to medicyne. It hape strenght of dissoluyng, Uses - 
16 consumyng, fretyng. d It may be kepte by 10 3ere effect- 
ualy. Also vitriol combuste be itself or \\ith salt com- 
buste vputte vpon a venemyd wonde drawep pe venym 
* sb inferius fro bynep vnto aboue. 4 Also puluer of vitriol combuste A styptic 
20 streynep blode in euery place if it be putte by itself or 
vfith iuyse of any herbe streynyng blode, as of rede 
netle, or bursa pastoris, or moleyne, or walwort. Also it 
is seid to availe agayns polipe in pe nose if it be putte for nasal 
24 into pe nose -with a tente of coton and melle rosette medled 

\vith }olk of an ey ; it fretep superflue flesch, and putte and for 
into a fistule mortifiep it. And also it y-medled vfiih p 
B uicera diaquilon or apostolicon and y-put vpon fraudulent vlcere} 5 

[lentaj. 28 in dry membre}, it curep pam meruelously in drawyng, 

and mortifiep pam and fretep pam. Also if vitriol be Burnt 

. , , . , . vitriol less 

combust it is lesse mordicatyue, but his dryne} is not caustic, 
lessened, fforsop al spice} of vitriol bene scharp after 
32 lesse and more, and pai haue pair scharpne} in pair super- 
ficite ; And when pai ar combuste pai bene exsiccatyue 
w/t/iout grete mordicacion, and so in exsiccand pai gendre 
flesch, and most in drye me??ibris and bodiej. ffor why : Vitriol in 

the strong 

36 Vitriol v-put to diuerse membris or diuerse membris 6 it is and healthy 


sene to haue diuerse effecte In dry bodies, for as coloric wounds and 

velmembr:s. stimulates 

a " or cipre " overlined. b " caliches " overlined. heal; 

e " siccits " overlined. d " corrodyng " overlined. 


Damascene's Vitriol Plaster. 

in the weak 
and feeble 
it increases 
the dis- 

Why vitriol 
acts in such 



Tlie uses of 
this oint- 
ment ; 

and nialencoliows ; And also putte in dry membre} when 
it fyndep strong membre} agaynstayndyng to his strenght, 
pan may he no}t bot dry superfluite} y-founden in vlcere} 
or in wonde} ; which forsop y-dried, nature genderep flesch. 4 
In moist bodie}, forsope, as in fleumatike men and childre 
and wywmen, and in moiste membre} of pe bodie, pe 
membre} bene feble and may no}t wi't^stande to pe strength 
of pe vitriol ; and so pai suffre liquefaccion of it, and so 8 
putrefaccion is augmented in pe wonde. And as it wirkep 
pus in diuerse bodie}, so wirkep it in diuerse complexions 
and diuerse membris. And it dope no}t pus for con- 
trariowste of operacion pat it hape in itself, bot for 12 
contrariowste of complexions to which it is y-putte ; As 
fire dop diuersely in dyue?'se pings, ffor whi ; lede or 
oper metalle as bras and siluer y-put to pe fire ar molten 
of pe fire ; tyle, stone}, and erpen potte} y-putte to pe fire 16 
ar hardened ; and pise be no}t done for pat pe fire hape 
contrariows wirkyng in hymself, bot for contrarioi^ste of 
nature of pe forsc'id ping}. *Wherfor seip galiene, if per 
be tuo pings euen in helpe, and pe tone be in a dry 20 
membre and pe toper in a moiste, pat pat is in pe dry 
membre nedep more dry medycyne. Emplastre}, forsop, 
pat ar putte to membre} owen to be of o kynd to pe 
membrys, after lonn Damascene : Tak of vitriol als 24 
mych as ]>ou wilt, i.[e.] 2 vnce} or 3 or 4, and putte 
in ane erpen potte whos moupe be wele stopped \viih clay 
distemperate \viih horse dong, pat is called lutum sapien, 1 
and sette it to dry; pe which y-dried, sette* pe potte vtith 28 
pe vitriol among cole}, and make a softe fire by one houre ; 
And after ane houre make it stronger, and blow strongly 
wiih belowe} 2 houre}, and after lette in pece vnto pat pe 
fire defaile by itself. And pe potte y-colded, be it opned, 32 
and pou schalt fynde attrament, i.[e.] vitriol, of rede 
colowr cleuyng to pe side} of pe potte ; whiche remoued 
fro pe potte, be it poudred subtily vpon a stone, and putte 
it in a strong leper bagge and kepe it to pine vse. By sich 36 
combustion is his natural hete alterate and so it is colded, 
and so his mordicacion is dulled ; wherfor it may restreyne 
blode in nose} and wounde} and lure and marice. Also it 
a "birye " overlived. 


CUIH timo 

vero lutum 

Alum and its Uses. 81 

availe]) agayne} be cancre and agayn^ venemows apostemej 
i contra and fraudulente} l ; And to tebe or gome} freten or gnawen 

venen^sa et medled vfith symple hony, or bette?' vrith melle rosate; Or 


hony be soben to be pikne} of hony, and be medled with wi * h Hcium, 
puluer of vitriol and putte vnto be gome} ; ffor whi ; 
luyse of caprifoile bat is called liciuw availeb bi itself to 
8 al be vice} of be moube. Also vitriol y-medled witJi hony 
and liciim putte per-in helpeb to vlcere} of ere}, and to 
pe quitowr of pam and fretyng. Also vitriol combuste 
when it is medled with puluer of hermodactile} and putte 
12 vnder-neb be tung it helpeb to be ranule. a Ane oyntment Anoint- 

J inent against 

pat availeb to cancrose vlcere j. and to wondej, and to plague 


aposteme}, of which nowep out blode, and to yuel car- 
buncle} pat ar called pestilenciale}, and to aposteme} bat 
16 ar made of yuel mater, is made \us : Recipe of old swyne 

2 adipis grese 2 iii, vitriol giiii. Be be grese molten oner be fire & 

porci vetus- 

tissimi. be it coled, and breke long tyme be vitriol with one in a 

brazen morter, and afterward medled with pe grese ouer be 
20 fire, and make ane oyntement mych fruyteful. If bou- 
wilt make it in mane?- of one emplastre, putte pe?'-to wax 
and blak pich, for pich habe strenght or vertu of drawyng 
fro partie} bineb to aboue, and be same dope vitriol. 
24 20. 1 lum }ucaryne is called comonly alumglasse. It Alum glass, 
_\_ is hote b and dry c in be 4 degre. It is a 

3 satis veyne of pe erpe y-knowen yno}, 3 bot how mych it is more 
commune, clere & schynyng so mych is it better. It habe strenght of 

28 consumyng and of gretly desickyng. d It availeb vrith hote its uses, 
vinegre agayn} inflacions of pe gome} ; And it availeb in 
medicyne} agayn} be scabbe. Also poudre of it combuste 
profiteb mich bi itself, or y-medled with hony, *in muwdi- [* leaf 107] 

32 fying of li}t cure}. It muwdifieth, forsop, with a stiptikrie}, 4 
stipicitate and in pat bat 5 it is stiptik it is confortatyue of membre}, 
qu"d. C for al stiptik ping} bene repressiue of humoz^-s. ))er is, 

forsope, anoper kynde of alum pat is called alumen scissu??i, Alum 

36 comonly alum plume, and it hape prede} and it may be 
diuided and ryuen in sondre. And it is ri}t gode, and it 
hape pe same vertue} as alum glasse. Alum glasse is 

a " frog " overlincd. b " calidws" overlined. 

c " siccws " overli/ii'il. d " drying " overlined. 


Verdigris and Arsenic. 

The method 
of preparing 
alum glass. 

Alum lotion. 

and its 

Arsenic and 



brvnt bus : Tak a tile stone or a scarbe of a potte, 1 and l Accipe 

unam te- 

putte it in be midde} of brynnyng cole} so bat pe cole} guiam vei 

touch it no^t, and in bat scarbe putte be hole pece of alum, unius oile. 

and alsone it will melt as it war yse, and boile, and after- 4 

ward it wexeb hard ; and in boilyng it will blow and wex 

hi}e in drying and wexing white. And lat it be stille so 

in be fire vnto be blowyng and boilyng vtterly cese, and 

to it be bro}t into ful white cokmr ; be which y-sene, sette 8 

it fro be fire and poudre it ful smal vpon a stone, and in a 

leper bag kepe it to bine vse. Water of alum is made bis : 

Tak a quaratite of it als mich as bou wilt, and breke it at 

be best. 2 to which be added to 8 pa?*tie2 of gode vinegre 12 2 etteratur 


and strong, and so boile bam in a panne at be fire vnto bat 

be half parte of al-togidre be consumed. Afterward 

remoue it fro ]>e fire and cole it ; And bis is called watre 

of alum, which availeb agayn} ychyng of scabbe of salt 16 

flemne. And bis watre muwdifieb in coldand, bot watre 

of sulphur mmzdifieb in hetyng or chaufand. 3 3 valet 

' J _ contraprun- 

21. Viride es i.[e.] vertgre}, is hote a and drye. It is ful tumscabei 
penetratyue and dissolutyue, and it prikkeb and brynneb 20 flemate et 
and melteb, and repressip putrefaccion. Wharfor, after mundificat 
galiene, [cap.] 4 de inge?uo, of wex and oile and vertgrese dando, sed 
may be made anoyntement temperate, ffor whi; verte- sui^huris 
grese is ful mich penetratife,dissolutiue,pungityue,vrityue, 4 24 caiefaci- 
and liquefactyue. And al bise ar repressed and dulled of ^"uritinum. 
wex and oile adde to it ; for sipe wax and oile moisteb ri}t 

mich and gendrep putrefaccion, pai dulle be scharpne} of 
vertgrese, And vertgrese repressep peir putrefaccion and 28 
humeccacion ; wherfor of bise bene made a tempe?*ate 

22. [~ A Irsenic & auripigment bene bope one, bot 
[__/\.J arsenic is no}t so fair as auripigment; neper- 32 

lesse bope haue a 3alow colour, but auripigment is gretter 
and more schynyng, and more disesy for to grynde for his 
predine} ; for in substance he is like vnto plaistre of paris. 
Bot arsenic is as it war puluer in reward of auripigment, 36 
and it is more li}tly broken ; And when it is broken it 
hape as it war vermilion \vithin it, of rede colowr and of 
colour ; which vukurenyng men saip to be realgre, & 
* " calidws " overlined. b "siccus" overlined. 

Arsenic is to be iised locally with caution. 83 

fat is false, ffor whi ; realgre is ane artificial confection Realgar 

...... . . IT, not identical 

i secumium made of alkenenustres 1 bi subhmacion, as arsenic sublimed, with 

modumalki- . , . .. , ,. , Arsenic, 

mistarum id And for certavn bai ar nojt different in operacion in any 

estalkenem- 7 . 

yers. 4 pmg, out-take fat realgre is of rede colowr, and arsenic 

sublimed is of white colowr ; bot neferle^ arsenic entref in 
confeccion of realgre, And forbi realgre is called of som but there is 

nothing in a 

men rede auripigment : of be name} is no stryuyng so bat name. 
8 we vnderstond be bingj. * Auripigment is hote and dry [* leafiev, 

' back] 

in be 4 degre, of whiche bene tuo spice3 as is seid aboue, 
3elow and rede, }elow is more competent to vse of leche}. 
It is forsof dissolutyue, attractyue, and nuwdificatyue, 
12 And it hafe in it a vertue putrefactyue by which 
he putrefief strauwge humoz - s comyng to a wounde, 
or ane vlcere, fat bai may no^t be assimilate, i.[e.] 
liken to membre^, and engendre superfine flesch or dede 
16 flesch. Also it availef in medicyne^ agayn^ be scabbe, be 
tetre and white morfee y-medled wi'tft blak sope. And 
for bat we made mencion of arsenic sublimed, f erfor it is use arsenic 
to witte bat no leche bot if he be more experte in cirurgie w^ti/the 8 * 1 
20 presume for to wirk \vith realgre or arsenic sublimed, ffor Caution ; 
of bam ar bredde many disese^ for fair distemperate 
violence, ffor why ; bai bobe wirk \vith one maner and they are 
violence, and fat more violently fan cautery of fire. And than fire. 
24 if any man ow for to vse ba?w, bam owe to be putte to in 
be lest quantite, for fe vertu of bam aboute fire is be 
vinuseorum vttennoste of streught, 2 and bat is schewed, for be watre of 
fnTiS ? am fateV euerv naetaH, out-tak gold. Witte fou fat 
f rti t u 'uod ^ aur ip^g mew t i s called comonly ortment, 3 whos puluer vsef 
P atet falconerej agayn^ pedicle} a of faire falconBj. Also witte 

f ou fat auripigment is desiccatyue, consumptiue, euapora- 
tyue, eradicatyue, putrefactiue, ruptyue and cauteriatyue. 
32 Also witte fou fat of arsenic sublimed or of realgre, fat Arderne's 
01103 * n a tynie in fe bigynnyng of my prac^ing, when I ence^Fth' 1 
knew no3t fe violence of fam, I putte of fe puluer of fe i^was 
tuo forsayd in f e legge} of tuo men ; f e which, forsof e, you 
36 y-putte in, almost f ei wer wode for ake bi tuo daie3 naturel 

and more ; And fair Iegge3 war bolned out of mesure. Jje he tho ,,g| lt 
frid daie, forsofe, fe place wher fe pulue?* was putte kintcuwo 
appered of ri3t blak colowr, and f e paciente3 war so feble i' auents ; 
a "Use" overlincd. 


Arderne's experience of an Arsenic Dressing. 

his treat- 
ment of 

The tibia 

[* leaf 168] 

and a 




Arderne did 
not notice 
for some 

1 apposui 





2 de 3p in 3 

fat fai war almost dede. ))an I anoynted fair legge} with 
oile of rose or popilion, And I fomented fe leggis in 
hote water for to euapowr yuel humowrs contened in fe 
membre} ; And aboue f e place I putte rawe larde kytted 4 
f inne, 1 with oile of rose. Aboue f e larde putte I ane 
emplastre of fe }olke} of raw egge}, And stuppe} of lyne 
aboue for to hold f e larde. And aboute f e 9 daie fe place 
combuste beganne to dissolue in fe circumference and for 8 
to putte out quiter. And fe place no}t reparate bot fro 
fe frid day to fe frid daye 2 I continued eue?'-more fis cure 
in fe forseid maner, vnto fat al fe mortified flesch -within 
was fully putte out fe which, forsof, putte out, fe bone of 12 
fe legge a appered bare with a wounde ri}t horrible; fe 
which y-sene, I filled fe wonde of stupe} y-kitte smallc, 
and putte fam abouefe naked bone; and I putte in of fe 
}olk of a raw egg wele temperate with sangwine veneris, 16 
and I filled al fe wounde f e?--with ; and so euery day one} 
reparalyng it vnto fe quiter biganne to cese, and fe side} 
of fe wounde byganne for to sonde or conglutinate. And 
witte fou fat when fe side} of fe wounde come to fe 20 
place of fe bone cauteri}ide of fe arsenic, which was 
blakke, *fai mi}t no more grewe, for fe mortified bone 
mi}t no}t receyue nutriment, fat fer mi}t no flesch grew 
vpon it, ne be regendred. ))e which }itte sene, I, sewyng 24 
fe ignorance of fe comon puple, 3 euery day I schoue 4 fe 3 Quoadhuc 
bare bone with instrument p? - eparate fer-to, entendyng uttSuorulgl 
for to gendre flesch vpon fe bare bone. And I putte to r^rali" 8 
regeneratyue} of flesch, fat is to sey liciu?w with mel 28 
rosate, and puluer of aloes, & mastike, and mirre, sarcocoH, 
san. dracoms, and fai profited nofing. Neferle} fe 
schauying euery day continued in fe maner of ydiote}, 
as I seid afore ; a daye, as I schoue f e forseid bone, f e 32 
bare bone vnder fe instrument moued vp and downe; 
fat, forsof, perceyued, I meruailed ouer mesure, neferle} 
I perceyued of fat fat fe schauyng of fe bone p?-0fited 
nofing : fro fan forf e I lef te fat werk, and I putte nofing 36 
elle} in f e wounde bot licium with melle rosate and }olk 
of a raw aye yrnedled togidre, with carped stupe} of lyne, 
and so fro day to day continuyng vnto fe forseid bone, 
a " schine " overlined. 

Licium and its Uses. 85 

flesch growyng vnder-nepe appered hi^er pan pe extremite^ 
of pe woimde, and was made more moueable and more ; 
pe which ysene, I putte pe poynt of a knyfe vnder pe side He removed 
4 of }>e bone and I raised it a litel, and al pe bare bone stirt bone and the 
out, and rede flesch had filled al pe space where )>e bone qtekiy 
laye, and blode went out. Jjat bone, forsope, had in length healed - 
4 ynche^, and 2 in brede ; in pikne^, forsope, it was drawne 
& out almost vnto J>e merewgh of ]>e bone ; And pis was in 
pe schyne bone. After pe seperacion, forsope, of pe bone, 
I cured finaly pe wounde \viih licium and mel rosate and 
raw ^olk of an ey and puluer sine pari. And pe pacient The second 

12 recouered wonderfully his goyng; he was, forsope, a jong similar, 
man. And as it feH on pe tone man, one pe same maner 
felle it of pe toper. And witte pou pat I putte no^t of 
puluer of arsenic in pe legge} of pe forseid men ouer pe 

16 quawtite of a corne of senvey, 1 and neperlesse pe wonde^ 
pat come of pe arsenic passed fully pe lengthe and pe brede 
of a mawne} hande. Jjerfor vnexperte men be wele war therefore use 
fro pe vse of realgre and arsenic sublimed, and namely in the greatest 

20 pe face and pe legge^, and synowy place} and bony, and in 
a marene} 3erde, and in pe lure ; for bot if pai haue grete 
resistence pai wirke ful cruely. 
23. [Ljicium is pe iuyse of caprifoile, pat is called wode- Licium or 

24 bynde, and it growep in wodej and wyndep strongly 'woodbine, 
aboute tree} ; and it hap long floure^, and it berep swete 
rede berie^. Liciu? curep pe canker in pe marice and in 
oper inward membre}, for it hape vertu muwdificatyue, 

28 consolidatyue, and confortatyue, and regeneratyue of flesch 
in a bare bone and in schynne bone} ; and- it hape a vertu 
muwdificatyue of putrefiyng of pe bone. And generaly it its uses, 
availep in al fretyng sekene}, as in cancre, lupe, fistule, 

32 and noli-me-tawgere. And agayne pe cancre in pe moupe 
liciu??i is a principal medicyne, boiled wit7t hony vnto pe 
pikne^ of pe hony. And it may be ]>us made : pe iuyse Various 
schal be pressed out and sette to pe son for to dry vnto tions : 

36 pat it may be puluerijed. And pis pulueri^ed availep to rwder is 
derke eijeri, putte in pe ei^, and forpi is called oculus lucidz^. ty^s, 
*Bot it maybe made profitably oper wyse, availyng to ful [* leafios, 

o -f -i i back] 

cause of cmir<;ie, & pat \us : pe iuyse of caprifoile pressed 
1 "a mosterd sede " overfilled. 


The preparation of Pulvis sine pari. 

the juice 
with honey 
for the 
and for 

It is ex- 
tracted with 
wine instead 
of water, 

and is then 
used for foul 

used it 
on a great 

Pulvis sine 
its con- 

and prepara- 

The reason 
for its name: 

its uses, 

out bi itself, be it boiled with alse mich of clarified hony 
vnto fe wastyng of fe iuyse, and be it kepte vnto vse. 
And fis availef to fe cancre in f e mouf e, and in f e lure, 
and in fe marice, and al cancrose vlcere} and fraudulent} 4 
of legge}. If fe iuyse, forsof , may no}t li}tly be pressed 
out for f e fikne}, als it fallef , oft tyme, fan be f e lefe} 
watred with gode white wyne or rede, and J>an may f e 
iuyse li}tly be pressed out. ffor whi ; witte f ou fat capri- 8 
foile owe no}t to be waschen witli watre afore f e brissyng, 
and moste when fer owe to be made liciura to cure} of f e 
ei}en, Bot if it nede alwaie} to be wette, be it no maner 
done with watre bot with wyne, as it is seid. Also lefe} 12 
of caprifoile brissed by fam-self and with al his substance 
without medlyng of any ofer f ing, putte vpon vlcere} of 
legge} desperate & stynkyng, and puttyng out foule blode, 
and growyng hi}e to mane?' of a cancre, and vnobedient to 16 
any medicyne, curef f am happily and meruelowsly. And 
fis proued I in ]>e legge of a grete man hauyng a pustle, 
In curyng of which al medicyne} defailed ; and with Jus 
was he cured, ffor whi ; f e first tyme fat it was putte to 20 
it dried fe fistule, and did away fe stynkyng and al fe 
yuel accident}, and within a mone]> he was plenarely cured. 
24. [Pluluis sine pari, or french Poudre san} pere, is 
made )ms : Recipe auripigment. pa?*te 1, fat [is] sii; vert- 24 
grese ana, or after som men partes ij ; Of vitriol combuste, 
or no}t combuste, als mich as of bof e f e forseid ; Alum 
}ucarine combust, or no}t combuste, als mych as of al fe 
forseid. Ich on of f ise bi famself be ful subtily grouden 28 
on a stone, fe which wele y-growdeu, be fei eft-sone 
grouden al to-gidre vnto f ai be ri}t wele medled ; and 
putte f am in lef er bag, and kepe to vse : f is may be kepte 
bi a }ere and longer, and fat in gret effecte. Jjis poudre 32 
is seid "wit/tout pere" ffor it hafe no pere in wirchyng ; 
ffor why ; it mortifief and bryngef out dede flesch or 
superfine or putred in al wonde} and vlcere}. And witte 
f ou fat f is puluis bigilef neuer f e paciente ne f e cirurgene, 36 
for it dof not wickedly, ffor whi ; if fe cirurgene bene 
vnkuwnyng and putte fis pulm's in a wonde or in ane 
vlcere no}t hauyng dede flesch, it dof none harme to fe 
wonde or f e vlcere ; bot without any o\>er help it schal 40 

Pulvis sine pari. 87 

at pe best be conglutinatiue, dissiccatyue, and sanatyue of 
pe wonde ; bot nepe?'lesse no^t without mordicacion. ffor, 
for certayne, if pis pulin's war no^t mordicatyue it schuld 
4 in prise passe al medicyne}. )je vse of }>is pulm's is sich ; d method 
when pis pulm's is putte in a woimde or in ane vlcere, be tion. 
per putte to it, without any-piug atuix, cotone or stupe} of 
lyne cutte smalle with schere} ; And pan aboue al pat be 
8 put aboue emplastre Nerbone or anoper, and be it bounden, 
and so latte it be wipout remouyng by two nyghte}. * After [ * leaf 169] 
pis tyme, forsop, when pou remoue} pe emplastre and pe 
coton or pe stupe} putte aboue pe pulm's, If ]>e puhm 

12 putte in go willfully out \fitfi pe dede flesch J)i nede} is 
wele sped. Jjan owe pou for to putte in pe hole of J>e 
vlcere or of )>e wonde a drop or tuo of sanguis veneris, 
with stuppej of lyne or coton, vnto pot J?e hole be eft- 

16 sonej replete wi't/i flesch. And if, forsoj), in J>e first Thtreat- 
remouyng Jje pului's putte in come no3t wilfully out vriih wound with 
J>e mortified flesch, pan ow pe lech for to putte o droppe or 
tuo of sangwis veneris vpon pe pulm's in pe wounde or 

20 pe vlcere, and aboue coton or stuppe} of lyne, as it is seid. 
And aboue al-togidre pe emplastre Nerbone ; and so lat 
it abyde by a naturale day or more after pe estimacion of 
pe discrete leche. And when pe dede flesch gop out of pe 

24 vlcere or of pe wounde, be it reparailed as it was seid afore. 

And to a leche be pis a reule, pat pulm's corrosyue be TWO good 
neuer remoued in a wonde or ane vlcere byfor pat it wille surgeon* 
wilfully go out. Also ]>er is anoper reule in which I haue caustic 

28 sene erre in my tyme almost al men no^t practi^owrs bot remairrtm 
fole^ ; pat is to say of pe ofte remouyng. of wounde} or cast out. 
viceroy. Siche operation, for-sope, spedep no^t, bot lettep $ e " 
couenable effecte of curyng. And pat by pis reson, for JSJ^** 00 

32 natural hete in pe body, which is principal ackwr of 
curyng, expirep 1 out of ofte remeuyng of a wounde or of 
ane vlcere, and so is letted digestion of humoz<rs comyng 
to be wounde or to be vlcere. Wherfor ber may nojt be The results 

, r . L ofneglect- 

36 nade generacion of quitowr and, by sewyng, ne purgyng ing these 
of pe wounde. 'Wherfor superfine humowrs rennyng to pe 
wounde ar gedred togidre and ar holden stil more and 
more ; wherfor pe bolnyng in pe wounde is augmented 

1 "brebeb" overlined. 

88 Various practical points in the treatment of Wounds. 

and, by sewyng, pe ake ; for pe tone is occasion of pe toper. 
Wherfor pe wounde or pe vlcere waxep hard and foule, 
and for pe quitowr pat it owed of ri}t to putte out, it 
sendep out watry humowr & venemoz/s, and so ofte-tyme} 4 
of li}t hurtyng ar made incurable yuele}. Also per is 
anoper errour in ofte remeuyng of wounde} or of vlcere} ; 
ffor as seip philosophre}, aier chaungep pe body and by 
consequens J)e wounde, and pat may be proued by ex- 8 
Amenstru- perience. be breb of a mewstruoM^ woman noyeb vnto 

ating woman 

is noisome wounde} if sche nejen nere : Or of be lech if he haue 

to wounds, . * t . . 

liggen \rith his wife or wt'tft anope/ 1 woman menstruate, or 
and so are jf } ie haue eten garleke or onyons. Bot be bis maner of 1 2 

garlick and J 

onions. wirchyng boldly holden, bat a lech be content only of ane 
Dress a reparacione in J>e day, pat is if he haue )>e medicynej 
a day only, contened in bis boke. ffor when he sebe a wounde or ane 

vlcere wele cast out quitow, and pe bolnyng for to vanysh 16 
away, and J>e akyng for to be cesed, and J?e membre for 
to come agayne to be first habite and colour, helbe is 
at be dore if be pacient be we[le] gouerned, i.[e.] if he 
The value of slepe wele in ni^tes. In slepe, forsob, nature wirkeb 20 
sick man. better aboute digestion of euery mater beyng in be 
body or in be membris. Bot for pat slepe is oftynie 
letted of akyng, berfor bifore al ping} be it laboured 
[* leaf 169, bat be akyng be cessed. *ffor akyng^ afor al o]>er bings 24 

nojt only pressep downe vertue^ of be body but also of be 
soothing ar- medicynej. And pat bins soueranly mitigateb oile of rose 


in hote cause, or oile of camamille in cold cause, for it 
is hote and resolutyue, of which it schal be seid after- 28 
ward. Also ane emplastre of hony and branne and a litil 
vinegre fried togidre mitigatep J euery akyng for certayne. 
And witte pou pat po ping} pat ar putte aboue makep to pe 
closyng-in of natw/'ale hete and excludyng of pe aier. Be 32 
pise ping} seid afore of remeuyng of wounde} and vlcere} 
comended wele to mynde ; And be it done boldly as it is 
Ardeme seid, ffor oftyme} in many case} I was no}t wount for to 

used to dress 

his wo-.mds remoue hot fro pe prid day into be prid day, and bat 36 

every third " ' ' J 

day. namely in hurtyng of pe schyraie} ; and I sped wele, And I 

cured many hard ping} and forsaken of ober men wit/ipis 
pulm's sine pari and ope/' emplastre} y-named. And I 
1 ' ' esep " overlined. 

Pulvis sanguis veneris. 89 

saw neuer in al my tyme pis forseid puluw defaile, out- 
take in pe legge of a gret man in which it mi?t no?t haue 
no strength of wirchyng as it was wont for to haue in 

4 oper; wherfor I was hugely astoned, bot neperle? I heled 
hym wele with grene licium putte pe?-to, our lorde beyng 
mene, as it is seid aboue. 
iT). f A ~|nd for pat many men couaitep for to here 

8 L-J- J name? of oile? and of em piastre? and of oynte- Pulvis san- 

' '' , guis veneris, 

ment?, perfor I haue putte fair name? to pam. One for 
pe rednes and swetne? is called sanguis veneris. Of 
french, forso}>, for ladie? is called sank damowrs or sank de called in 

1 2 pucell, ffor why ; venus was called godde? of luffe. d'amour, or 
Sanguis veneris ow pws to be made : Hecipe pulm's of puceiies. 
alcannet 1. and putte it in a qwart of comon oile, and pe 
oile schal become rede to likne? of blode, wheper it be 

16 boiled at pe fire or no?t, for it may be made on hope 
maners ; and be it kept to vse in ane erjjen potte or a 
pewdre potte. bis mane?- of confeccion of sanguis veneris its mode of 

. preparation : 

is ri?t gode for J>e alkenet pat is cold and drye in J?e first 0) forordin- 

20 or second gre. ffor pis alkenet consume]) humidite? of 
wounde? and of vlcere?, for it is subtiliatyue and resolu- 
tyue wi't/iout mordicacion, and carminatyue & appe?'tyue, 
and exsiccatyue \viih stiptikne?. Wherfor it is gode in 

24 hote aposteme? vfiih litel mater in fe bygynnyng, for it is 
cold and drye and perfor it is repercussyue and exsiccatyue 
of hote aposteme?. Also it helpej) to synues and iuwcture?, 
and vlcere? of pe moupe in drying. And it medled with 

28 vinegre & ynoynted helpep to ]>e akyng of pe heued. San- 
guis veneris helep wele, and purge}), and defende]) fro drede 
depe wounde? made wyth knyfe or arow, and holow vlcere?, 
if it be putte in with stuppe? of lyne, And emplastre 

32 Xerbone putte aboue, And it dope al ping? pat pertenep to 
cure of a wounde or of aposteme, and fat in n fair maner. 

Bot witte pou pat Sanguis veneris may be made on [leaf no 
anoper maner, and pat to noble men, if pe lech may haue (u) for the 

36 in tyme of his confection al pings necessarye vnto his classes. 

confection, pat is to sey pe blode of a maiden virgyne or 

of a maiden damisel about 19 or 20 ?ere, which was neuer 

impregned, 1 pof sche be corrupte; for now in pis tyme? 

1 " with child " ovcrlined. 

90 Unguentum Salus populi. 

virgine} comej) ful seldome to 20 $ere. Which blode ow 
to be drawen out in be ful of be mone, be mone beyng in 

A prescrip- 
tion for vrgme and be sonne beyng in piscibj. Also it bihouejj 

confection be lech haue to bis confection aloes, & mirre, & sangt^'s 4 
venerif!* 13 dr&conis, and pulm's of alkenet. And bus is it made : 
Recipe blode of a maid, as it is seid afore, to be which 
alsone after be drawyng out, or it be cold, niedle pulm's of 
aloes cicotrine, mirre, sangm's dv&conis ana 3! or 2 or 3, 8 
after be quawtite of be blode ; of subtile pulu/s of alkenet 
als niich as of al be tober. And al bise, forsobe, be wele 
medled with be blode in maner of a paste, and afterward 
dry it at be son: when it is drie kepe it to bine vse. 12 
A method of When bou wilt, forsobe, vse be?-of , tak a party of it or al, 
confection and poudre it wele, and sebe it in grene oile of olyuej als 
veneris. mich as sufficeb ; bat is to ane vnce of be forseid confec- 
tion bou ow to putte 2 Ib. of oile, bat is a quart of a galon, 16 
or more if it be nede, and boile bam togidre vnto bat be 
oile appere rede ; which beyng rede, putt it of be fire, 
(sette it of be fire) and kepe it to bine vse. And when it is 
boiled cole it no^t bot lat it abide with be oile, for it will 20 
satle in be grounde, and so it will strengbe be medicyne. 
Anointment 26. F A In oyntment bat is called Salus popli is made 

called Salus /\ 

Popuii. L>m_J bws : Recipe celidon M. ij, ede?'e terrestris ] 

M. i, and brysse bam togidre ; and afte? - ward take hertej 24 
talow or schepej talow or bobe, als mych as sufficeb to be 

The method quantite of be herbe? ; And of oile of olyue als myche als 

ofitsprepar- ^ 

ation, half of be talow ; and boile al with be forseid herbe3 vnto 

bat be herbej go to be grounde of be vessel and be made 28 
blak; afterward cole bam and lat bam cold, and kepe it 
to vse. }5is oyntment is hard, and berfore when it is nede 

how to use to vse it take of it and putte in ane holow oistre schelle 

and melt it aboue cole^, or aboue a brynnyng candel ; And 32 
wher bat nede is anoyte ]>erwith. And witte bou bat it 

and in what ow no^t to be putte in wounde^ or vlcere} bot only about 
bam wit/ioutforbe, bat is if be skynne about be wounde 
be fiaien or skalded of hete, or if it haue many pusche^ 2 36 

u, e a & smale, white or rede or blak ; ban be be skyn first wele 

nrst entat ' 0n fomented with a sponge & hote watre, And after bat it is 

1 "hayhoue, folefote, horshoue" overlined. 
2 ' ' blaynej " overlined. 

Emplaster of Narbonne. 91 

dried be it anoynted with bis anoyntment hote aboue be 
place flaien or pusched, And alsone -without any bing 
atuix : if it be nede in grete case} bou may anoynte it 
4 aboue with vnguento arabico or with comon vnguento 
albo for to kele it more strongly and dry. 

Salus popwli, forsob, dryeb wele and sicatri^eb, and it |jack] ' ' 
availeji at be best to lippej y-brent of J)e sone or chynned its mode of 
8 of be wynde, and to leggej and fete and hande} ; and it 
availeb agayn$ brynnyng of fire, and it quenchef be wild 
fire after be fallyng of be pusche}. )3is oyntment wold I 
neuer wante for many benefetej of it, And witte bou bat 
12 it is best remedi to fain fat habe be emoroides or be fistule 
or ope? 1 sleiyng. 

27. I J\_ Ine emplastre bat is called Nerbone is made bus: TheNerbon 


Recipe diaquilon, and w?'t7i, comon oile or with oleo siriaco 
16 resolue it vp[on] be cole}, and boile it alwaiej with a 

spatulre vnto it bigynne to wex blak. And if bou wil The method 

of prepara- 

haue it ri^t blak boile it langer, and if bou wilt haue tion. 
broune boile it lesse. ffor whi ; by long boilyng it may 

20 be made most blak without medlyng of any ober bing. 
And after bat bou wilt haue it hard or softe be added 
berto, or minusched, oile with which it is resolued. "When 
it hab boiled ynouj sette it fro be fire and late it stande TO stand so 

24 stille without mouyng by be space of a ' pater noster ' & takes one to 
'aue maria,' bat be litarge of be lede bat is in it may noster and 
descende to be grounde ; and alsone be it 3ette out softly 
into anober panne bat be litarge be no^t 3ette out withalt, 

28 and ban moue it wi'tA a spature strongly ynto bat it be 

colded. When, forsob, it is cold bat it may be malaxed. To be made 

into pellets. 

enforme beroi trocistes vpon a table in quantite as it plesep 

be, and kepe it to bine vse. )3is ewiplastre is called 
32 bone, for bof-al it be blak neberlesse it is gode, for it helef 

wele wondej and vlcere3, and it is wele cleuyng to, and it whence its 
mature)) wele apostemej and bresteb barn in any place of 
be body. 

3628. l_\JJleu??i Siriacmn is bws made: Recipe comon siriacoii, 
maluej of gardynej, fatte & f resell, and somewhat brisse 
hem in a morter, And afte?' boile hem long in comon oile 
bot no^t vnto be cowsumyng of be herbe, bat be fatnes of 


Ch'eek Powder and Oil of Hoses. 

and plaister. 


[leaf 171] 

Its prepara- 

and uses. 

Oil of Roses. 

Its prepara- 


fe malue} "be no}t consumed. And if fou wilt make it 
f ikke to mane?' of ane eniplastre, fan ow J>ou for to putte 
with f e oile as war f rid parte of schepe} talow, and boile 
hem togidre as it is seid, and kepe it to vse. 4 

29. Vnguentum arabicum, Tapsimel (in ]je last end of 
emoroide}), Diaflosmos : seke hem in f e tretyse of fe 

30. Pulm's greets is f us made : Recipe auripigment. ci- 8 
trin. piper, nigri, calcis vine, alphice, i.[o.] barlymele ana, 
hony clarified partes iij, vinegre fe ferfe parte ; be pai 
medled with f e forseid poudre} in maner of paste, and be 
per made a kake ferof, and be it baken on a hote tyle 12 
stone ouer f e fire so jjat it be no}t brent bot fat it may 

be wele poudred vpon a stone. And when it bigynne]) 
to wex blak on pe tile-stone be it oftyme turned pat it be 
no}t brent bot fat [it] be perfitely dried. With pis pulm's 16 
haue I cured sich fike} puttyng out blode, & growyng in 
pe palme of a maraie} hand. And if J>ou haue no^t pului's 
greets fou may do fe same in ]>e forseid fings with puluw 
sine pari. And wytte J>ou fat I haue oft tyme sene pulm> 20 
greets for to availe in J>e cancre of a manne,} jerde, and in 
fike^ bredyng fer-aboute. 
31. [~/'~ > V~|il e of rosej is \us made : Recipe roses fat 

LV-^J bene ful spred, and gredre hem erly while^ 24 
fe dew lastef, and clyppe hem with a paire [of] schere3 
in smale pecys and do hem into a glasen vessel, and do 
f erto oile of olyue of f e grenest fat ]>ou may fynde, ana, 
& medle hem wele togidre in f i vessel and stoppe it wele ; 28 
And hete it agayn3 fe son 20 daie^ and fan draw it fur} 
a kanuaj and cast away f e grounde} of f e rose}, And putte 
fat liquow fat comef out into a vessel ajeyn and stoppe 
fe vessel fat \er come none aier out. And ich day in fe 32 
mornyng when f ou schalt hyng out fi potte tak a spature 
of tre and opne fi potte and stirre it wele, and stoppe it 
agayne duryng al f e 20 daies. 

Anof er mane?- [of] makyng, and more colde. Recipe 3(5 
rose} & oile ana, and schred fi roses and putte hem into 
a vessel of glasse with fine oile, and stoppe it wele. And 
hang it into a vessel with watre vp to fe nek duryng tuo 
monefe}, and euer ich day stirre it one} and stoppe it 40 

when roses 
are scarce. 

Oil of Violets. 93 

a^eyn. And after jrat streyne it and do away fi grounde} 
of fe rose}. And fis is more cold fan fe toper. Also it 
is made f us after my mane?- and myne vse. If f cm haue 

4 no}t plente of 10863 take of white roses with f e tendrons 
of fe braunche} als mych as fou wilt, and brisse fam in a 
morter ; fe which y-brissed, putte fam in als mych comon 
oile as f e like)?, and so latte fam rest 9 daies ; afterward 

5 boile fam vpon softe fire vnto f e oile be made grene. })an 
if fou may haue fresch rose} putte fam in ane erf en potte 
or leden, als many as fe likest; and be fe forseid oile 
coled hote }ette aboue and moued togidre with a spature, 

12 And alsone stoppe fe moufe, fat fe vapowr go no}t out. 
And biry fe vessel with ]>e oile in moist erfe, and euery 
ofer day be fer jetted cold watre about fe potte. And 
be it Jms done 40 daies or more, & fis maner confection 

16 schal be most noble oile roset. And \us ow it to stonde 
al J>e hole }ere. 

32. Oile of violette} may be made in J>e same maner. [leafm, 
Bot witte ]>on fat oile of violettes is laxatiue and oile of o ^ of 

20 rose constrictiue. ffor why; if oile of violett} with euen Vlolets - 
porcion of iuyse of Mercurial * be petted in by a clistery in 
continuel acuej or interpolate, it remollej? softely fe bowelej 
and puttej) out fe supej'fluite^. Oile of violet ha]?e aspecte its uses. 

24 to membre} fat bene dried by any infirmite. It abate]) 
bolnyng} wher fat euer f ai be ; And it softnef f e aspe?'ite 2 
of f e brest and of f e long, and it cesef pleuresy and hote 
aposteme}. And witte f ou fat fer is tuo manerej of oile on roset, 

28 roset, complete and rude. Complete is made of ripe oile 
and of ful rose} ripe. Rude is made of vnripe oile and 
of rose} fat hafe [not?] fully opned fair buddej. Oile 
roset complete is resolutiue, confortatyue, and con- 

32 ueniently cedatyne 3 of akyng. Rude forsof e is extinctyue 
of inflammacions, confortatyue, aggregatyue, inspissatyue, 
p?'ohibityue of curse} of humours. Oile of roses is special how it acts, 
remedy agayns brennyng and hote aposteme}, wher fat 

36 euer fai be in fe body, ffor whi ; in ane or tuo putty ngs 
to it mitigatef fe akyng, it dullef fe furiosite and fe 
scharpne} of f e mater ; It makef f e place for to vnbolne, 4 

1 " smerwort " overlined. 2 "scharpnej" ovcrlincd. 

3 " cesyng " overlined. * " swage " overlined. 


Oil of Camomile. 

It should 
always be 
kept in 

of Oil of 

when the 
flowers are 

[* leaf 172] 

Its uses. 

and it remeuef fe rede colour. ffor-sofe it swagef and 
softenef f e brennyng & f e prikky?zg, f e smertyng and }>e 
akyng, And it comfortef f e membres bof in hote causes 
and in cold ; ifor after auctowrs, Oile roset coldef ane hote 4 
membre and hetej) a cold mewbre. And it dof many o]>er 
profitej in pe body, And f erfor a gode lech pzmiey hym fat 
he want neuer oile rosette, syf e f er procedef so many help- 
yng3 of it to maraie^ body, ffor why ; after galien, to euery 8 
akyng hote oile rosette is mitigatyue, as it is seid afore. 
33. r/^\~]il e f camamille is \us made : "Recipe cama- 
LV_y J mille grene and fresch, and brisse it som- 
what in a morter. After boile it \vith a softe fire in 12 
comon oile als mych as suffice)). And putte a litel watre 
in f e oile fat f e herbe in seeing be no^t brent ; and boile 
it vnto f e herbe^ go doune to f e grounde and bigynne to 
be blak. Which y-done, take flowrs of camamille, if fou 16 
may haue fam, and putte fam in ane erf en potte; And 
jette J?e forseid oile coled, als hote as it may, aboue J>e 
floure^, and alsone couer fe moufe of fe potte with par- 
ch emyne and sette it ire a saue place, fforsofe if J>ou may 20 
[not?] haue flows of camamille in tyme of Ji confeccion, 
fan in-stede of floure3 tak M.i of f e tendre brauwche^ of 
camamille and putte J>am wit7i-out any brissyng in a potte, 
and putte oile ri^t hote vpon fam, as it is seid afore. 24 
*And afterward when fou may haue flowrs of camamille, 
take fe forseid oile with fe brairache^ of camamille and 
boile fani eftsone^ vpon fe fire ; and as it is seid afore, 
putte to a litel watre or elle3 a litel vinegre, fat is better, 28 
fat fe oile may be more penetratyue, and boile it vnto fe 
wastyng of f e watre or of f e vinegre ; and fat is knowen 
by boiling of f e oile made wit7i noyse ; fan cole it, and 
^ette it ri3t hote vpon fe floure3 as it was seid. Oile of 32 
camamille is temperate, and it is a blissyd fing of many 
helpyngs, and it is a comienient resolutyue, and of akyng 
sedatyue, and it is prohibytyue of curse3 of humours for a 
litel stiptikne3 in it. It comfortef synowe} and al synuy 36 
membrye3 ; It helpef to f e akyng of f e heued, And gener- 
aly it availef to al akyng, and it is conuenient to al com- 
plexions, and it is ri3t subtile. And als mych as it 
dissoluef so mych consumef it. 40 

Oil of Mastick and Oil of Almonds. 95 

34. r/^V~|ile of masticMS is made \>tis : ~Recipe Masticws on of 

I I Mastick. 

LVy'J 3 1, thun's albi alexandrie 5 \ ; be pai pou- itsprepara- 

dred & decocte in 1 Ib. of oile of rose or of almande} or 

4 of note} ; and when it is cocte yno}, cole it and kepe it to 

vse. )?is oile helpep to euery akyng, of pe stomak, of pe 

Juncture}, of pe schuldre}, anoynted agayne} pe fire, and 

to akyng} of pe lyuer and of pe splene, putte to hote with 

8 lana succida. It comfortep vertu assimilatyue in a 

mewbre febled ; wherfor it helpejj to men in pe ethic, in 

pe ptisik, and disposed to pe lepre and to pe morfee, and to 

old men and consumed. And anoynted it moistej) pe its uses. 

1 2 skynne, and reuokep and restorep pe flesch consumed, and 
confortep pe stomak and make)? it to diffy in cold cause ; 
it repressep pe abhominaciones of }>e stomak, it giffep 
appetite, it scharpep pe mynde, It consume]) al cold 

16 passions, It availej? to hole men and to seke in al 

necessitej. When fou wilt make fis oile agayn} J)e vices Things to be 

,. ,, i-i-j7M- i-i added when 

of J)e stomak, pan may pou make it wtt/i oile in which ar it is used as 
sopen som pings pertenyng to corafortyng of pe stomak, as 
20 wormode, Mynt, Macw, galinga, & sich oper, And so schal 
it better spede. 

35. r/^\~]il e f almande} is made ]>us : T&ecipe amigdal. on of 

dula's, old & no}t new, Ib. |, and tak of pe fts prepa'ra- 
24 skynne} vfith hate watre ; afterward brisse pam lang & tlon- 
wele wz'tAout medlyng of any oper ping ; which y-brissed, 
be pai putte in a new strong bagge of lynne elope, and 
hyng pat bag ouer pe caldron or oner a potte ful of boilyng 
28 water, so pat pe bagge touch no}t pe watre hot pat only it 
receyue pe fume of pe boilyng watre. Afterward presse 
pe bag strongly and receyfe pe oile pat comep out * and t* leaf 172, 
kepe it to pine vse. Bot witte pou pat pis oile may no}t 
32 long endure. It availep mych agayne brynnyng of vryne its uses. 
wz't/an in pe }erd, If it be cast in wyp a syryng, And 
agayns oper brennyng} also. 

36. p\^\7~~] atre f almande} is made ]pus : 'Recipe Almond 
36 L J almandes dulces clensed of pair skynne} 
and dryed, and brisse pam in a morter without medlyng 
of any oper liquowr ; And after distille pam as pou dis- 
tillep rose watre. Jpis availep agayn} brennyng of pe 


Ointment of Juniper and a good plaister for the Gout. 

Oil of 
liow dis- 

Its uses. 

Ointment of 

Its prepara- 

and uses. 

A good 
plaister for 
the gout. 

Its prepara- 

[* leaf 173] 

So good that 
it should 
only be 
shown to 
one's son. 

sonne in pe face, And also agayn} bryraiywg in a niannej 
}erd, put in by a siryng. 

37. r/^V~]il e f lunipre is made ]>us : Hecipe a new 
LV^' J erpen potte, and putte it into pe erpe euen to 4 

pe moupe ; fan tak anoper erpen potte whos bothme may 
be receyfed wz't/dn pe moupe of pe potte fat standep in pe 
erpe ; And putte ane holowe canel of yren pur} pe bothme 
of pe ouer potte into JJG neper potte pat standep wit// in pe 8 
erpe ; pan tak dry stikke} of luniperi and kutte pain 
smal and putte pam into pe ouer potte, and J>an lute pe 
moupe} of bope pottes wi't/i clay medled -with horsdong. 
And make a fire al aboute pe ouermore potte, And pan 12 
scha[l] oile distille pur} ]>e canel into ]>e lawer potte, pe 
which kepe for pin vse, for it is f ul noble for akyng. It is 
gode for al maner goute and for ]>e parallesy. 

38. f A llso ane enoyntnient made of it to wonde^ 16 
L-^-J ]>at vnne]) bene curable and long tyme 

haue bene in )>e bone^ : Hecipe fruyte of lunipe?! & 
fresch lard of a male swyne and brisse pam togidre ; 
Afterward take 3 paries of ri^t strong white wyne and 20 
se]>e J>e forseid pingj in it, arid when it is pikke sette 
doune fro pe fire. And putte perof to pe forseid sore^ 
<fe wondej. It purge]>, it iillejj, it helej) & it cicatrize)). 

39. f A ~] gode emplastre for J?e goute : Ttecipe blak sope 24 
L-^*-J als mich as suffice)), to which putte als mych 

of raw ^olke^ of eyren as is half of ]>e sope, and medle 
f>am strongly in a dish or in a box vnto pat pe sope lefe 
his owne colowr ; pe which y-done, putte it with pi fynger 28 
or wit/i a spature vpon subtile stupe^ of lyne and applie it 
faste vnto pe akyng place. Aboue pis emplast?-e, forsope, 
putte a strictorie of white of eiren and mele of whete and 
lynnen cloutej y-dipped perin, and putte it fast & applie 32 
it aboue pe forseid emplaster pat it be no^t remoued byfore 
dew tyme, bot if any competent cause aske it. Jpis niedy- 
cyne is li^t *but nojt litel effectual, pat haue I proued 
ofttyme}, als wele in wymen as in men; pat -with one} 36 
puttyng to it cesep ful grete akyng} als wele in pe knee} 
as in pe fete and in ope?- ioynture} ; bot be-war pat it be 
no^t perceyued of pe pacient ne of none oper; hold it 
pryue and chere, and schew it nojt bot to pi son or ane 40 

Walwort and a Valence of Scabious. 97 

als wele biluffed. I trow, forsop, pat it availep bifor al 
oper medicyne} to pe goute, and more sane abate)) pe 
akyng. And it o\v 5 daie$ or 6 to lye stille without 
4 remeuyng if it may so bene applied. 

40. [ \Vjalwort J is ane lierbe like vnto elfdlre in lefej and Waiwort 

and its 

fruyte. In odow it is su??^what greuo?ts and stynkyng. virtues. 
In tast it is as war bitter, bot in vertu anence old men it 
8 is deemed expert and effectuale, and kynde & free to 
medicyne in many vsej ; witnesse pliniws, diascoride}, Th * uses of 
macrobu} and many oper, wlios rote}, rynde}, and branche} 
and leue} and flourej bene profitable in medicyne}. It 

12 hape vertu of dissoluyng, consumyng of gret flemme and 
viscose wit/t pe iuyse of it. It availep agayn} J)e gutte of 
pe ioynture} and contraccion of synue} of pe lieude & of 
pe fete. It availep also agayn} bolnyng} and collections 

16 intercutanie} wher-so-euer ]>ai bene gedred in j?e body. 
Also it availep most agayn^ brissyngs of membre^ and 
fallej, if ]>e membre} be fomented in his decoctions, ffor 
why ; it mitigate]) J> e akyng, it cesej) J>e bolnyng, it minis- 

20 trefi vertue and strength to synowej and to ioynture^. It 
availej) agayne} bolnyng of J)e womb of cold y-dropisy, if 
his Iuyse be dronken with hony and comyne. And witte 
)>0u J)at ))e Iuyse of walwort, or J?e poudre of it if it be 

24 hadde redy, is namely in euery medicyne pat is restrictyue 
of blode. }?e mane?- of makyng and kepyng of it is as j>e 
maner of licium seid afore. 

41. Valence of scabiows or of lacee albe is \>us made: A valence of 
28 J&ecipe Iuyse of scabiows in somer, and cole it Jmr^ a elope; its prepara- 

and tak swyne3 grese clensed of pe skynnej and stamp it 
wele in a morter in smytyng it bot no^t in brekyng 
vtterly ; and eue?-more putte in a litel of pe iuyse to pe 

32 grese pat it may wele be imbibed and pat pe talow may 
be made grene ; pe which y-doue, tak pat grese and couer 
it \vith pe forseid iuyse and so late it stand 9 daie}. And 
after 9 daie^ take eftsoue pe forseid grese wrtA pe iuyse 

36 and stamp it as afore, and putte out pat pinne watryne^ 
and discolored pat gop out perof, and so lat it stande 5 
daie}. * After pe 5 day el'tsone tak new Iuyse of scabiows [ itnf m, 
and stamp it, as it is seid, vfith pe forseid grese ; pe which 

1 " ebulus " overlined. 


Valences of Scabious and Absinthe. 

Its uses. 

Whence its 

y-doiie, latte it rest in a vessel with pe iuyse al a fourt- 
ny^t ; which tyme oue?-passed, eftsone} bete it as it is seid 
afore, and purge it of pe watrmej, and putte it in a clene 
vessel, and lat it stand stil anoper fourtni^t, And pan 4 
brisse it wele vnto pat it be al of grene colowr. And whan 
pe nedep for to vse perof, as vnto pe autrax, putte perof 
with pi fynger vpon clene stuppej of lyne, and strech it 
and lay it on pe antrax anoynted with oile of rose, and 8 
remeued it no^t by a nature! day. ffor wMout dout it 
schal slee pe antrax and swage pe akyng, and brist it and 
vtterly cure it. And pis medyc[iii]e is called Valence of 
scabiows for pe valow of it. It may be kepte many ^erej, 12 
bot it is better if it be euery ^ere renewed and bette newly 
with oile noses, and putte vp agayne vnto it nede. And 
witte pou pat scabiozts y-dronken sleep pe antrax, and 
putte)) away pe venym of it fro pe hert pat it sle no^t pe 16 
pacieut. Also pe same herbe ydronken t?^rnep inward 
aposteme3 to outward and puttep pam out insensibily. 
Also witte pou pat new scabiows & fresch y-brissed with 
swynes grese and putte vpon antrax sleep it in a day 20 
naturel, and takep away pe akyng for certayne. Bot for 
pat scabiows may no^t euennore be had redy & fresch, \ar- 
for was pis medicyne made pat may long be kept, ]>at 
wonderfully sleep pe antrax and vtterly curep it, as I haue 24 
proued myself ane hundrep tymej. Also witte pou pat 
lacea alba is scabious, bot lacea nigra is matfelon. And 
witte POM pat pat scabious pat growep among corne^ \vith 
ane heuenly fiour is better pan pat pat growep in mydowej 28 
pat hap no &our. After diascorides trowe pou to pis pat 
it hape no pere to pe forseid ping} wonderfully to be 
done, and pat softely. I haue proued it a hundrep tymej 
for certayne. 32 

A valence of 42. Valence of worm ode is ]>us made : Recipe iuyse of 
wormode, smalach, plantayn, and with swynej grese clensed 
wele of pe skynnej brisse it wele and long togidre in 
maner as it is seid afore of pe valence of scabiows; pe 36 
which y-done, kepe it to pin vse. \)is valence of wormode 
availep to brissyngs of legge} and of schynbone^, and to 
af 174] wounde^ pat ar made in pe muscle^ *of pe arme} and of pe 

leggej with a strey^t wounde, as of a knyfe or of ane arowe, 40 

Its uses. 

The Gathering and Preparation of Medicines. 


(1) A resonable gonernance of lawe; of lywyn^. 

(2) .JisculapiMS helyd menne with tl'ernices & medi- 

(3) Aschepites taught to geder rot and herbe3, 
flowrlej and frotej. 

(4) Asohepii'x scliewod iiicsures and quantitiej, 
weghtcj and wares. 

(5) Asohepiu* teche<7t to make puluerej eo/ifec- 
cionis <fe elec.tuarie^. 

(0) Ypocras & galien schewe certeyne quajititiej in 
PLATE IV. From Sloane MS. 6, Brit. Bins., leaf 170, back. 

100 Cases cured l>y Absinthe. A Sleeping Powder. 

or of sicli oTper. And it availep to al wounde} for to hold 
pam opne, and for certayne it mitigate)) wele pe akyng. 
When pe nedep for to vse perof in wounde}, }ette in first of 
oile of rose} or of violet 2 droppe} or pre, and anoynt al 4 
pe wounde about of pe same oile}, and pe me?nbre pat is 
hurt. And afterward putte aboue of pe forseid valence 
vpon softe stupe} of lyue, and bynde it competently, and , 
lat it so abide a naturel day. }3is medicyne, forsop, 8 
represse)) wele bolnyng and akyng and holdep pe wounde 
opne, and gendrep quitowr, and drawe]) out venym of pe 
wounde, and quenchep pe brynnyng of pe me?nbre. Jjis 
A. case cured oyntment, forsop, luffed Imych ; vrith pis medicyne cured 12 
valence m la fischer at london, which was hurt in pe lacert of his 

arme of pe prikkyng of a scharp yren standyng on pe : hac 
gymewej at be frere Caromea l ; Wherfore he was almost medicina 

curavi quen- 

dede, what of akyng, bolnyng, and brynnyng, and what 16 dampisten- 

arium apud 

of be vncouenable cure of a barbowr pat putte in be London. 

' qui ex punc- 

wounde scharpe tenter of Ivnne clobe, and putte aboue turafem 

acuti stan- 

diaquilon. His cure, forsop, remoued away, I putte to tern super 

f e i ^r. legimeus 

about euensang-tyme of pe forseid valence with anoyntyng 20 ad fratres 
of oile of roses, And bifore cokcrow pe pacient was iacto 
delyue?-ed of akyng and pe arme biganne for to swage,* iSus." 
and in the mornyng he sleped wele, and pe arme was 
purged of quitowr by the wounde. Bot witte pou pat I 24 
putte no tent, in pe forseid wounde, hot al-only \viih 
^ettyng in of oile and puttyng aboue of pe valence with- 
out any-ping atuix I cured hym finaly ; wherfor I gatte 
and another m y c h honow. At nothyngham, forsop, I cured anoper 28 
hair ttiug " P ern tely wt't7i pe forseid medicyne, pat was smyten in pe 
arme, bot uo^t porow, witft a knyfe ; of whos life men 
despaired for akyng and anguysch of pe pacient. 

A sleeping 43. Pulim for to make a man sleep agayn} his wille, after 32 
bjMroguesIn maner of Eibalde} and trowans in fraurcce, pat felaw- 
shypep pam by pe waie} to pilgn'nie^ pat pai may robbe pam 
of pair siluer when pai ar aslepe. Ttecipe semen iusqwiam w#, 
}i3annie, i.[e.] darnel, papaueris nigri, i.[e.] chessede, de 36 
radice brionie sice., ana; brek al-togidre in a brasen 
morter into ful smal poudre, of which poudre giffe hym 
in his potage or in a kake of whete or in drynk, & he 
* ' ' vnbolne " ovcrlined. 

An Ointment to prevent pain at Operations. 


opii 31. Con- 
flee cum 
aq'iA rosa- 
rum et pilu- 
las delude 

2 Succus 

3 Ungafron- 
tein pulsus, 
axillas, volas 
manuuiu et 
pi an tag 
pedum et 
i-tatim dor- 
iniet patiens 
11 ec incisio- 
nem sentiet 

* Quia cro- 
cus et cassia 
lignea sunt 
fisena opii. 

schal slepe alsone, wille he wil he nojt, al-aday or more 
after fe quantite fat he hafe taken. 

Pillules for to p?-0uoke slepe : Ilecipe amides 5j, croci 
4 3iii, opii 3j ; Make f am wyth watre of roses and make 
pillule l and giffe Jam ; And lie fat take]) fam schal 
slepe for certayne. 

Ane vntement slepyng, wt't/t which if any man be 

8 anoynted he schal mow suffre kuttyng in any place of 

fe body wit/tout felyng or akyng. Recipe succws 

iusqwiami, 2 Mandrage, Cicute, lattuce, papaueris alb* 

& nigri, and fe sedej of al pise forseid herbe}, if fai 

12 may be hadde, ana ; opii thebaic^, opii Micoms ana, 
3j or ij ; fresch swynej grese fat suffice]). Breke al 
fise Avele & strongly togidre in a morter, and afte?'ward 
boile }>ani stro?igly and fan cole fam. And if it be 

16 no3t fikke ynoj, putte to a litel propoleos, i.[e.] white 
wex, and kepe it to fine vse. And when fou wilt vse 
ferof, Anoynt his front, his pulse^, his temple^, his anne- 
hole^, and his lone^ of his heud and his fete, and alsone 

20 he schal slepe so fat he schal fele no kuttyng. 3 })is is 
also if a man may no^t slepe for ofer cause, as in febre^ 
or sich ofer, for fis oyntment oufer schal giffe hyin 
remedy, or fe pacieut schal die. Also one grayne of opii 

24 thebaici to f e quantite of 3ss. , distempered wit/* a pynte 
of wyne a or more after f e mijt of hym fat schal drynk 
it, schaH make hym fat drynkef it for to slepe. Also fe 
sede alon of iusqwiami albz giffen in Avyne to drynk make 

28 f e drynker alsone for to slepe, fat he schal nojt fele what- 
so-eue? 1 is done to hym. And fis proued I myself for 
certayne. And witte fou fat it spedef for to draw hym 
fat slepef so by f e nose and by f e cheke} and by f e berde, 

32 ft fe spiritej be quickened fat he slepe no^t ouer rist- 
fully. Also be fe lech warre fat he giffe no^t opium 
wit/iout croce for to drynk, for crocws and cassia lignea 
bene fe frenej, i.[e.] bridelle^ of opii. 4 

36 44. ffor to wake a man fat slepef f MS : Putte to his nose 

gray brede y-tosted & wette in strong vinegre ; or put 

vinegre or mustard in his nose ; Or wasch his heued in 

strong vinegre ; Or anoynt his templej with f e iuse of 

n MS. wynde. 

[leaf 174, 
Pills to 
cause sleep. 

to prevent 

Its prepara- 

How used. 

Method of 
treating u 
patient to 
bring him 
round after 
its use. 

To wake a 
man after 

102 A Chai*m against Spasm and Cramp. 

rubarb. And giffe bym som o]>er stemutorie^. and alsone 
he schal wake. And witte fou pat it is gode for to giffe 
hym afterward castoreum, for it is triacle of iusqwianms l i tueriaoa 

p --P--UI. t. t -I. -L . i. -A hyoscyami. 

& opii & sich o)>er, wheper it be gmen in fe moupe or in * 
drynk, or it be put in J?e nose ; for castore chaufej) & 
most cowforte}) J)e synewe^ colded, and soluej? J>e paralysye. 
And also giffe hym fat confortef pe brayne, as castore, 
nuc's moschatz', 2 roses, nenufare, mirtellej & sumac. 

Contra spasmum et crampe. 
[Sioane MS. Contra spasmum et crampe radix brionie in aqua cocta et 

2002, leaf 79] 

postea pistata aut per se, vel in agrippa, vel oleo de semine 
lini, vel in dialthea, vel oleo de lilio aut camomille, collo 12 
emplastrata spasmum curat in quocunque membro cor- 

l* leaf 79, poris fuit. Quia in collo *est origo omnium morborum. Et 
spasmus est contractio musculorum ad suas origines. Istud 
carmen sequens contra spasmum expertissimum est a multis 16 
inventis eo utentibus, tarn in partibus transmarinis quaiu 
in istis. Nam apud mediolanis, i.[e.] Melane, in lumbardia 
tempore quo dominus Leonellus filius regis Anglie nupsit 
filiam domini Mediolani. Anglici ibidem spasmo vexaban- 20 
tur propter potaciones vinorum fortium et calorum patrise 
et nimium repletiones. TJnde quidam miles, et filius 
domini Eeginaldi de Gray de Schirlond juxta Chestre- 
felde, qui fuit apud mediolanum cum domino leonello 24 
et habuit secum carmen sequens, et quemdam armigerum 
a spasmo vexatur ita quod caput suum retro trahebatur 
fere usque ad collum suum, ad modum balistse, 81 qui 
pro dolore et angustia fere exspiravit. Quo viso, dictus 28 
Miles accepit carmen, in pergamento scriptnm in bursa 

t leaf so] positum, in collo patientis apposuit fdicentibus circum- 
stantibus orationem dominicam ad dominam Maria [m] et, 
ut mihi juravit fideliter, infra quatuor horas aut quinque 32 
sanitati est restitutus. Et postea multos alios a spasrno 
ibidem liberavit, unde magna fama de illo carmine in ilia 
civitate exercuit : 

Item in civitate Lincoln : . . . Item apud London : ... 36 
Item apud villam de Huntingdon : 

a " crossbow " in the margin. 

A Charm against Spasm and Cramp. 10S 

.... *postea claudatur ista cedula admodum unius ^J^ f80> 
litera ut non leniter possit aperiri, unde solebam scribere 
istud literis grecis, ne a laicis perspicietur. 

4 Quum ut istud carmen scriptum, se honeste in dei 
omnipotentis nomine gesserit et crediderit, sine dubio a 
spasmo non erit aggravatus. Istud habeatur in reveren- 
tia propter dominum qui virtutem dedit verbis, petris et 

8 herbis, et secrete fingitur ne omnes nostant carmen ne 
forte virtutes datas a deo amittat. 

A charm against Spasm and Cramp. 

Bryony root boiled in water & afterwards crushed 

12 either by itself or in agrippa or in linseed oil or in 
dialthea or in oil of lily or camomile cures spasm when 
it is plastered upon the neck in whatever part of the 
body it may be. Because the source of all diseases is in whence 

16 the neck : And spasm is a contraction of the muscles at spasms, 
their origin. The following charm against spasm has been 
found most sovran by many who have used it both, at 
home and abroad. For amongst the Mediolani [i.e.] the Results of 

20 Milanese, in Lombardy at the time when the Lord Lionel, feTtlvHtafat 
son of the king of England, married the daughter of the W hen n Duke 
lord of Milan, the English there were troubled with Bedded, 
spasm due to their potations of the strong & hot wines of 

24 the country & to too many carouses. Whereupon a certain 
knight, the son of Lord Reginald de Grey de Schirlond 
near Chesterfield, who was at Milan with the Lord 
Lionel & had with him the following charm, & saw a 

28 certain gentleman so troubled with the spasm that his 
head was drawn backward nearly to his neck just like a 
crossbow, & he was almost dead from the pain and The charm, 

how used. 

starvation. And when the said knight saw this he 

32 brought the charm written on parchment & placed it in 

a purse & put it upon the neck of the patient whilst those 

who stood by said the Lord's prayer and one to our lady 

Mary, and, as he swore faithfully to me, within four hours 

36 or five he was restored to health. And afterwards he 

freed many there from spasm, & the great report of 

that charm spread throughout that state. Again in the 

104 A Chamn against Spasm and Cramp. 

city of Lincoln . . . again in London . . . again in the 
Town of Huntingdon. 

th charm ' ^ n nom i ne patris >J< et filii >J< et Spiritus sancti ^< 
Amen. 4 

[J] Thebal [J Enthe [j] Enthanay [] In nomine Patris 
[J] et Filii [JJ et Spiritus sancti [j Amen. [t] Ihesu 
JN"azarenus [f] Maria J lohannes [J] Michael [J] Gabriel 
[f] Eaphael [J] Verbum caro factum est [J]. g 

Let it be closed afterwards in the manner of a letter 
so that it cannot be opened easily, & for this reason 
why written I used to write it in greek letters that it might not be 
letters. understanded of the people. And if any one carries that 12 
charm written fairly in the name of God almighty, & 
believes, without doubt he will not be troubled with 
cramp. Let it be held in respect on account of the Lord 
who gave virtue to words, to stones & to herbs, & let it 16 
be made secretly that every one should not know the 
charm lest perchance it should lose the virtues given by 



[MS. Rawlinson, B. 102, leaf 30, back.] 

Grant to R. de Rupella of land in the Cantred of 
Tirmany, Connaught, given to him by the Black 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego lohannes de Arderne dedi 
concessi et hac present! carta confirmaui Domino Richardo de Rupella 
pro homagio et servicio suo totam terram meam cum omnibus pertin- 
entijs suis sine aliquo retenemento quam habui in illo Theodo quod 
vocatur Crohun in Cantredo de Tirmany in Connatia de dono et 
feoffamento domini Edwardi illustris Regis Anglise primogeniti in 
escambium manerij sui de Willinghale et Plesingho cum pertinentijs 
suis liabendam et tenendam de me et heredibus meis eidem domino 
Richardo et heredibus suis et eorum assignatis adeo libere et quiete 
sicut idem dominus Richardus tenet terram suarn de Clonedach' quam 
habet de dono et feoffamento predicti domini Edwardi et sicut plenius 
et liberius et mtegrius continetur in Carta quam idem dominus 
Ed\vardus de dicta terra mihi confecit reddendo inde per Annum 
mihi et heredibus meis ipse dominus Ricardus et heredes sui et eorum 
Assiguati vnum denarium ad Pascha et faciendo pro me et here- 
dibus meis predicto domino Edwardo et heredibus suis servicium feodi 
vnius militis pro omnibus servicijs consuetudinibus sectis exactioni- 
bus et omnibus demandis secularibus. Et ego lohannes et heredes mei 
warrantizabimus acquietabinius et defendemus eidem domino Richardo 
et heredibus suis et eorum Assignatis totam predictam terram cum 
omnibus pertinentiis suis sine aliquo retenemento per predictum 
servicium sicut predictum est contra omnes homines et feminas inper- 
petuum. Et vt hec rnea donatio firma et stabilis permaneat huic Carto 
Sigillum meum apposui. Hijs testibus, Dominis lohanne de Ripar', 
Roberto de Vfforde, Ricardo de Tany, Willelmo de Wokingdon, 
Rogero de Bello Campo, Richardo de Ispanya, Militibus, Waltero de 
Essex, Thoma locelyn, lohanne de Rupell', et Alijs. 

[This is entered in the Bodleian Catalogue at Oxford under the heading 
" Arderne lohannes, chirurgus." Cf. Forewords, p- x.] 



l/i. Ploge seems to be a variant of the more common form plage and 
is equivalent to ' Plague,' but it is not given in this form in the New 
English Dictionary. 

1/4. An account of John Arderne is given in the Forewords. He calls 
himself Johannes Arderne Sirurgicus in 1372 and Magister Joh. de Arderne 
after 1376. I have adopted the simpler form. 

1/4. The first pestilence was the Black Death, which entered England at 
Weymouth about the middle of August 1348, and ravaged the kingdom in 
1349. It was pandemic, and yet, in spite of the tremendous mortality 
which attended its progress, it does not seem to have attracted much 
attention from the medical men who lived through it. Arderne only uses 
it in this passage as a means of determining the time when he began to 
practise in Nottinghamshire, yet he must have seen it in its full fury. 
Details of the Black Death will be found in Creighton's " History of 
Epidemics in England," vol. i, and in Father Gasquet's "The Great 
Pestilence now commonly known as the Black Death." The second pesti- 
lence, called the Great Plague, occurred in 1361, and killed amongst others 
Henry, Earl of Derby and Duke of Lancaster (cf. l/io). The third 
pestilence in 1369 killed his daughter Blanche, wife of John of Gaunt. 

1/8. Sir Adam Everyngham. The Everynghams had long been estab- 
lished at Tuxford. An Adam de Everyngham went bail for several 
deerstealers, 36 Hen. Ill (1251), and Thoroton, in the "Antiquities of 
Nottinghamshire '' (ed. 1677, p. 380, col. 2), states that John de Lexington 
died 41 Hen. Ill (1256), seized of the manor of Tuxford and hamlet of 
Warsop, and of the land in Lexington held of Adam de Everyntham. The 
Records of the Borough of Nottingham (1155-1399, vol. i, p. 389) note on 
April 27th, 1330, a grant from Richard, son of Richard de Lameleye dwelling 
in Lampadidnawe in Wales to William de Mekisburg of Notting- 
ham of a messuage in Gedeling and all the land formerly- held of Sir Adam 
de Everyngham in Gedelin, Carleton and Stoke Bardolf. The Sir Adam 
de Everyngham treated by John Arderne died 8th Feb., 2 Ric. II (1378-9), 
and he was probably operated upon not later than 1358. This treatise 
on the fistula was written in 1376 (see Forewords, p. xi), so that this 
passage must have been a later addition to the original manuscript. The 
armorial bearings of the Everyngham family are Argent, a fess azure, a 
label of three points gules. Thoroton (ed. 1797, vol. 3, p. 207) gives a 
pedigree of the family of Everyngham. 

l/io. Sir Henry, that tyme named Erie of Derby. He was Henry 
Plantagenet (1299 V-1361), son of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, and his 
Countess Maud. Sir Henry was cousin to Edward III who created him 
Earl of Derby in 1337, Earl of Lincoln in 1349, and Duke of Lancaster in 
1351, being the second person in England to be made a Duke. Sir Henry 
was one of the original Knights of the Garter, and was looked upon through- 
out Europe as the very mirror of chivalry, when chivalry was at its height. 

108 Notes. Page 1, line 13 to page 2, line 1. 

Readers of Froissart will recall many of his exploits often in company with 
that other great Captain, Sir Walter de Manny. Sir Henry sailed for 
Antwerp with King Edward III in July 1338, and in 1339, after the great 
sea fight at Sluys, he was left in prison in Flanders as security for the 
King's debts. It may have been at this time that Arderne was practising 
at Antwerp, if there is any truth in the tradition (see Forewords, p. xii). 
In 1343 Sir Henry, then Earl of Derby, was sent to Avignon to Pope 
Clement VI and Alfonzo XI of Castile. Whilst in Spain he and his fellow 
ambassador, the Earl of Salisbury, did good service against the Moors at 
the siege of Algebras when cannon are said to have been used for the first 
time. Arderne treated a Spanish nobleman at Algeciras (Forewords, 
}-. xi). 

1/13. The irregular endings of the technical terms which is noticeable 
here and in other parts of the MS. (cf. 24/5) is due to the scribe copying 
them as they stand in the Latin text where the case varies with the 
construction of the sentence in which it occurs. 

1/14. Arderne's knowledge of the Gascony campaign is curiously 
minute and makes it possible that he had actually taken part in it or that 
he knew the country intimately. Writing more than thirty years after the 
event he gives the towns in the order in which they were visited by one of 
the three divisions into which the Duke of Lancaster, formerly the Earl of 
Derby, had divided his forces, rather than in the correct geographical 
order. The army landed at Bordeaux and captured Bergerac on 24th 
August, 1345. The town was granted to Lancaster as a reward for his 
services but reverted to the crown upon his death. It came afterwards 
into the hands of Edward " the Black Prince," and was given by him to 
John of Gaunt in 1370. The arms of the town "Deux pattes de griffon 
sur un champ d'or" may still be seen emblazoned in the Great Crowcher 
Book of the Duchy of Lancaster, says Mr. Armitage-Smith in his " John of 
Gaunt " (p. 199). 

Toulouse. Sir Adam doubtless reached here with the force acting on 
the Lot and Garonne rivers after the battle of Auberoche on 24th October, 
1345, when 300 lances and 600 archers defeated a force estimated at 10,000 
strong under the- Count of Lille-Jourdain. 

Narbonne had some special association for John Arderne, since he 
named one of his best-beloved ointments Ungt. Noirbon, adding as a pun 
that though it was black (Noir) it was good (bon). 

Poitiers was stormed on 4th October, 1346, with a tremendous slaughter 
of men, women and children. So much rich booty was taken that raiment 
was held of no account unless it was cloth of gold or silver, or plumes. 
The campaign ended here, and the Duke of Lancaster returned to London 
13th June, 1347. 

1/23. Mene is here used in the sense of " an instrument or agency," and 
is equivalent to " deo favente." It is as favourite a phrase with Arderne 
as "I dressed him, God cured him," used to be with Ambroise Pare. 

1/29. Balne by Snaith. Balne is 5J miles from Snaith, a small town in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. There was a priory at Snaith belonging to 
the Warwick family. 

2/i. John ScJiefeld of Bri^twell a-side Tekyll. This John was probably 
a member of the knightly family of Sheffield of Nottingham. The manor 
of Tickhill was granted to John of Gaunt in 1372 with other rewards for 
surrendering the Earldom and Honour of Richmond, which was im- 

Notes. Page 2, line 2 to page "2, line 29. 109 

mediately bestowed upon John de Montford to secure his allegiance then 
wavering between England and France. 

2/2. Sir Reginald Grey rle Wilton, also known as Grey de Shirlond or 
De Grey. He was the fourth Lord de Grey and was aged 30 in 1342. He 
died in 1370, and held the manor of Shirland, co. Derby. His grandfather 
John, Lord de Grey, was Justice of North Wales and Vice-Justice of 
Chester 1296-97. Sir Reginald Grey's son, the fifth Lord de Grey, served 
in Gascony in 1366. The peerage became extinct in 1614 when the 
fifteenth Lord de Grey died in the Tower after having been found guilty of 
high treason in connection with the Bye or Priest's Plot. The Calendar 
of Close Eolls (Ed. Ill, 1354-1360, No. 1358) gives the names of Sir Reynold 
de Grey and John Arderne as witnesses to an enrolment of release by 
Roger de Puttenham, knight of the manor of Wylye, co. Warwick. 

2/5. Sir Henry Blakborne. A Sir Henry de Blakeburn, son of William, 
son of Paulinus de Eleston of the County of Lancaster, obtained " a 
general pardon for his good service in the war of France ... on con- 
dition that he did not withdraw from the King's service so long as he shall 
stay this time on this side the sea without his special licence." The pardon 
is granted by K and the testimony of Adam de Swynburn, under-constable 
of the Army. It is dated " By Calais, September 4th, 1346." There also 
exists a ratification of the estate of a Henry de Blakeburn as prebendary of 
Preston, in the church of St. Mary, Salisbury. It bears the date September 
22nd, 1351. On May 7th, 1379, " Henry de Blakeburn was presented to 
the church of Reddcleve-on-Sour by John de Wynewyk, and has since 
resigned it." (" Gal. of Patent Rolls," Ed. Ill, viii, 496 ; ix, 137 ; and 
Rich. II (1377-1381), p. 363.) 

2/io. The transcriber has left out a line here. The text runs, "After- 
ward I halid Sir lohn Masty parsone of Stopporte in Chestre-shire." 

2/i i. Gunnas or Gunnays was a York family in the fourteenth century. 
Thomas Gunnays was a scrivener in 1363-4 ; John Gunnays a Tannator 
in 1389-90, and there was also John, a Marchaunt. ("Register of York 
Freemen," The Surtees Soc., vol. i, 1896.) 

2/13. The scribe has made a mistake in the name. John le Colier was 
Mayor of Northampton in 1326-7, and again in 1339-40. He seems to 
have been a most regular attendant at the meetings of the Town Council, 
because his name appears as a witness to thirty-three documents between 
the years 1315 and 1340. ("Records of the Borough of Nottingham," 
vol. i, 1155-1399.) A William Colyar was Mayor of Northampton 1368-9. 

2/29. Towel. Arderne's translator uses somewhat unusual terms for the 
parts with which he is dealing. The towel is always the Anus. It is, I 
suppose, a form of " tewel," a pipe or funnell, and the word has survived in 
the North of England as a " tuyer" in connection with the blast furnaces. 
Longanon or Longaon is the ordinary medieval word for the rectum or 
lowest segment of the large intestine. The Lure is sometimes the ischio- 
rectal fossa, and sometimes the anus or rectum. The " Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum" gives "Mouth of a hotel," "Lura," or Leather bagge, adds the 
Bibliotheca Eliotae, ed. 1559. The New English Dictionary, s.v. Lure, 
2 Her(aldic), says, "A conventional representation of a hawk's 'lure,' con- 
sisting of two birds' wings with the points directed downwards and joined 
above by a ring attached to a cord." Either of these similes suits the 
anatomy of the ischio-rectal fossa, but it is clearly the simpler one that was 
in Arderne's mind, as he did not know enough anatomy to visualise the 
iechio-rectal fossa in accordance with the hawk's lure. Cf. ll/io. 

110 Notes. Page 2, line 40 to page 4, line 2. 

2/40. The opinions of Arderne's immediate contemporaries and pre- 
decessors on the subject of Fistula in ano are given in the Forewords 
(p. xvi). 

3/8. The translation quite misses the beauty of this passage, which 
should read, " It is not opened to them that knock as they pass by, but to 
those who stand and knock." 

8/13. In diuanudiis. These words have proved a crux from the earliest 
times. Some scribes have merely copied the words here printed, others 
have omitted them entirely. John Arderne clearly wrote a very bad hand, 
but Miss E. M. Thompson has made the following transcription of Sloane 
MS. No. 29301 (leaf 22, back, col. 80), which was presumedly a fair 
copy produced under Arderne's immediate supervision "Nota de honore 
dei. Ad honorem ergo dei omnipotentis qui aperuit mihi sensum ut 
thesaurum in agro studenter absconditum quod longo tempore pectore- 
que anelo diligencius ac pertinacius diu auidius insuadaverim invenire 
prout mea suppetat facultas absque scernatis facunditate posteris, domino 
mediante istoque libello, explicite duxi exarandus. Non ut meipsum laude 
dignum ex tanto munere ceteris efferam sed, ut ne dominum irretem 
et pro dragma quam mihi tradidit affatu urgeor delatoris." The badly 
written words "diu avidius" in this passage were soon corrupted into 
" in diuanudiis," the " in " being an interpolation. " In diuanudiis " easily 
became " De Dinamidiis," the name of a spurious work ascribed to Galen, 
and thus Arderne acquired an undeserved reputation as a Grecian. 

3/23. The transcriber has omitted the line, " bat is leful forsoj? to sey 
that is knowen & for to witness that is seerie." 

3/27. This was the Black Prince's campaign in 1355. It lasted eight 
weeks, and was of a freebooting character. 

3/34. Yet John Arderne thought it wise to obtain the Minorite's secret. 
" II ne re>ele son secret (en 1370) que parce qu'il est vieux et qu'il a tire 
des tres-beaux benefices," says Daremberg (Hist. des. Sci. mdd. i, 301, note). 

3/36. It is unnecessary to show the debt of the medical profession in 
the middle ages to Galen, who was born at Pergamos about A.D. 131. 
Arderne probably quotes Galen through a Latin translation of an Arabic 
version. He knows him as the author of the Megatechni or De methodo 
medendi eepairevriKrjs fjLf66Sov and of the Microtechni, or simply the Techni 
or Tegni which was the ars medica or -rtxy-n larpiK^. The Pantechni or 
Pantegni used here by Arderne was not one of Galen's writings. It was 
written in Arabic by Isaac the Jew (d. 932 A.D.), and was translated into 
Latin by Constantinus Africanus (fl. 1036 A.D.), who issued it as his own. 
Cf. 55/3. Prof. Ed. Nicaise (" La Grande Chirurgie de Guy de Chauliac," 
Paris, 1890, p. 52) says that in 1309 the Faculty of Medicine at Montpellier 
demanded that each bachelor who wished to become a Master must have 
studied the following books of Galen, " De eomplexionibus; de malicia 
complexionis diverse ; De simplici medicina; De crisi et criticis diebus ; 
De Ingenio sanitatis." He had also to explain two books which had been 
lectured upon and one which had not been commented upon, of the Techni 
and Prognostics, or of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, or of his Regimen, 
or the Isagoge of Johannitius, the Febres of Isaac, or the Antidotary of 
Ilhazes. See Dr. Payne on Medical Books in use at Montpellier, Rnslidall's 
" Universities of Europe," Vol. 2, part ii, page 780. The fact that Arderne 
knew and quotes all these writers lends some support to the theory that he 
was educated at Montpellier. 

4/2. These passages on the Manner or Behaviour of a Leech form the 
true joy of those who travail amongst the old Masters of Medicine and 

Notes. Page 4, line 24 to page 7, line 29. Ill 

surgery. They are full of conceits, and give a picture of contemporary 
manners and customs which it is impossible to obtain in any other way. 
The parallel passages from Salicet, Mondeville and Lanfrank are given in 
the Forewords (xix-xxvi), and show that there was a comu.on source for 
these paragraphs on medical ethics of which the chief was " De adventu 
medici " of Archimattheus, a master at Salerno. 

4/24. The expression " for why " is employed by the translator as the 
English equivalent for the Latin word "Nam." It does not imply a 
question therefore, but is used as we should now say " because." 

5/8. The greeting of ladies by thrusting the hands into their bosom 
had a long vogue in England, and it would be interesting to know whether 
the fashion of wearing low-necked dresses was a cause or an effect of the 
custom. By the end of the seventeenth century it was only used by near 
relatives, and Mr. Samuel Pepys records that he availed himself of the 

6/4. Speaking of the cure of scabies by the inunction of a mercurial 
ointment (MS. Ashmol. 1434, leaf 131 ; cf. 79/i), Arderne says, "I have 
tried it many times and have made a good deal of money from it, and I 
got twenty shillings for a single application. And take notice that the 
inunction must be repeated for forty days, or for a month at least. 
("Quod centies probavi et exinde multa lucra adquisivi pro certo et 
haec xxs. pro uno liserio. Et nota quod tale lisorium per xl dies vel 
mensem ad minus debet portari.") 

6/4. The fees charged by Arderne are very large, if it be remembered 
that money had at least seventeen times and perhaps twenty times its present 
value. I have given some account of the fees of our ancestors in Janus 
(May-June 1909, pp. 287-293), and to the facts there contained I may add 
an observation obtained by Prof. Ed. Nicaise for his edition of Guy de 
Chauliac's Surgery (op. cit. p. Ixii). "A lady was attended in 1348 by 
three doctors, two Jews and a Christian, and she paid a fee of half a floriu 
to each. The livre tournois at this time was equivalent to one florin and 
16 sols of pontifical money the cash then current at Avignon and 
corresponded to 27 francs 34 centimes of modern French money. The 
general practitioner therefore received 8 francs 17 centimes for each visit, 
which is equivalent to three visits for a guinea." 

6/5. The custom of paying for an operation by an annuity as well as 
by a fee lingered in England until late in the seventeenth century, for 
Richard Wiseman (1622?-1676), speaking of a patient, says, "This person 
retired into the country afterwards and returned to London at the end of 
two years, and acknowledged to me his cure by settling thirty pounds 
a year upon me during his life and paid me sixty pounds for the two years 
passed." Readers of French history, too, will recollect that Louis XIV 
paid Dr. Fran9ois Felix the sum of one hundred and fifty pounds and 
settled a farm upon him in 1686 for curing him of a fistula. 

7/29. "The Senator Boetius," says Gibbon, "is the last of the Romans 
whom Cato or Tully could have acknowledged for their countryman." 
("Roman Empire," ed. 1862, v, 27.) He was born at Rome about 475 A.D. 
an I was consul in 510. He was a minister of Theodoric, King of the 
Ostrogoths, who displaced the Emperor Odoacer. Boethius was afterwards 
imprisoned at Pavia and was put to death in 525 A.D. He was subsequently 
canonised as St. Severinus. He wrote the " De consolatione Philosophise" 
(Chaucer's translation of which was published in the Early English Text 
Soc.'s Extra Series, No. V, 1868), as well as some valuable treatises on 

112 Notes. Page 7, line 39 to page 11, line 6. 

Music and Geometry. The "de disciplina scholarium " mentioned in the 
text is falsely ascribed to Boetius. It is quoted again 28/27. 

7/39. Arderne repeatedly draws attention to the effect of the mind on 
the body, and makes it appear that what we now call neurasthenia was 
not unknown in his experience. Cf. 6/23, 8/3, 60/i6, 64/32. 

8/27. The operation of fistula recommended by Arderne is described in 
the Forewords (p. xvii) to this volume. Arderne purposely gives fancy 
names to the instruments and to the remedies he uses as part of a fixed 
design to keep his methods secret. This secrecy was a common feature of 
the medical profession until quite recently indeed it still lingers in parts 
where medical men dispense " our ointment" or "our linctus." Arderne 
especially feared the competition of other leeches, cf. 15/9 an( ^ 30/3, ^ the 
Barbers, cf. 71/i6, and of the laity, cf. 103/3, ^ or w "en he used the charm 
against tic, tetanus and delirium tremens, he not only disguised the words 
in Greek characters but he made nonsense of them, "ne a laicis perspicietur." 

8/29. The sequere me was a flexible probe, and was named appropriately 
enough because it was the guide to be followed. 

9/4. The acus rostrata, or "snowted needle," was a grooved director 
along which the scalpel was passed. The snowted or curved end fitted 
into a hole in the cochlearia or shield which was introduced later in the 
operation to protect the opposite side of the rectum at the moment the 
fistula was divided. This snouted needle was made of silver. 

9/12. The tendiculum, or dilator, made of boxwood, was used chiefly 
to keep the ligature taut whilst the fistula was being divided. For this 
purpose it was provided with a hole into which fitted (9/i6) the wrayste 
or "vertile," much in the same way that the peg fits into a violin. The 
ends of the ligature were passed round the wrayste, which was then twisted 
until the frsenum caesaris was tight enough. 

9/2O. The frcenum Ccesaris, or ligature, constricted the rectal side of 
the fistula. It seems to be merely a vestigium of an obsolete operation for 
the cure of fistula. Albucasis used it as an e'crasewr, and Arderne had 
sufficient reverence for authority not to discard it. But the operation he 
describes is one of simple division. The tendiculum, the wrayste and the 
fraenum Caesaris, therefore, are useless because as soon as the division 
was complete, they all fell out of the wound. Cf. 24/26. They steadied the 
parts whilst the incision was made, but they complicated the operation by 
giving the surgeon two instruments to hold in his left hand (the acus 
rostrata and the tendiculum) whilst he held the scalpel in his right hand. 
The cochlearia must always have been held by the assistant the fellow of 
the leech as Arderne calls him, the surgeon's mate as the Elizabethans 
knew him. 

9/24. The siringa is probably only a clyster-pipe. Two forms are 
given, the one with side-openings, as was then used, the other an improved 
form recommended by Arderne as the result of his own experience 
(cf. 74/38) in which there is only a single terminal orifice. 

ll/l. Aposteme is an early form of the word which afterwards became 
Imposthume. It means a suppurating inflammation or an abscess. 

11/6. Arderne's pathology of fistula is excellent and is clearly the 
result of observation. He has seen and treated cases of ischio-rectal 
abscess, and has observed how such abscesses have become chronic and 
ended in a fistula. 

Notes. Page 11, line 18 to page 12, line 21. 113 

Il/l8. The axillary glands were the emunctories of the heart: the 
inguinal glands of the liver : the cervical glands of the brain. 

ll/iQ. CJwiicellej is quite an unusual word, and except for the Latin 
version it would be incomprehensible. The Latin gives the English gloss 
" fauces." It seems, therefore, to be a form derived from the same source 
as " Chawylbone " which the Promptorium Parvulorum renders Mandibula. 

11/ao. Gilbertyn is Gilbert the Englishman, known to all readers of 
Chaucer because he is named in the Prologue (1. 429) with Bernard and 
Gatesden. Gilbertus Anglicus flourished about 1210, and is said to be the 
first practical English writer on medicine though Master Richard preceded 
him. Dr. Payne in his Fitzpatrick lectures in 1904 says that Theodoric 
took his description of leprosy from Gilbertyn, a description evidently at 
first hand and in man}' respects very accurate. Gilbert wrote a compen- 
dium or Laurea of medicine, printed at Lyons 1510 (cf. 55/io), and a Com- 
mentary upon the verses of Gilles de Corbeil " De Urinis " (cf. 69/32). A 
commentary in English upon these same verses and attributed to John 
Arderne exists in manuscript in the Hunterian Library at Glasgow (No. 328). 

11/21. 01. roset. Oil of roses entered largely into the mediaeval 
pharmacopoeia as a soothing application. The ceruse here ordered to be 
mingled with it is carbonate of lead, and the litharge is protoxide of lead. 
The lotion thus had the soothing and astringent properties which is still 
attributed to lead lotion or Goulard extract. 

11/24. Wombe. Arderne speaks consistently of the belly as the womb 
both in men and women ; when he speaks specifically of the womb in 
women he employs the term Marice. Cf. pp. 80/39, 85/4 an d 86/26. 

11/27. Arderne, like his contemporaries, recognises two forms of 
Mallow. The Althaea rosea which he calls "tame" mallow (cf. 12/15), 
because it was grown in the garden, and Malva silvestris the wild 

11/32. A Nastar of tree. Arderne fortunately gives the English 
equivalent for Nastar in the manuscript No. 112 (T. 5, 14), fol. 77, contained 
in the Hunterian Library, Glasgow, and says, " Nastare species est clysteris 
sive enematis ' a glister pipe.' " A Nastar of tree, therefore, is a wooden 
enema nozzle. The wood may be either boxwood, hazel or willow. His 
description of the bladder and its method of preparation is given later on ; 
cf. 75/1 et seqq. 

12/1. After auctores. The author is probably Serapion the younger 
who wrote a large work on pharmacology, which was translated from 
Arabic into Latin under the title "Liber de medicamentis simplicibus" or 
" De temperamentis simplicium." He lived about the end of the eleventh 
century. For Serapion the elder see 55/2g, p. 124. 

12/9. Diaquilon. Three forms of diachylon plaster were used. One 
called Khazes' plaster ; a second Mesue's, and the third diachylon commune. 
Arderne here recommends Mesue's diachylon which contained mucilage of 
Althaea and oil of camomile amongst many other ingredients. 

12/15. M. The symbol M. is used for Manipulus in dispensing drugs 
a handful and the handful was either large or small. The small handful 
or pinch was denoted by the letter P. for Pugillus, and it was usually 
estimated at about the eighth part of the Manipulus. 

12/21. Lana succida is sufficiently described in the text. It seems to 
have been a crude method of obtaining what is now called lanolin. An 
undressed fleece is still used in folk-medicine. 


114 Notes. Page 12, line 21 to page 15, line 8. 

12/21. The persistence of these simple remedies is shown by Miss Edith 
Durham's interesting account of Higher Albania (Lond. 1909, p. 93). She 
says, speaking of a comminuted fracture of the leg treated by an old 
Franciscan at Vukli : " He then plugged and dressed the wound with a 
salve of his own making the ingredients are extract of pine resin, the 
green bark of elder twigs, white beeswax and olive oil. The pine resin 
would provide a strong antiseptic. The property of the elder bark I do not 
know. ... In gunshot wounds he was very expert. For 'first aid' his 
prescription was : Take the white of an egg and a lot of salt, pour on to 
the wound as soon as possible and bandage. This only temporary till the 
patient could be properly treated with rakia (the local alcoholic drink) and 
pine salve as above. The wound was to be plugged with sheep's wool, 
cleaned and soaked in the salve. The dressing to be changed at night and 
morning and at midday also if the weather be very hot. Should the 
wound show signs of becoming foul, wash again with rakia as often as 
necessary. This treatment he had inherited from his grandfather who had 
it from his. The exact proportions and way of making salve he begged to 
be excused from telling me as they were a family secret." Every word of 
this passage would have been approved by Arderne. He would have 
recognised his Unguentum sambuci (cf. 30/21 ), the egg medled (cf. 28/4) 
with salt would have been nothing new to him, the cleaning of the sheep's 
wool he might have considered an improvement upon his own lana succida 
(cf. 12/2o), as he had an open mind (cf. 86/4), and he would have endorsed 
thoroughly the old priest's disinclination to give away the secret of a 
preparation (cf. 15/8). 

12/40. Wormed, \. e. warmed. 

13/2O. Ragadiei was the name given to fissures formed round the 
anus and vulva. It is used here to denote chronic ulceration. Frousingei 
seems to be a mere repetition of ragadie^, as it does not occur in the Latin 

13/24. An ulcus undesiccable is an ulcer which continues to form pus 
in spite of treatment. Mediaeval surgeons were very skilful in frightening 
themselves with names. 

14/4. There were two Geoffrey Scropes living in the latter half of the 
fourteenth century, (i) Sir Geoffrey Scrope, knighted before Paris, 1360. 
He was the eldest son of Sir Henry le Scrope of Masham, Co. York, the 
first Lord Scrope, who was Governor of Guisnes and Calais in 1360. This 
Geoffrey Scrope was slain at Piskre, Lithuania, in 1362 (cf. 67/34). (ii) Sir 
Geoffrey le Scrope, son of Stephen, second Lord Scrope, who was living 
in 1409, but had died sine prole before 1418. The brother of this Geoffrey 
le Scrope was Stephen le Scrope, Archdeacon of Richmond in Yorkshire, 
who died September 5, 1418. 

14/2O. It is clear from this and the following lines that Arderne had 
seen and noted cases of uraemia following upon long-continued urethral 
fistulaa. The headache, giddiness, dull pain in the loins and vomiting 
which occur during the later stages of renal disease are all duly noted. 

14/38. Bernard de Gordon was teaching at Montpellier in 1285, and was 
living in 1318. He wrote the "Lilium medicinse," but Arderne here shows 
that he was absolutely ignorant of Anatomy. 

15/8. This is another good instance of the secrecy which characterised 
the practice of surgery at this period. It was still a trade to be taught, and 
it was many years before it became a profession to be learned. (Cf. 8/25 and 

Notes. Page 16, line 4 to page 24>, line 21. 115 

16/4. It would have been impossible for Arderue to have escaped the 
belief in Astrology which was a feature of his time. He gives the usual 
table, common to all his contemporaries, for finding the house of the moon 
on any given day, and he thought that the planets had an influence upon 
the twelve parts of the body which correspond to the signs of the zodiac. 

16/7. Ptholomeus was Ptolemy the physician, who lived at Alexandria 
in the third century B.C., and was perhaps identical with Ptolemy the 
Geographer. De Mondeville quotes Ptolemy the physician and refers to 
his "Centilegium "; Guy de Chauliac also speaks of his "Centiloquium." 
Pictagoras was Pythagoras the Greek philosopher, born about 582 B.C. 
He was steeped in the mystical lore of Egypt and India ; a vegetarian 
and a social reformer, his name is chiefly associated with the doctrine of 

Basis is Abvi Beer Mohammed Ibn Zacariya Ar-Razi, commonly known 
as Rhazes. He was born in 850 A.D. and died about 932. He was the 
first great Arabian physician, and his text-book called the " Continent " was 
only displaced by the work of Haly Abbas. Rhazes is still interesting to 
us because he first distinguished clearly between Smallpox and Measles. 

16/8. Haly is Haly the Arabian physician who died in 994 A.D. He 
wrote the " Royal Book" which displaced Rhazes' text-book, and was in 
turn displaced by the Canon of Avicenna. Cf. 56/7, P- 124. 

21/2. Arderne's account of fistulate or festred gout makes its probable 
that he is describing the condition which is now known as chronic inflam- 
mation of the bone due to infective micro-organisms. Sophocles described 
Philoctetes as suffering from a similar condition. Cf. 46/25. 

21/9- Ypocras, i. e. Hippocrates, lived during the golden age in Greece 
(460-377 B.C.), and was contemporary with Socrates. His writings were 
known through Galen's commentaries upon the Prognostics, Aphorisms, 
and on Regimen in Acute Diseases, which had been translated into Latin 
before the fourteenth century. 

21/27. The meaning of this passage may be thus rendered, " Take heed 
lest thou art so blinded by the desire for money as to operate upon a case 
thou knowest to be incurable." 

22/12. Lusting is here equivalent to grudging. 

22/17. The details of the operation are admirably given, and it is quite 
possible to follow each step, a very rare thing in the case of mediaeval 
writers on surgery, but Arderne was a master of this part of his subject. 
Cf. Forewords, p. xvii. 

22/22. The rig bone is the vertebral column. Cf. 34/34, 62/8, 70/24. 

23/1. Arderne shows his ability by recommending a cutting operation. 
It proves that he was not afraid of the bleeding which daunted his contem- 
poraries and many of his successors. Cf. 24/32. 

23/21. Both John Arderne and Henri de Mondeville were never tired 
of repeating that surgery was an art to be learnt by practice. It was too 
much the custom of the time to rely upon authority and to think that 
everything could be learnt from books. 

23/27. Boece. Cf. 7/29. 

24/5- Freno cesaris; 24/g. frenum cesaris. Cf. 1/13, p. 108. 

24/21. Arderne gives a choice of two cutting instruments, a razor and a 
lancet. Dr. Stewart Milne ("Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman 
Times," Oxford, 1907, p. 31) describes a form of razor in which "a scalpel 

116 Notes. Page 24, line 29 to page 27, line 28. 

blade is mounted on a ring and the fore-finger is passed through the ring." 
Such a razor would have suited Arderne's purpose admirably, but he used 
some form of scalpel. "Lanceola," says Dr. Freind ("The History of 
Physic," part 2, p. 177), " in its proper genuine signification is no older than 
Julius Capitolinus, how long it has been applied to signify a surgical instru- 
ment I cannot tell ; however, it may be traced as high at least as the time 
of William of Bretagne, who lived in 1220 and wrote the history of Philip 
August, whose chaplain he was." He gives some account of the lanceola, 
and distinguishes it very plainly from the Phlebotomus, both which instru- 
ments we see were made use of in that age. " Lanceola dicitur subtile 
ferrum acututn, cum quo minutores aliqui pungendo venam aperiunt in 
minutione. Aliqui cum Phlebotomo venam percutiunt." (Lanceola is a 
name given to a delicate pointed instrument with which some bleeders 
open a vein by puncturing it in bleeding. Others breathe a vein with a 
phlebotome.) (Cf. 61/23.) 

24/29. Arderne here shows that he knows the last thing a surgeon 
learns the knowledge when to stop in operating. 

24/32. Surgeons had no satisfactory instruments for stopping bleeding 
until pressure forceps were invented by Sir Spencer Wells about 1884. 
Many devices were tried and had their day, but hasmorrhage remained the 
bugbear of every operating surgeon, and the fear of its occurrence limited 
the scope of his work. Arderne here recommends the excellent, simple and 
cleanly method of sponge pressure to arrest the immediate hsemorrhage, 
and afterwards uses a styptic powder. Arderne gained a great reputation 
for his prescriptions (cf. Forewords p. xxxi), and it is evident that he was 
a good physician as well as a practical surgeon ; cf. pp. 97 and 98. The 
styptics here recommended were all in common use. Soli is Bolus 
armeniacus, a yellow earth containing oxide of iron. Sangnis draconis 
was the resin obtained from the fruit of the Calamus draco. Aloes epaticus : 
the mediaeval materia medica recognised socotrin aloes and hepatic aloes 
which was an inferior quality. 

25/9. Walwort is either the Sambucus or the Pellitory. Arderne 
probably means the Elder, of which it was said "this tree has not one 
part but is used in Pharmacy." The juice is still used in the form of Elder 

26/n. Directions for making sanguis veneris and oil of camomile are 
given on pp. 89 and 94. 

26/13. -^ nastar of tree, a wooden clyster-pipe ; cf. 11/32, p. 113. 

26/21. The preparation of Pulv. sine pari is given on p. 86. 

27/6. The preparation of Salus populi is given on p. 90. It is charac- 
teristic of the time that fancy names are purposely given to all these 
preparations lest their composition should become known to the barbers or 
to other leeches. 

27/25. Bolnyng is equivalent to swelling or swollen. 

27/28. Alum jucarin. combust, is described on p. 81. Three kinds of 
alum were recognised : alum glass, alum plume, and alum zuccarin. Alum 
glass was the crude alum crystals ; alum plume was the natural aluminium 
sulphate ; alum zuccarin. was the re-crystallised form ; but alum zuccarin. 
was also used as a synonym for sugar candy. The crude alum was some- 
times called Alumen roche from the town of Roche in Syria, and as this 
was often written Alumen Eo it came to be called Alum of Rome. 

Notes. Page 27, line 30 to page 32, line 7. 117 

27/3O. Sarcocolla is the resin of the Penaea sarcocolla and mucronata. 
It was thought to make the flesh adhere together, hence its name. 

27/31. Psidie is pomegranate bark. 

27/32. Terra sigillata, or Lemnos earth, was imported from Egypt in 
large pastiles stamped with the Sultan's seal, hence its name. It had 
astringent properties. 

27/38. Ceruse is carbonate of lead. Lithargyrum or Litharge is the 
protoxide of lead which forms as a pellicle on the surface of melted lead ; 
lithargyrate of silver and gold are formed similarly when these metals are 

28/IO. Arderne clearly indicates the calling of an apothecary as distinct 
from the barbers, surgeons and physicians of the time. As a surgeon ho 
gathered his own simples and made his own preparations, rather to keep 
their composition a secret than because he was obliged to do so, for the 
apothecaries would have made them up for him equally well. 

30/21. " Smalach" says Dr. E. C. A. Prior (" On the Popular Names of 
British Plants," Lond. 1879, p. 217), "or Smallage, is a former name of the 
celery, meaning the small ache or parsley compared with the great parsley, 
olus atruni. Ach, Fr. ache, is derived from the Latin apium by the change 
of pi to ch, as in sapiam to seiche." 

Won/node is wormwood, the Artemisia absinthium. The word is cor- 
rupted from A.S. and O.E. we.rm.od. Wormwood was used in the Middle 
Ages to keep off mod or made, a maggot ; the first syllable, derived from 
A.S. weriaii, to keep off, has become by similarity of sound worm. 

30/22. Molayne is the Verbascum Thapsus, or Tapsibarbatus ebulus, 
the hig (hag) taper, or Bullock's lungwort. 

Walwort is the dwarf elder, the Sambucus ebulus, sometimes called 
Danesblood or Banewort. 

Sparge or Spurge is the Cataputia minor ; Weybread is the plantain 
Plantago major ; Mugwort is the Artemisia vulgaris. It is said to have 
obtained its popular name from its use against mowjhte, mough or moghe, 
a moth or maggot. Auance is Avens or Herb Benett, i.e. Benedicts, the 
Geum urbanum. " Where the root is in the house the devil can do 
nothing and flies from it ; wherefore it is blessed above all herbs," says 
Platearius, whose book Arderne had read. Cf. 79/10. 

30/23. Petite Consoude was the consolida minima or the daisy Bellis 
perennis. The name Consoude was given to several different plants in the 
Middle Ages, e.g. the Comfrey, the Bugle and the Wild Larkspur. "And 
for healing of wounds, so soveraigne it is, that if it bee put into the pot and 
sodden with pieces of flesh, it will souder and rejoine them, whereupon the 
Greekes imposed upon it the name of Symphytum-Consound," says Pliny 
in Philemon Holland's translation (Bk. 27, ch. vi, p. 275). 

Wodbynd is the Woodbine or Lonicera Periclymenum. 

31/21. Diaflosmus is the plaster used as a local application, whilst 
tapsimd is the confection for internal use. Tapsimel here mentioned, and 
for the first time, had an extraordinary popularity and was officinal as late 
as 1773. Cf. Forewords, p. xxx. 

32 7. The deadly nightshade is called in German Nachtschatten, and it 
is possible that Arderne may have learnt the Flemish word for it, if he was 
at Antwerp, as is reported traditionally. Cf. Forewords, p. xii. 

118 Notes. Page 33, line 13 to page, 39, line 8. 

33/13. Arderne gives a formula for his unguenturn ruptoriuin (Sloane 
MS. 29301, leaf 35, col. 1), which is substantially the same as the one 
mentioned here. It consists of unslaked lime well mingled with black 
soap and made into a mass, which was afterwards bound with diachylon 
upon the part to be destroyed. Jamerius (cf. 55/3, Rubrica xxi) also 
gives a formula for a ruptory, " De unguento quod ruptorium dicitur. 
Unguentum forte quod ruptorium dicitur. Tfy. Saponis saracenici pondus 
x denariorum ; calcis vive pondus viii, capitelli fortissimi pondus v de- 
nariorum. Confice sic : calx prius cribellata cum sapone diu conficiatur, 
deinde addatur capitellum, et cum predictis commisceatur." There were 
two kinds of lime ointment. The older form was made by " taking of 
lime that hath been washed at least seven times Wax giii ; Oil of 
Eoses Ib.i. Let them all be briskly worked together in a leaden mortar, 
after the wax hath been by a slow fire melted in a sufficient quantity 
of the same oil." (Alleyne, op. cit., p. 330, col. i, No. 11.) The other 
ointment was the more active. Ifc. Quicklime gvj ; Auripigment Siss. ; 
roots of Florentine Orris i ; yellow Sulphur; Nitre ana 5iss. ; a strong 
lixivium of Bean Stalks Ib. ii. ; Mix and boil all, in a new pot glazed, to a 
just thickness, which you may know by anointing a feathered quill there- 
with, if the feathers easily fall off; then add Oyl of Spike gss. ; and make 
an ointment or liniment." (Salmon's " New London Dispensary,'' 1678, 
p. 768, col. 2.) Soap was of two kinds : White soft soap known as French 
soap, and hard grey soap called Saracenic soap. The latter is meant when 
the prescription demands black soap. 

34/4. Arderne anchored his tents in much the same way as we now 
anchor drainage tubes in deep wounds by putting a thread through one 
end. He uses the word "ground" systematically for "bottom," so that 
where we should say the bottom of the wound he says (34/6) "in the 
grounde of the fistula." 

35/15. Reparaled means the same as re-dressing a wound, that is to 
say, changing the dressings. 

86/15. Arderne loved to play upon words. Cf. 37/12 and 91/32. He 
could not resist the pun with " bubo," which is the technical term for an 
abscess in the axilla or groin, and also means an owl. Guy makes the 
same joke (ed. Nicaise, p. 166). Buboes were the characteristic mark of 
the bubonic plague, and he must have seen many examples. In the 
later epidemics the Searchers recognised the disease by the botch which 
is a plague token. 

37/6 et seqq. Arderne gives a most creditable account of cancer of the 
rectum, and distinguishes it clearly from dysentery. 

37/29. Those who know how many cases of cancer of the rectum are 
still overlooked and are treated as cases of chronic constipation, will trow 
with Arderne that there are still many "wele unkunyng leeches" abroad. 

38/1 1 et seqq. The treatment and the picture of the later stages of 
cancer of the rectum are excellent, and are evidently drawn from repeated 
personal experience. 

38/4O. Arderne very properly insists on a digital examination in cases 
of chronic nlceration of the rectum. Such an examination is still too often 
omitted. Both time and knowledge are then lost, to the great detriment 
of the patient. 

39/8. Bio is throughout the scribe's method of spelling blue ; " bloness" 
{cf. 52/27), therefore, is the same as bluish. 

Notes. Page 39, line 27 to page 44, line 38. 119 

39/27. Arderne again warns against the dishonest habit of operating 
merely for the sake of the fee when no commensurate advantage is gained 
by the patient. 

39/4O. Aysel is an early form for eissel vinegar. 

40/1. Virgo, pastoris was used by the old writers on materia inedica for 
several varieties of Dipsacus, and more especially for D. pilosus, silvestris 
and fullonum. It is the Teasel. 

40/21. There were several varieties of white ointment. The form 
attributed to Rhazes contains oil of roses 5ix ; Ceruse carefully washed 
in rose-water and powdered 5iii ', white wax ii. Avicenna's ointment 
contained litharge as an ingredient, with the white of eggs beaten into it. 

40/27. Attrament is here a synonym for Vitriol (cf. 79/i). " Of 
atramente^, i.e. of vitriolej." It also means Ink (cf. 67/28). 

40/33- Celidone is the Chelidonium majus, the juice of which was greatly 
esteemed as a collyrium, "because," says Gerarde (p. 911), "some hold 
opinion that with this herbe the dams restore sight to their young ones, 
when their eyes be put out." Dr. Prior (op. cit. p. 40) says that this 
notion, quoted by Gerarde from Doiioens and copied by him from Pliny, 
who had it from Aristotle, was received and repeated by every botanical 
writer, and is embodied in the Regimen Sanitatis Salerni 

" Csecatis pullis ac lumine mater hirundo 
Plinius ut scribit, quatnvis sunt eruta reddit." 

which was Englished 

" Young Swallowes that are blind, and lacke their sight, 
The Damme (by Celendine) doth give them light, 
Therefore (by Plinie) wee may boldly say, 
Celendine for the sight is good alway." 

41/i. Few sawage is erysipelas. Cf. 91/9, p. 133. 

41/8. The second pestilence was the epidemic of 1361. Cf. 1/4. 

41/33. ^ e blody fik is explained in the treatise on haemorrhoids to 
be a bleeding pile. Cf. 56/21. 

42/38. I cannot identify the powder creoferoboron or (43/2) the emplastre 
san^-uiboetos, nor does Arderne give the formulae for their preparation. 

43/40. Unguentum viride- The green ointment in. the later pharmacy 
(1733) consisted of Verdigris; Un^. ^Egyptiacum ; Oirit. of Elder; 
Colophony and Oil of Spike. The Ung. ^Kgyptiacurn was ascribed to 
Mestie, and in its simplest form was compounded with verdigris, honey 
and the sharpest vinegar. 

44/38. Women held a well-recognised position as practitioners of 
medicine in the Middle Ages, and several of the matron* or mulieres 
Sulernitanse attained renown at the School of Salernum. The best known 
is Trotula de Ruggiero, who wrote " de mulierum passionibus." But 
Arderne seems to allude here to the "ladies bountiful" of his time, for 
whom he had no great regard. Guy de Chauliac puts them last of his five 
sects of medical practitioners. The first contained Roger, Roland and the 
Four Masters who treated wounds with poultices ; the second, like Bruno 
and Theodoric, used dressings of wine and dried up the wounds ; the 
third included William Salicet and Lanfrank, who occupied, he says, a 
position intermediate between the other two sects. The fourth class 
embraced those who had been trained on the battlefield, and for whom 

120 Notes. Page 45, line 1 to page 48, line 38. 

Arderne had a sneaking regard ; they treated their wounds with charms, 
oil and wool, and said that God has given virtue to words, herbs and 
stones (cf. 104/15); whilst the fifth class consisted "of women and many 
idiots who refer all their sicknesses to the Saints." 

45/1. Drink of Antioch. Harl. 2378 MS. [B], p. 25, gives a receipt for 
"The Drink of Auntioch. Take 1 handful of daysye and 1 handful of bugle 
and 1 handful of red coole and 1 handful of strebery-wyses [stalks] and 1 
handful of fenule and half an handful of hempe and as mych of auence, as 
myche of tansey, as mych of herbe Robert [cf. 54/iy], as mych of mader, as 
mych of comfiry, iiii branche of orpyne, vi croppes of brere, vi croppes of 
red netle, and thyse herbes ben sothen in 1 galoun of whyt wyn lu-to a 
potell, and afterward put thereto as mych of liony clarifyed and after the 
mydlyrig set it ouer the fyr and thanne sterne it a litil, and this drynk schal 
ben vsed in this manere : }if to hym that is wounded or brysed by \>e morwen 
of this drynk iii sponful and vi sponful of water and loke that the seke be 
wel kept fro gotouse [gouty] metes and drynkys, and from wymmen, and 
loke also that the maladye be heled with brere-leues or with leues of the rede 
coole." ("Medical Works of the XIV cent," by Rev. Prof. G. Henslowe, 
1899, p. 77.) There was also an antidote of Antiochus. It was an ancient 
preparation composed of germander, agaric, colocynth, Arabian stsechas, 
opoponax, sagapenum, parsley, aristolochia, white pepper, cinnamon, 
lavender, myrrh and honey. It was used in melancholy, hydrophobia and 
epilepsy. This was known as Antiochi hiera. There was also a theriacum 
of Antiochus which was also an antidote to every kind of poison. It 
contained thyme, opoponax, millet, trefoil, fennel, aniseed, nigella sativa 
and other herbs. 

45/31. A porret is a young leek or onion a scallion says the New 
English Dictionary. 

46/25. Arderne gives in these pnssages a tolerably clear account of the 
condition known to us as tuberculous dactylitis, and to our immediate 
predecessors as spina ventosa. Cf. 21/2. 

47/25. Arderne is perfectly honest in his statements, and does not claim 
this patient as a cure. 

47/28. The bu$t of the knee is the bow or bend of the knee. 

48/2. The pede lyon is the Leontopetalum, Brumaria, Lion's leaf. 
It was considered to be good against the bites of serpents; the root applied 
helps the Sciatica and cleanses old filthy ulcers. 

48/i8. A spature. The Spathomele or spatula probe is the commonest 
of the classical surgical instruments. It consists of a long shaft with an 
olivary point at one end and a spatula at the other. The olive end was 
used for stirring medicaments and the spatula for spreading them, when 
it was employed in pharmacy. But it was so handy that it was often used 
as a blunt dissector, as Arderne did in this case. It was also used by 
painters for preparing and mixing their colours. See Dr. Milne, " Surgical 
Instruments in Greek and Roman Times," p. 58. 

48/32. Ventose. The cupping instruments were either of horn, copper, 
or glass, and they were used either with or without scarifications wet or 
dry cupping. 

48/38. This appears to be Arderne's sole piece of correct anatomical 
knowledge, except the information he had gained as to the position of the 
superficial veins of the arms and legs. Cf. 49/12. 

Notes. Page 49, line 14 to page 54, line 17. 121 

49/14. The treatise on Fistuhe ends abruptly with the words "flesshe, 
etc." The manuscript continues on the opposite page in a different hand, 
and with an account of isolated cases, inflammation in the arm and leg, 
witli Arderne's treatment. 

49 38. The first case seems to be one of thrombosis. The vena epatica 
is the vena hepatica of the arm and not of the liver. The vein arises on 
the back of the hand near its ulnar edge, taking origin from the plexus on 
the back of the hand and fingers. It ascends to the ulnar side of the fore- 
arm, where it is called the anterior cubital vein. It was known to medieval 
anatomists as the Salvatella (cf. 61/22), that on the right side being the 
salvatella hepatica, and the vein on the left arm the salvatella splenetics. 
In like manner the external saphenous vein was known as the salvatella 
pedis aut saphena. William of Salicet (Ed. Pifteau, p. 459) describes 
them carefully, saying, " Saluatella, hepatica in manu dextra, et splenetica 
in manu sinistra, quae est inter digitum annularem et auricularem. . . . 
Salutella pedis aut saphena." 

50/1. Dove's dung remained in use until after 1733. Alleyne, in his 
"New English Dispensatory," p. 146, col. 2, says: "The dung is sometimes 
ordered in cataplasms to be applied to the soles of the feet in malignant 
fevers and deliriums with an intent to draw the humours downwards ; 
which may not be ill-guessed." 

50/7. Arderne gives an account of his early experience of arsenic as 
a dressing on page 83. 

50/24. Auripigment is orpiment, or native yellow arsenic. 

52/8. The word garse, to scarify, seems to have an interesting history 
if, as the New English Dictionary suggests, it is derived through the Latin 
from the Greek x a P- ffffftv , to cut or incise, and has given origin to the 
English garsh or gash. 

52/14. Epithimation was identical with the modern fomentation of 
wounds and inflamed parts. Guy de Chauliac in his seventh treatise, 
Doct. i, chap, iv (Ed. Nicaise, p. 605) : says, " Embrocations and Epithems 
are simple or compound solutions with which the limbs are bathed and 
fomented. Sponges or linen being wrung out of them are applied to 
the part, and are frequently changed." 

52/15. Solsequium is the chicory or endive ; marigold being Calendula 

52/26. A felon was originally any small abscess or boil, but in later 
times the term was restricted more especially to a whitlow. The gloss 
anthrace written in a contemporary hand seems. to imply that Arderne was 
using the word in its earlier sense and to signify a carbuncle. 

52/28. The canon seems to have suffered from an attack of gouty 
eczema, which ended in thrombosis and the formation of a callous ulcer 
of the leg. 

53/15. A mormale was an inflamed sore, especially on the leg. Readers 
of Chaucer will remember of the Cook in the Prologue, line 386, " But 
great harm was it as it thought me That on his schynne a mormal hadde 
he." Arderne adopted the treatment still used for callous ulcers : he 
applied firm pressure, cleansed it, and afterwards applied a stimulating 

54/17. Herb Robert is the Geranium Robertianum. It is said to have 
been called after Robert, Duke of Normandy, to whom the " Regimen 
Sanitatis Salerni " was inscribed ; but it may refer to Kneclit Rupreclit, a 

122 Notes. Page 54, line 37 to page 55, line 3. 

German forest spirit. It was thought to be cleansing and binding, stopping 
blood and helping ulcers. 

54/37. The vena basilica. Cf. 49/38, p. 121. 
55/1. The sopheiia vein. Cf. 49/38, p. 121. 

55/3. The introduction to the "Treatise on Piles "is much shortened 
in this translation. The Latin text runs thus, and 1 am indebted to Miss 
E. M. Thompson for the transcription 

" Extractus pro emoroidis secundum Lanfrancum. 

" Extracta emoroidarurn secundum Lanfrancnm bononensem discretis- 
simum magistrum Regis francie qui duos libros cirurgie composuit, viz. 
minorem qui incipit sic ' Attendens, venerabilis amice Bernardo componere 
librum,' etc. Majorem vero qui incipit sic. 'Protector rite sperancium 
dens excelsus et gloriosus cuius nomen sit benedictum in secula,' etc. 
T ' Omne quod investigari potest vno trium modorum investigari potest aut 
per ejus nomen,' etc. if Item extracta ernoroidarum secundum magistrum 
Bernardnm de Gordon' in suo libro, quern librum composuit dictus Ber- 
nardus apud Montem Pessulanum i.[e.] Mont Pelers, anno dominimillesiino 
ccc iii et anno lecture sue xx qui sic incipit ' Interrogatus a quodam 
Socrates quomodo posset optime dicere Respondit si nichil dixeris nisi 
quod optime sciueris nichil autem optime scirnus nisi quod a nobis 
frequenter dictum est et quod ab omnibus receptum est.' IF Item extracta 
a pussionario Magistri Bartholomei qui sic incipit : ' Assiduis peticionibus 
mi karissime compendiose morborum signa causas et curas inscriptis 
redigere cogitis,' etc. IT Item extracta a micrologic Magistri Ricardi 
excellentis Industrie et a libro Magistri Rolandi et a libro Magistri Gwidonis 
de gracia pauperum et a practica Rogeri Baron. Et a practica Rogerini 
et a practica Magistri Johannitii Jamarcii et Gilbertini ac aliorum plurium 
expertorum quorum doctrinam inspexi et practizando que experciora reperi 
in hoc libello domino mediante innotescent. IT Ricardus qui incipit si quid 
agam preter solitum veniam date cun[c]ti. ^f Rolandus Rogerus Braun 
Rogerinus, Johannitius, Jamarcus, Gwidoii, Gilbertinus." 

Arderne shows here the extent of his reading in connection with 
haemorrhoids in the same manner as he does in his commentary on Giles 
of Corbeuil's treatise de Urinis, where he also quotes his authorities. The 
first thing perhaps that strikes us is the number of books to which he had 
access. Books during his lifetime were a luxury of the rich, and those 
who know the early history of the University of Oxford will remember 
the gratitude with which the gifts of books from Duke Humphry and 
the Duke of Bedford were received from 1439 onwards, as "life-giving 
showers wherewith the vineyard was rendered fruitful, and from which an 
abundant supply of oil from the olive trees of the University might be 
expected." Arderne may, of course, have spent his fees in buying MSS. 
just as some of us do at the present day, but it is probable that he had 
access to the Libraries of his patrons like John of Gaunt, who were men 
of letters as well as of affairs, and he was thus able to quote verbatim et 
literatim, as in the present instance. 

Lanfrank of Milan, as baa been said (cf. Forewords, p. xxv), was a pupil 
of William de Salicet. He was one of the great teachers of Surgery at 
Paris, and died in 1306. The "Chirurgia magna" was issued in 1295-6 as 
an enlarged edition of the " Chirurgia parva " published in 1270. He taught 
tliat Anatomy was the foundation of Surgery. 

Bernard of Gordon was Professor at Montpellier, where he began to 
teach in 1285, and published his " Lilium medicina? " in 1305. The words 

Notes. Page 55, line 3 to page, 55, line 24. 123 

quoted by Arderne are printed in the 1542 edition of the "Lilium" as the 
first words of the Preface. Arderne gives the date as 1303. The Lyons 
and Paris editions both give it 1305. 

Master Bartholomew of Salernum was a pupil of Constantinus Africanus 
late in the eleventh century. Arderne is mistaken in ascribing the " Passion- 
arius " to him. The book, which is often called the " Passionarius Galeni," 
was really written by Gariopontus, a teacher at Salernum early in the 
eleventh century. The edition printed at Basel in 1531 gives the authorship 
correctly, but the Lyons edition in 1526 calls it Galen's. 

Master Richard seems to be Richard the Englishman already mentioned. 
Cf. 11/2O, p. 113. He was also called Ricardus senior, and was a Master at 
Salerno at the end of the twelfth century. He also lived in France and 
in England. His book, " Micrologus," is a collection of short treatises 
written at different times: (1) Practica, (2) De Urinis, (3) Anatomia, 
(4) Repressiva, (5) Prognostica. Taken alone Micrologns would probably 
refer to the " Practica." None of Richard's works have been printed. 

Master Roland was from Parma, and he edited in 1264 the "Practica 
Chirurgise," which was written by Master Roger in 1180. Roger's book 
was sometimes called " Rogerina," or "Rogerina major, medius et minor." 
It was often attributed to Roger Bacon. This was the text-book upon 
which the Four Masters wrote their celebrated Commentary. " Roger and 
Roland," says Sir Clifford Allbntt ("The Historical Relations of Medicine 
and Surgery," Lond. 1905, p. 27), "stand like Twin Brethren in the dawn 
of modern medicine bearing the very names of romance. Roger's book 
was no mere cooking of Albucasis. Before Theodoric, Roger refractured 
badly united bones. For haemorrhage he used styptics, the suture or the 
ligature ;. the ligature he learned no doubt from Paul." 

Master Guido is Guy de Chauliac, the contemporary of Arderne, for he 
flourished in the second half of the fourteenth century. Guy took orders 
and was physician to Pope Clement VI at Avignon ; Arderne with a bias 
towards religion remained a layman. Both were Master surgeons. Guido 
held with Lanfrank that Anatomy was the basis of Surgery ; Arderne 
drifted towards drugs, words and charms, and knew no anatomy. 

Roger de Barone or de Varone is credited with a treatise " Summa 
Rogerii, 1 ' or " Practica parva." The date is disputed, but it was probably 
written at Montpellier late in the thirteenth century. 

Johannice is Johannitius Honein Ben Ishak (809-873), the son of a 
Christian Apothecary, and one of the great translators of medical works 
from Greek into Arabic. His introduction to Galen's "-Microtechni" was 
issued in Latin under the title " Lsagoge Johannitii." 

Jamarcius, in all probability, is Johannes Jarnerius, a surgeon of the 
school of Salernum. Guy de Chauliac quotes him no less than forty times, 
and says in one passage: "Jamerius followed, who made a sort of rough 
surgery in which there were many pointless things, but he was chiefly a 
disciple of Roland " (' Puis est trouve Jamier qui a fait quelque Chirurgie 
brutale, en laquelle il a mesle plusieurs fadeizes, toutefois en beaucoup de 
choses il a suivy Rogier," Cap. i, p. 14, Ed. Nicaise). Dr. Pansier (Janus, 
1903) gives an account of the manuscripts of his works at Oxford and 
Paris, and Prof. Pagel of Berlin has published a manuscript of his surgery 
(Berlin, 1909), under the title " Chirurgia Jamati." 

Master Gilbertyne is Gilbert the Englishman. Cf. 11/2O, p. 113. 

55/17. Alienee is clearly a variant of Anent, i. e. "according to." 

55/24. This passage shows how little the people have learned about 
medical terms since John Arderne wrote this treatise. "Piles" is still a 
generic name for all diseases of the rectum in the out-patient room of a 

124 Notes. Page 55, line 29 to page 59, line 32. 

hospital, and no one who has had much experience takes a diagnosis of piles 
as correct until he has verified it by examination. 

60/29. John Damascene is the name under which the fourteenth- 
century writers on surgery concealed the identity of the elder Serapion, who 
lived in the ninth century. Some of his works were published under the 
name of Janus Damascenns. The Pandects in seven books were translated 
into Latin under the name of the Breviarium. Cf. 12/i, p. 113. 

56/y. Avicenna, the Prince of Science, was born near Bokhara in 980 A.D. 
and early showed his precocity, for he knew the Koran and several books of 
philosophy by heart when he was ten years old. His genius turned first to 
law, but at the age of 16 he had made such progress in medicine as to 
warrant his appointment as personal physician to the Sultan Ben Mansur. 
" Wein, Weib und Gesang " killed him at the age of 57, in June 1037, but 
not before he had written his " Canon," which was translated into Latin in 
the twelfth century and remained a text-book until the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 

57/3O. Morpheiv was a general name given to skin eruptions which 
changed their colour. The white morphew appears to have been an early 
stage of leprosy in some cases ; vitiligo in others. Black morphew 
was a general term which included many different diseases of the skin. 

59/32. uiEgidius Corboliensis, or Gilles de Corbeil, was descended from the 
Counts of Corbeil, and devoted himself to the study of medicine at Salerno. 
He is said to have taught medicine at that school, and afterwards from the 
end of the twelfth to the beginning of the thirteenth century to have lived 
at Paris as Major-domo and Physician to Philip Augustus (1180-1223). 
His two works, " De Urinis, de Pulsibus, de Virtutibus et laudibus com- 
positorum medicamentornm" and " De Signis et symptomatibus segritudi- 
num ' ' are in metre and expressed in classical Latin far superior to that of 
contemporary medical authors. Arderne wrote a commentary in English 
upon the " Tractatus de urinis," and a copy of it exists in the Hunterian 
Library at Glasgow. It is described in the Catalogue (p. 264) as : 328. 
^Egidii Corboliensis, Tractatus Metricus de Vrinis. Master John Arderne, 
Commentary in English on the above Treatise "De Vrinis." (Press Mark 
U. 7. 22; Q. 7. 16; Q. 7. 130.) Description. Vellum 7fx5 ff. 68, 
originally ft'. 69 (or ff. 70), well written in a plain hand in single cols, of 
about 29 lines, each 5f-5x3J, margined with brown crayon, not ruled, 
signatures, traces only left, practically all gnawed off (by beetles) where 
not cropped, catchwords, foliation modern (in pencil), rubrics, rubricated 
initials and IF IT, running titles, initials touched with vermilion, marginalia 
much cropped, writing retouched in places, fol. sec. blank. Early Cent. xv. 
Binding, thin beech boards, covered quarter calf, coarse dark blue paper 
sides. Early Cent, xviii. 

Collation. Two paper fly-leaves (i 2 ) both attached || I 8 3 8 , 4 7 ( 8 ), 
5* 7 s , 8 7 ( 8 ), 9( 6 ). Two fly-leaves (ii 2 ), ii, 2. attached; 4, 6 is cut out 
(probably to remove a miswritten leaf as the text is continuous) ; 8, 3 is a 
half sheet (probably so originally). 

Contents: i. .ZEgidius (Gilles) of Corbeil's Treatise (in Latin verse) 
on Urines, with Master John Arderne' s Commentary. 

Begins (1. i (f. i) r. lines 1-8) ; E (rubricated initial with gestures) go 
Magister Johannes Arderonn hanc (struck out) hoc (above) opusculum 
composui/de Jndicijs/ Vrinarum per colores et contenta secuncliim Indi- 
cium /Egidij. et ypocratis. Walterij. Gilis. Gilbert!, Gordoni. Johannis de/ 
Sancto Amando. ysaac. Auicenne. theophili, Galyeni. Galterij/et tholomej. 
in medicinam et medicum domiri regis illustrissimi / principis henrici 

Notes. Page 60, line 6 to page 62, line 32 125 

quart! cuius anime propicietur deus. Amen. / de. nigra. vrina. capitulura 

Ends (6, 5 (f. 44) v. line 26) ; IT vryn black and watery in a fat manne 
mortem significat. 

60/6. Noli-me-tangere. Guy de Chauliac (iv me traite" Doct. i, ch. vi, 
p. 318, Ed. Nicaise), speaking of chancre ulcere, says that Guillaume de 
Salicet called it "Noli-me-tangere because the more it was meddled with 
the worse it became (Finalement, Guillaume de Salicet juge, que chancre 
est maladie despiteuse et fascheuse, d'autant que plus on la manie, plus 
il est indigne. Parquoy il conseille que ne soit touche, sinon legerement, 
et a cette cause est appelle Noli-me-tangere)." I cannot find the passage 
in Pifteau's edition of Salicet's Surgery. 

60/24. Millefoile is the yarrow Achillaea Millefolium though Apuleius, 
according to Dr. Prior, seems to have meant the horse-tail, Equisetum. 

60/27. Bursa pastoris is the Shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa, which 
was long considered an excellent styptic. 

Pan-ends is the Periwinkle, the Vinca major and minor. It seems to 
have derived its name from the Latin Perivincula because it was used for 

61/5 and 12. So long as the blood was looked upon as stationary it was 
a common belief that the vein from which the blood was taken altered the 
result. Arderne teaches here that letting blood from the external saphenous 
vein stopped bleeding from a pile, whilst bleeding from the internal 
saphenous vein increased the haemorrhage. 

61/22. The vena salvatella (cf. 49/38, p. 121) ran along the back 
of the hand between the third and fourth metacarpal bones. Patients 
were bled from it when they were chronic invalids owing to " congestion 
of the liver or spleen," says Prof. Nicaise. 

61/23. There is here a clear distinction made between the clumsy 
phlebotome with its h albert shape and the more delicate and easily mani- 
pulated lancet (cf. 24/2 1). 

62/6. It is clear from this passage that Arderne was as unwilling to 
demean himself by breathing a vein as we should now be to crop a poll. 
Both were the duties of the barber, who was clearly in an inferior 

62/14. This mutilated passage runs in another English translation 
(Sloane MS. No. 76), "Alsoe Gordon saythe that in ouer mich or greate 
fluxe in reasonable aged persones nothinge avayletli moare then pourginge, 
for the grosse and slymye matter being pourged awaye the rnedicyns 
restrictyue shull worke the better. Mirobalans will worke excellently in 
that case for they pourge before and stoppe after them, that is, it loseneth 
by reason of his swiftness in digestion and bringeth forth all grosse humour 
with yt. yt must be warely prepared, whose preparation is J)is. It must 
be dissolved with warme mylke and whaye and not boyled or sodden with 
anythinge, for by boylinge the gummy substance vadeth awaye in the 
sinooke and so the strength thereof ys weakened." 

62/32. The meaning of this passage seems obscure at first, but Arderne 
says that myrobalani in their different forms were good against the different 
humours recognised by the ancient physicians Sanguis, choler, melancholia 
and phlegma. " Myrobalani are the fruit of several species of Terminalia 
and of the Phyllanthus emblica," says "Mayne's Expository Lexicon" 
(Sydenham Soc. edition). They contain a large quantity of tannin and in 

126 Notes. Page 63, line 22 to page 64, line 6. 

the M. chebulae some gallic acid. They were much employed by the 
Arabian physicians in many diseases ; some lauding them as emetics and 
cathartics which purged away all evil humours ; and others as useful in 
the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, acting first as a laxative and then 
as an astringent the view taken by Arderne, cf. 62/14. They were 
formerly much employed in European medicine, but are not now used. 
The dose was 2 to 8 drachms. Myrobalani citrina is the fruit of a variety 
of Terminalia chebulae ; they were sometimes called White Galls. Kebuliz 
is the fruit of the terminalia chebula which resembles M. bellericae in 
figure and ridges, but is larger and darker with a thicker pulp. 

Indi, or Myrobalani indicse, are probably the unripe fruit of Terminalia 
chebula and T. bellerica. These black myrobalans are oblong shaped and 
have no stone. 

The belleric myrobalans are the fruit of Terminalia bellerica. They are 
yellowish -grey in colour and roundish or oblong in shape. The Emblici 
are the produce of the Emblica officinalis or the Phyllanthus emblica, a 
plant inhabiting the East Indies and frequently cultivated. The dried 
fruits are used as a purge and also as a tanning agent. 

63/22. Storax calamita is the dry resin of the Storax tree. 

68/25. Porcelane or Porcelayne is the older name of Portulaca com- 
munis, purslane. It was recommended at first as a great assuager of 
choleric heat ; afterwards as a cure for scurvy and all skin eruptions ; and 
lastly as an ingredient in salads. 

68/29. The Latin text gives lapis haematites for lapis omoptoes. 

Haematites. The bloodstone is found in iron mines in Germany and 
Bohemia of a black, yellowish, or iron colour. The best is brittle, very 
black and even, free from filth, and of a Cinnabar-like colour. It is to be 
reduced into a most subtile powder by levigation with plantain water. It 
is good against the gout, fluxes of the Womb and Belly, spitting blood and 
bleeding at the nose ; mixed with woman's milk it helps blear eyes and 

Ypoquistid is Hypocistis, the juice of the root of the shrub Cistis or 
Holly Rose dried in the sun. It was regarded as an astringent, and Acacia 
was used as a substitute for it. Sumalc is the rlius obsoniorum of which 
the fruits were looked upon as cooling and astringent. 

Quinque-Nervia is the Plantago lanceolata or Ribwort, of which the 
distilled water " helps spitting and pissing blood, and the Ptysick, stops 
the Courses, eases the Cholick and heals a Dysenteria, cools inflammations, 
dissolves nodes and mundifies Fistulas. The Essence is better," says 
Salmon in 1678. 

64/r. This passage is given in greater detail in the later English trans- 
lation (Sloane MS. 76), where it runs: "Of the Emmorroydes and Men- 
strualles. The Emorroydes or menstrualles flowinge strongely, or the 
pacient sore afflicted with the force of blood, ye must consider of the 
suerest waye and that which returns blood fastest. First, if the pacient be 
not very weake, let him bleed somethinge of both Basillic vaynes of the 
arme and set cuppinge glasses under woman's breistes and so doinge and 
by bindinge the armes paynedly will provoke the humours to returne, and 
after that use local remedyes." 

64/6. Muscilage dragaunte. This should certainly be Muscilage Draga- 
gant. Arderne is careful to explain the difference between Dragaunte and 
Dragagant. 79/3-4. Dragant is a crude sulphate, acting as an astringent, 
whilst dragagant is tragacanth. 

Notes. Page 64, line 11 to page 66, line 3. 127 

64/n. Red coral was long used as an astringent in diarrhoea and in 
the form of a compound syrup, and it was employed as a teething powder 
for children. It is still used as a charm against the evil eye in London, 
for most babies' rattles mounted in silver are tipped with a piece of red 

64/13. Canell. Arderne's translator uses canell throughout as the 
equivalent of Cinnamomum. 

64/1 8. Coprose is Green Vitriol. Salmon says in 1678 : " This owes its 
colour to Iron ; in London it is well known that most of the old iron which 
is gathered by many poor people is sold to the Copperas houses at Rother- 
hith and Deptford, which they boil up with a dissolution of the Pyrites, 
which is a stone found on the shore of the Isle of Shepey and other such 
like places, and let the liquor run out into convenient vessels or Cisterns 
in which it shoots into those forms we meet with amongst druggists. It is 
chiefly used as an Astringent." 

64/25. Kynnyng is clearly a variant of the more common form chine, 
to burst open or split. It is still in familiar use, as in the Chines of the 
Isle of Wight. 

64/32. Arderne shows both in this passage and in previous ones (cf. 
7/39, P- H2) that neurasthenia was not unknown in his practice. 

64/36. Clyffyng. This is an early instance of the confusion between 
Cliff and clift, the original form of Cleft. 

66/27. Psidie was pomegranate rind : Balaustia being the flowers of 
the wild pomegranate Punica sylvestris. 

Mumme was divided into five forms. (1) A factitious made of bitumen 
and Pitch-Pissasphaltum ; (2) Flesh of the carcase dried in the Sun, in the 
country of the Hammonians between Cyrene and Alexandria, being 
Passengers buried in the Quick-sands ; (3) ./Egyptian, a liquor sweating 
from carcases embalmed with Pissasphalttim ; (4) Arabian, a liquor which 
sweats from carcases embalmed with Myrrh, Aloes, and Balsam ; (5) 
Artificial, which is Modern. Of all which the two last are the best, but the 
Arabian is scarcely to be got ; the second and third sorts are sold for it. 
The artificial or modern mummy is made thus : " Take the carcase of a 
young man (some say red hair'd) not dying of a disease, but killed ; let it 
lie 24 hours in clear water in the Air ; cut the flesh in pieces, to which 
add powder of myrrh and a little Aloes ; imbibe it 24 hours in the spirit 
of wine and Turpentine, take it out, hang it up twelve hours ; imbibe it 
again 24 hours in fresh spirit, then hang up the pieces in dry air and a 
shadowy place, so will they dry and not stink." (Salmon, "The New 
London Dispensatory," 1678, p. 194.) There was a tincture, an essence, an 
elixir and a balsam of this precious medicine. It dissolved congealed and 
coagulated blood, provoked the terms, expelled the wind out of both the 
bowels and the Veins, helped Coughs and was a great Vulnerary. It was 
also said to purge. The dose was a drachm. 

Olibanum is frankincense, the resin obtained from Boswellia Carteri. 
It was employed as a stimulating expectorant, as an emmenagogue, as an 
ointment in skin diseases and some diseases of the eyes, and as an ingre- 
dient of stimulating plasters. 

66/3. Red Jasper was considered to be of the nature of the blood stone, 
for it not only stops bleedings at the nose and other fluxes of blood but 
also the flux of the terms. 

Saphir. " The Saphire is either Oriental or Occidental, and of each 

128 Notes. Page 66, line 4 to page 67, line 34. 

there are Male and Female. It is a glorious, clear, transparent, blew, or 
sky-coloured stone, these are the Males. The females are white and 
unripe, so they want colour. The stone laid whole to the forehead stays 
the bleeding at the nose. You may dissolve it in juice of Lemons or Spirit 
of Vinegar and so use it ; drunk in wine it helps against the stinging of 
scorpions. You may also beat it into a powder and levigate it with 

"The Ruby or Carbuncle is either white or red ; being drunk, it restrains 
Lust and makes a man lively and cheerful." 

66/4. The dung of swine helps the bitings and stinging of serpents, 
Scorpions, and Mad-dogs. It softens, discusses, and cures hard tumours, 
Scrophulas, Corns, Warts, Bleeding at the nose, Itch, Small-pox, Scabs, 
Fractures, Luxations, Wounds, Burns, Scalds, stops Bleeding, etc. 

66/7. The belief in the juice of nettle as a blood purifier still lingers 
among us. As a child I had repeated attacks of urticaria ; on several 
occasions I was ordered a tumblerful of the infusion of nettles to be taken 
hot and in the morning, fasting, but so far as I remember without effect 
either in shortening the intervals between the attacks or curing their 

66/19. A streit wound : cf. " streit is the gate and narrow is the way 
which leadeth unto life'' (Matt. vii. 14). 

66/25. Arderne here recommends the use of acupressure as a means of 
arresting haemorrhage. 

67/8. Comyn. Dr. Prior derives this word from the Arabic al 
qamoun. It is the Cuminum cyminum. Its seeds have long been in 
general use as a stomachic. 

67/13. Orpine is the Sedum Telephium, a well-known inmate of the 
cottage garden, being esteemed as a vulnerary. The Latin text gives 
Succus ebulse, juice of the Danewort or Dwarf elder. 

67/28. The Lombards as an enterprising trading community in London 
are mentioned again in the Treatise on Clysters ; cf. 76/32. 

67/28. Two kinds of ink seem to have been used by the surgeons in 
the fourteenth century, Attramentum and Encaustum. The Attramen- 
tum seems to have been a sulphate containing powdered galls, whilst the 
encaustum literally, purple ink reserved for the royal use was made with 
Chalcantum, a generic name for the sulphates of copper, iron and zinc. 
Salicet (Ed. Pifteau, p. 207) used the purple ink to stain the bone for the 
purpose of discovering a line or fracture of the skull. Henri de Monde- 
ville (Ed. Nicaise, p. 506) marked out his flaps with it before amputating. 
Guy de Chauliac (Ed. Nicaise, p. 343) employs attramentum (cf. 40/2/, 
p. 119), as a local astringent in piles, and (p. 521) uses the purple ink for 
surface marking. 

67/31. Bdellium is a gum resin somewhat resembling very impure 
myrrh. It is the product of various species of Balsamodendron. 

67/32. Anteros was anthera, semen rosarum. Rose threads, viz. the 
yellow threads in the middle of the flowers. They were used with dentri- 
frices and to dry up defluxions. 

67/34. This Demetrius may have been Demetrius II, King of Georgia, 
son of David III, who came to the throne in 1126 and died 1158. He was 
constantly at war with the Mussulmen. It may have been his son 
Demetrius III who died 1289. Arderne perhaps heard the story from 
those who had been to Lithuania with Sir Geoffrey Scrope. Cf. 14/4, p. 114. 

Notes. Page 67, line 39 to page 72, line 27. 129 

67/39 and 68/1. The Cuckoo's Bread is the Oxalis Acetosella. It is 
called also Cuckoo's Meat or Gowk's Meat and Wood Sorrel. It was 
called Hallelujah because it blossomed between Easter and Whitsuntide, 
the season at which the 113th to the 117th Psalms were sung. Arderne's 
translator calls it Alleluia. Cf. 68/1. 

68/14. Galang is the name given to two kinds of roots obtained from a 
species of Alpinia, the greater and smaller galanga. The word itself is 
said to be a corruption of the Chinese liang-kiang, mild ginger. 

69/1. Arderne gives the reason for using Crocus or Saffron with opium 
(cf. 101/35), because it acted as a bridle to that drug. 

69/14. This appears to be the original prescription for the Valence 
which handed Arderne's name down to posterity until after the publication 
of the " Pharmacopoeia Londinensis." (Cf. Forewords, pp. xxx-xxxi.) My 
copy, Baid to be the editio quarta, with the frontispiece dated 1632, says 
(p. 155), " Valentia Scabiosas lohannis Ardernii, ex Oppido (vulgo) Newark 
in Comitatu Nottingham ; Chirurgi exerciatissimi ; qui floruit anno 1370 ; 
tempore Edouardi tertii Regis Angliae, ipsissimis verbis ex antique 
manuscripto excerpta. . . Tapsivalencia ejusdem authoris. . . Tapsimel 
ejusdem. . . Haec ad verbum ex veteri Manuscripto et stylo suo. 

69/2Q. Populeon was an ointment made from the buds of the white 
poplar or Aspen tree. Cf. 77/3. 

70/19. Furfur is Bran. It entered very largely into the materia medica 
of the older leeches. 

71/21. A ivelked grape; cf. Chaucer, Pardoner's Tale, 1. 270, " For which 
ful pale and welked is my face," in the sense of wrinkled or shrivelled. 

71/26. This short treatise on Tenesmus is excellent from a professional 
point of view, and it does not appear that the use of the term has mate- 
rially altered in the course of the centuries which have elapsed since 
Arderne wrote it. 

71-74. These are the passages which show Arderne to be a first-rate 
observer independent of book work. The prognosis holds good to this 
day. If the enema is returned at once either the bowel is paralysed because 
the patient is moribund from some obstruction which may be situated 
high up, or there may be an obstruction near the anus without paralysis, or 
the bowel is blocked by the impaction of faeces consequent upon obstinate 
constipation. In the last case the patient may recover, and Arderne says 
therefore that his rule is not without exceptions. 

72/9. Diagredium is made from scammony by putting the powder into 
a hollow quince, covering it with a paste and baking it in an oven or 
under ashes. 

72/12. The iliac passion was a general name for intestinal obstruction 
at a time when morbid anatomy was unknown. It included a variety of 
conditions from simple colic to suppurative peritonitis in all its forms. 
The scene closed with fsecal vomiting, as no attempt was ever made to 
treat it by surgical means. 

72/2O. Scariola is the endive, Cichorium Endivia. 

72/23. The dusty meel of the milne is only the finest flour used as a 
vehicle to make the grease and honey into a mass. 

72/27. Cabbage, Brassica sativa or Caulis, was much used by the 
school of Salernum, and Arderne mentions it previously. Cf. 70/ig and 



130 Notes. Page 72, line 28 to page 77, line 3. 

72/28. Fenigreke is the faenum graecum, whose seeds were used in 
emollient clysters, for they are mucilaginous. 

73/6. Mellilote is here explained by Arderne as the tops of colewort, 
but the term is usually applied to M. officinalis, the dried flowers of which 
were used for making poultices. Two varieties were recognised, the white 
and the yellow. 

73/3O. The translator has omitted the passage about the ostrich feather 
and the Prince of Wales which is given in Forewords, p. xxvii. It should 
come after the word lure, 

73/32. Oimbalarie is the Pennywort Linaria Cymbalaria so called 
from its round leaves. It was good " against all inflammations and hot 
tumours, St. Antonie's fire and Kibed heels." 

74/2. Triasantalorum. There were three kinds of Sandal in use, 
alburn, rufum, and citrinum. Triasantalorum therefore is a confection of 
the three Sandals just as Diatritonpipereon is a confection of the three 

74/26. Salicet (Ed. Pifteau) gives two formulas (pp. 171 and 504) for 
making an unguentum apostolorum. The ointment contained white wax : 
pine resin : aristolochia : incense : mastic : opoponax : myrrh : galbanum, 
litharge, etc. Guy de Chauliac (Ed. Nicaise, p. 617) gives a similar formula, 
and adds that Mesue named it Ceraseos, but Master Anserin de la Porte 
and Master Pierre de 1'Argentiere of Montpellier call it Gratia Dei, because 
it cures bad ulcers so wonderfully. Henri de Mondeville (Ed. Nicaise, p. 
800) calls it the green ointment of the Twelve Apostles on account of its 
twelve chief ingredients, and states that some writers call it Unguentum 
Apostolicon, others Unguentum Veneris, or simply the Plaister. 

74/30. Pellitory of the wall is the Parietaria officinalis. It grows on 
old walls and was thought to draw lime from the mortar. 

74/31. Allusion to this interpolation in the text is made in Forewords 
(p. xii). It shows that the translation here printed cannot be earlier 
than 1413, the year of Henry IV's death. 

74/33. The short treatise on Enemata is written to show Arderne's 
improvements in apparatus as well as in methods. He is, as usual, ahead 
of his contemporaries in simplifying both. 

75/23. Rerepigre. This word seems to be a mistake of the copyist 
for Hiera pigre, Yera pigra, or iera pigra. The sacred bitter, an aloetic 
purgative which has long been popular. Dr. Payne says it is still sold in 
the shops of herbalists under the debased name of " Hackry-Packry." The 
usual formula was that given by Galen. 

76/ig. Mercurialis. The English mercury chenopodium is sometimes 
called Good Henry the all-good, to distinguish it from a poisonous form. 
The Grimms in their " Wbrterbuch " explain this name as having reference to 
elves and kobolds, which were called " Heinz " or " Heinrich," and as 
indicating supernatural powers in the plant (Dr. Prior, p. 94). It W;IB 
thought to be laxative, and was long given by nurses to children with 
their food. 

76/32. Lombards. Cf. 67/28, p. 128. 

76/36. This passage may mean either that the patients came to Arderne, 
or that they were relieved before he got home again. 

77/3. Popilion. Cf. 69/29, p. 129. 

Notes. Page 77, line 12 to page 81, line 30. 131 

11 1 12. This is an eurly use of the treatment of chronic constipation by 
abdominal massage, which has lately become fashionable again. 

78/25. Arderne is here advocating rectal feeding which is now commonly 
used and with excellent results. 

79/1. This last treatise is only a fragment in the present translation. 
A much fuller text is found in the Bodleian Library, where it exists in 
three parts. The first MS., Ashmole 1434, leaf 117, begins " Attramento- 
rum, t. e. vitriolorum," and ends " facit calcantum." This corresponds, 
therefore, with p. 79, line 1 to page 81, line 23. The second part is in 
MS. Digby 161, leaf 16. It begins, " Alumen zucarinum vulgariter alum- 
glaa," and ends leaf 23, back, " nobillissimnm est ad regem." The transla- 
tion only contains a small part of this as it ends at page 85, line 22. The 
third part is in Ashmole MS. 1434, leaf 128, back, to leaf 131. It gives a 
good account of Arderne's treatment of Scabies by which he made a great 
deal of money (cf. 6/4, p. 111). 

79/r. This passage explains itself. Dragagant is Tragacanth, a gummy 
exudation obtained from incisions made in the stem of Astragalus gemmifer. 
It is a demulcent and is still used in medicine as a vehicle to suspend 
heavy and insoluble powders like the subnitrate of bismuth. 

79/4. Dragant is a modification of Chalcanthum from chalcis or vitriol 
romanum. Cf. 64/6. Calcothar is the red oxide of iron obtained by 
calcining sulphate of iron or green coperose. 

79/IO. Platearius was the name of a distinguished medical family living 
in the twelfth century. John, the elder, wrote " Practica brevia" and 
" Regulee urinarum." John, the son, wrote " Tractatus de sagritudinum 
curatione " and " De conferentibus et nocentibus corporis humani." 
Matthew, brother of John the son, made a name for himself, but his writ- 
ings are unknown. Matthew (floruit 1130-1150), grandson of John the 
elder and son of John the younger, wrote " De simplici medicina liber," 
quoted from the first words of the text as "circa instans." John, the 
tliird eon of Matthew the elder and therefore cousin of Matthew " circa 
inatans," was also known to fame. 

79/1 8. Venemyd wound. The expression is still in common use, only 
we say a " poisoned wound," and bacteriology has given us an explanation 
of its occurrence. 

79/27. Fraudulent ulcers. Guy de Chauliac divides ulcers into 
corrosive, sordid, cavernous, fistulous and chancre. The fraudulent ulcer is 
sordid, the characters are a sore or stinking scab. Henri de Mondeville 
also describes (Ed. Nicaise, p. 421, note) a fraudulent corrosive ulcer. 

80/27. Lutum sapiencice, also called lutum sapientum, was used by the 
alchemists for sealing their vessels. It was made with flour, white of egg, 
chalk and clay. 

80/39. Arderne uses marice as the special term for the uterus, and em- 
ploys the word womb where we should say " belly." Cf. 11/24, P- H3. 

81/ri. Pulv: hermodactilej. Hermodactylus is a name given to many 
plants with tuberous roots, notably to hermodactylus tuberosus. One form 
was used as a cure for gout, and may have been colchicum. 

81/30. The scab is here scabies or the itch, a contagious disease 
which the habits of the time made prevalent through every class of 

132 Notes. Page 82, line 31 to page 89, line 7. 

82/31. Arsenic was known at this time in the forms of the yellow sulph- 
ide, orpiment or Auripigmentum, and the red sulphide or Realgar. Arderne 
gives an interesting and evidently truthful account of his early experiences 
with the drug as a local application. Henri de Mondeville held a similar 
respect for it, perhaps based also on the grounds of experience, for he says 
" Realgar is strongly corrosive, dangerous and poisonous " (Ed. Nicaise, 
p. 850). 

86/22. The translator has left out a most interesting case which reads 
as if the patient had Actinomycosis. Digby MS. 161, leaf 18, gives these 
details, the translation is mine. "A certain man, however, at Bridgeford- 
on-Trent, in the county of Nottingham, had a bad ulcer upon the back of his 
hand, and there were grains in it like barleycorns full of blood, and if the 
hand was compressed by the fingers a satlious and stinking discharge was 
driven out with itching and sometimes with pain." The patient was 
completely cured after realgar and soap had been applied. 

The text runs : "Quidam homo tamen in Briggeforde super Trent in 
Comitatu Notyngham', habuit serpiginem granosam super tergum manus 
et grana erant similia granis ordei plena sanguine et si manus cum digitis 
compressa sanies sub granis erumpebat cum fetore pruritu et aliquando cum 

" Quando vero post multa medicamina recepta cum pulvere realgar' et 
sapone nigro commixtum totum herpetem predictum bene liniui et fmniter 
applicaui. Paciens vero ingentem dolorem per diem naturalem perpessus 
est, et manus nimis erat inflatus pre dolore et calore. Quo viso, super- 
posui vitellum oui crudum cum oleo rosarum, et manum bene cum dicto 
oleo permixi tandem incepit fieri diuisio circa extremitates ulceris et 
medicina predicta nihil nocuerat sano corio sed tantummodo quod infectum 
fuerat mortificauit. Continuato vero medicamine de vitello et oleo rosarum 
tota ilia pellis dicte manus infecta, bene est emulsa et omnino separata 
sine neruorum aut venarum lesione. Qua vero reparata vulnus cum vitello 
oui crudo et cum melle rosarum mixto et alfita subtilicia cum stupis lini 
delicatis inter ossa et emplastrum apposit'. 

" Emplastrum jamdictum super stupas lini mundas extensum supraposui 
et cum hac sola cura peroptime pacientem curaui sine mutilacione neru- 
orum aut venarum. Post consolidacionem vulneris supraposui emplastrum 
de diaquilo resoluto cum unguento maluarum et lilii et supposui longo 
tempore donee pellis noua fuerat bene digesta et ne reciperet alteracionem 
a ae're vel alio casu contingente." 

87/25. These rules show the excellence of Arderne's practice. The 
simplest dressings were only renewed when it was necessary. He was in 
every way an opponent of meddlesome surgery, and thus takes a very 
high place, not only amongst his contemporaries, but amongst all surgeons. 

88/9. And yet almost immediately he shows the lack of critical faculty 
which characterizes so many mediaeval writers. The superstition about 
the harmfulness of a menstruating woman is well known to all students of 
folk-medicine. The question ia still raised in all seriousness from time 
to time both in lay and medical papers. 

89/7. -PwZiv sanguinis veneris. The use of human blood was no new 
thing. Dr. J. F. Payne has an interesting article on the subject, "Arnold 
de Villa Nova on the therapeutic use of human blood" (Janus, 1903, 
pp. 432 and 477). Jamerius (cf. 55/3- p. 123) used a powder which he called 
" human powder," many years before Arderne, " against all wounds." The 
formula ran, " I&. Symphyti ; balaustie, rosarum, squinanti, masticis olibani 
ana Jij : aluminis, arilli uvarum ana 5j, atramenti, sanguinis draconis 

Notes. Page 89, line 14 to pafje 100, line 15. 133 

ana 3s : galbani 5ij : galle asiane 5j : culofonie, boli armenici ana 5'j : 
sanguinis humani gvi. Effunde super pellem arietis et siccati et ejusdem 
pellis arietine combuste et pulverijate 5 n j " [rubric xxxvii]. 

89/14. Alkanet is the root of Anchusa tinctoria. It was formerly used 
as an astringent, but is now only used as a colouring material. 

89/30. A holloio ulcer or ulcus concavum is the same thing, says Henri 
de Mondeville (Ed. Nicaise, p. 425), as a deep or hidden ulcer. It is any 
ulcer whose whole extent is not visible. It is often called by " les ydiotes 
cirurgiens," or "cyrurgici rurales," a fistula, but it differs from a true 
fistula both in treatment and results. 

90/23. The gloss on edere terrestris is useful to identify the plant as the 
ground-ivy, Hedera helix, because the term hedera terrestris was also 
applied to the Yew, Taxus baccata called in Mid. Latin ivius. Dr. Prior 
(op. cit., p. 261) gives a most interesting account of the chain of blunders 
which led to the confusion between a creeping form of Hedera and a full- 
grown evergreen shrub. 

91/9. Wildfire is a synonym for erysipelas. Cf. 41/i. The Persian 
fire was sometimes shingles (or herpes zoster) : sometimes a carbuncle. 
St. Anthony's fire meant erysipelas in some cases, ergotinism or endemic 
gangrene in others. 

91/24. Pater noster atid Ave maria. On this method of estimating 
small portions of time see Forewords, p. xxix. 

94/35. O\irse$ of humours is the flowing of a discharge, just as we still 
speak of menstruation in a woman as "the courses." 

95/14. Abhominaciones of the stomach. This is a good example of 
the early spelling of abomination, due, says The New English Dictionary, 
"To an assumed derivation from ofe homine, away from man, inhuman, 
beastly." It really comes from ab and omen. The word is genuinely 
expressive of the conditions in gastric catarrh. 

97/5- Walwort is the dwarf-elder, Sambucus ebulus. 

97/9. Plinius is Pliny the Younger whose " Natural History " is still 
good reading whether in the original or in Philemon Holland's translation. 

Dioscorides is Dioscorides Pedacius who lived in the time of Nero and 
Vespasian, and was celebrated as the great classical botanist and phar- 
macologist. His great work, " irtpl v\tjs iarpj/cfjj," appeared in five books. 

Macrobius is quoted also by Guy de Chauliac (Ed. Nicaise, p. 12), and by 
Gilbertus Anglicus. Macrobius died 415 A.D. He wrote " Saturnalia," con- 
taining miscellaneous remarks on physics, antiquities, literary criticism, etc. 

98/6. Anthraxis considered both by Salicet and by de Chauliac. Salicet 
(Ed. Pifteau, p. 176) says that anthrax and carbuncle are the same, except 
that anthrax is the more malignant and acute. It was called " Bonne 
Bube," says Guy (Ed. Nicaise, p. 100), " in the opposite sense because it is 
very wicked and very dangerous," just as we call the fairies "good folk" 
or say of a baby " how ugly he is." 

100/15. The gymetve^. The New English Dictionary gives this word as 
a variant of gemew or gemow, the plural of gemel, twins ; and of a door 
double. It gives as a quotation 1523, in Kirkpatrick, "Itelig. Ord. 
Norwich" (1848) 170, "Within the White Freris, in Norwich, at the 
Jemowe door." It would be interesting to know whether the gymewej or 
Jemowe door was peculiar to the Carmelite?. 

Frere Carome]. It is clear from the Latin text that the Frere Carorne^ 
were the Carmelites or White Friars who had their convent and church 

134 Notes. Page 100, line 33 to page 102, line 3. 

east of the Temple in London. The Carmelite Convent was founded by 
Sir Richard Gray in 1241, upon ground given by Edward I. In 1350 
Courtenay, Earl of Devon, rebuilt the Whitefriars church, and in 1420 
Robert Marshall, Bishop of Hereford, added a steeple. At the Dissolution 
Dr. Butts was given the Chapter house as a residence. The church was 
pulled down in the reign of Edward VI, but the refectory of the convent 
remained as the Whitefriars theatre. The right of sanctuary remained 
for many years, as is known to every reader of Scott's novels. The Library 
at Lambeth Palace contains a will (Staff. 2, p. 548, Will 91) dated Feb. 1, 
1446, and proved May 12, 1449. The will is made by John Arderne, aruiiger, 
who desires to be buried by Margaret his wife, if dying in London, or by 
Elizabeth his wife, if dying at Leygh. " His body," the document states, 
" is actually buried in the Carmelite church under the marble tomb with 
Margaret." The will is dated at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and leaves 
his effects to John, his son, and Bridget, his daughter. 

100/33. 1 1376, about the time Arderne was writing this treatise, the 
Commons petitioned the king "that Ribalds . . . and sturdy Beggars 
may be banished out of every town" (Ribton Turner, "Vagrants and 
Vagrancy," p. 52). 

A truant was any vagabond, beggar or rogue. 

100/35. Jii&quiamus is henbane, Hyoscyamus niger or alba. 

100/36. Dannie is the cockle or tares which the wicked man sowed 
(Matt. xiii. 25). Darnel was a general name for all kinds of cornfield weeds, 
says Dr. Prior (op. cit. 64). 

Chessede is chess-seed, chesses being a name applied to the poppy- 
chasses and chese boules, from the shape of its capsule. 

Briony root was looked upon as a powerful hydrogogue purging 
agent, whilst the juice of the plant was a remedy for gout. 

The ribald's potion would not have done much harm even in con- 
siderable doses. 

lOl/io. Cicuta is water hemlock, the Cicuta virosa. 

101/12. Opium is a tear which flows from the wounded heads or leaves 
of the black poppy, being ripe. Some promiscuously use it with Mecoriium, 
but they do ill ; for opium is a drop or tear, Meconium the gross expressed 
juice from the whole plant. However, they are both of one quality : opium 
is the finer gum and the stronger, Meconium is the coarser and weaker, yet 
the more malign. 

" Opium is three-fold. 1. Black and hard, from Syria and Aden. 
2. Yellower and softer, from Cambaia. 3. White, from Cairo or Thebes, 
which last, commonly called Thebian opium, is the best, being heavy, 
thick, strong-scented like Poppy, bitter and sharp, inflammable, almost of 
the colour of Aloes, and easie to dissolve in water. The counterfeit 
when washed colours the water like saffron." (Salmon's "New London 
Dispensatory," 1678, p. 167, col. 2.) 

101/i6. Propoleos is bee bread. Henri de Mondeville in his <; Anti- 
dotaire " (Ed. Nicaise, p. 831) says : "85. Cera, en grec Propolis, en Arabe 
Scham'a (Scliamha) : elle tient le milieu entre les quatre qualites." 

102/3. Castor was long looked upon as " a most noble Drug of great 
use in all distempers of the head." It is the secretion from the cloacal 
glands of the castor fiber obtained from the Hudson Bay territory. Its 
properties have hardly yet been adequately tested, and it is possible that 
it may regain some of its former prestige. 

Notes. Page 102, line 8 to page 104, line 8. 135 

102/8. The nux moschata or myristica is the nutmeg, which was looked 
upon as a comforter of the head and stomach. Mace, which is the arillus 
of the fruit dried in the sun, has similar properties. 

102/8. Nenufare is the water-lily used in medicine as an oil, syrup and 
water. The lily with yellow flowers stoppeth the Jask and bloody flux, but 
the white-flowered lily is the strongest, and is powerful in stopping the 
Whites, drunk in red wine. 

Mirtellei is the Rubus hortensis, the garden bramble or dwarf myrtle 
bush. The leaves astringe and stop fluxes ; the fruit and berries bind, cool 
in fevers, quench thirst, stop vomitings. 

102/8. The Manuscript stops here abruptly, but I have copied the 
charm from another source, partly on account of its intrinsic interest, 
partly because of the sidelight it sheds on the Duke of Clarence's wedding 
festivities and of Arderne's desire for secrecy. 

104/5. ^ n some of the later manuscripts the words Enthe and Enthanay 
have become Gnthe and Gnthenay. 

104/8. Fflffrwm carofactum eat were words of power in the middle ages. 
Friar Odoric of Pordenone, who was in Northern China about 1320 when the 
Yang-tsi floods caused the devastation which some think started the 
Black Death, says (" Yule, Cathay and the way thither," Hakluyt Soc. 1, 156, 
quoted in Creighton's " History of Epidemics," I, 155): " I saw such num- 
bers of corpses as no one without seeing it could deem credible. And at 
one side of the valley, in the very rock, I beheld as it were the face of a 
man very great and terrible, so very terrible indeed that for my exceeding 
. great fear my spirit seemed to die in me. Wherefore I made the sign of 
the Cross, and began continually to repeat verbum caro factum, but I dared 
not at all come nigh that face, but kept seven or eight paces from it." 


ABDOMINAL massage after a clyster, 

77, 131 

Abscess, ischio-rectal, 11, 13 
Abscess, mammary, a plaster for, 12 
Acacia for piles, 63, 67 
Actinomycosis, Arderne's case of. 

Acupressure to stop bleeding, 66, 

Acus rostrata, the snouted needle, 

xvii, 15, 23, 33, 112 
Acute disease, 21 
.<Egidius Corboliensis, account of, 


JEgidius Corboliensis is quoted, 59 
Ague quartan, piles a preservative 

from, 57 
Albania, persistence of medieval 

methods in, 114 
Albucasis, treatment of fistula by, 

xvi, xvii, 112, 123 
Alge9iras, siege of, xi, 108 
Alkaner, 89, 90, 133 
Alkenemistrej, 83 
Allbutt, Sir Clifford, quoted, 123 
Alleluia, or woodsour, 68, 129 
Alleyne, Dr., quoted, xxxi, 118, 121 
Almonds, oil of, to prepare, 95 
Almonds, water of, to prepare, 95 
Aloea, 65 ; bad for piles, 63 
Aloes hepaticus, a styptic, 25, 27, 65 
Aloes internally, open veins, 67 
Aloes locally a styptic, 67 
Aloes, the varieties of, 116 
Alphice, or barley-meal, 92 
Alphita, 66 
Alum, 46, 49, 116 
Alum combust, 73, 81 
Alum glass, 54, 81, 116; preparation 

of, 82 

Alum plume, 54, 88 
Alum powder, 67 
Alum Ro., 116 
Alum scissum, 81 
Alum water, preparation of, 82 
Alum, varieties of, 116 

Alum 3iicarine, burnt, 35, 40, 65, 86 
Alum ^iicarine, combust, 27, 35, 40 
Alum 3ucaryne, 54, 65, 81 
Amenorrhcea, the urine in, 60 
Anaesthesia, an ointment, to procure, 


Anathemasy, piles due to, 58 
Anence, meaning of the word, 123 
Ani pruritus, 73 
Ankles, fistula? of, 46, 47 
Anteros, or Rose threads, 67, 128 
Anthrace, treatment of, 52, 98 
Anthrax, meaning of the term, 123 
Anthrax, treatment of, 52, 98 
Antioch, drink of, 44, 47 
Antioch, formula for the drink of, 


Antioch, the hiera of, 120 
Antioch, the treacle of, 120 
Antwerp, Arderne practises at, xii, 

108, 117 
Anyse, 63 
Apii emplastron, 51 
Apii, juice of, 49, 50, 72 
Apium, 49, 50 
Aposteme, 112 
Aposteme of the lure, signs of, 11 ; 

treatment of, 13 
Apostemes, fraudulent, 81 
Apostemes, the treatment of inward, 


Apostemes, venomous, 81 
Apostles, ointment of the, 130 
Apostolicon, 74, 79, 130 
Apothecaries mentioned, 28, 117 
Apothecary, Arderne's recognition 

of, 117 

Appleton, William de, xi 
Arabic ointment, 92 
Archimathseus of Salerno, 111 
Arderne acts like an idiot, 84 
Arderne and abdominal massage, 77, 


Arderne, fees charged by, 6, 111 
Arderne land granted to a John 

Arderne, x, 105 




Arderne not a blood-letter, 62 

Arderne quotes himself, 26 

Arderne, John, a fishmonger, x, note 

Arderne, John de, 107 

Arderne, John, lived in Newark, 1 

Arderne, John, reasons for treating 
fistula, 3 

Arderne, Master John, biography 
of, x ; date of birth, x ; as a sur- 
geon, xiv operation for fistula, 
xvii ; treatise on the fistula, xv ; 
the works of, xv 

Arderne, Richard, a skinner, x, note 

Arderne, Sir John, x 

Arderne, will of a John, in 1446, 134 

Arderne's belief in Astrology, 115 

Arderne's clyster pipe, 74 

Arderne's experience with arsenic, 

Arderne's knowledge of books, 122 

Arderne's knowledge of Galen, 110 

Arderne's tapsivalencia ointment, 69 

Arderne's treatment of scabies, 111 

Arderne's valence of scabious, 97 

Arderne's valence of wormode, 98 

Argentin, Dr., quotes Arderne, xxx 

Arm, a case of swollen, 49 

Arm, the liver vein of, 54 

Arm, vena hepatica of, 49 

Annitage-Sinith, Mr. Sydney, quoted, 
x, xi, xiv, 108 

Arms of Bergerac, 108 

Arms of the Everyngham family, 

Arnold de Villa Nova, quoted, 132 

Arrow wounds, 89,' 98 

Arsenic, 44, 45, 50, 51 

Arsenic a dangerous dressing, 83, 

Arsenic, Arderne's experience with, 

Arsenic, remedial effects on the 
tissues, 44, 45 

Arsenic, sublimed, 83 

Arsenic, varieties of, 82, 132 

Astrology, Arderne's belief in, 115 

Astrology in surgery, 16, 17 

Astronomers quoted, 16, 17 

Atramentej, 53, 79, 128 

Atreos piles, 56 

Attrament, 40, 80 

Attramentum, or Black ink, 128; or 
vitriol, 119 

Attritos piles, 56 

Auripigmentum, 46, 47, 49, 50 86 

Auripigmentum, its relation to ar- 
senic, 82 
Auripigmentum, or native arsenic, 


Auripigmentum, qualities of, 83 
Auripigmentum rubrum, 83 
Auripigmentum, uses of, 83 
Avance, or Herb Benedict, 30, 117 
Avicenna, account of, 124 
Avicenna quoted, 3, 56, 78 
Avicenna, the Canon of, 115 
Avicenna, white ointment of, 119 
Aysel, or vinegar, 119 

BALAUSTIA, or wild pomegranate, 

65, 74, 127 
Balne by Snaithe, 1 ; hamlet of, 

Bandages after fistula operation, 25 

for piles, 70 
Bandages, list, 25 
Bandaging a patient after fistula 

operation, 25 
Bandaging, the advantages of good, 


Barber, bad treatment by a, 100 
Barber, duties of, 60, 125 
Barber surgeons, xix 
Barbers not to be taught to detri- 
ment of Masters in surgery, 71 
Barberry, 74 
Bark dust, 74 

Barley bread soaked, for piles, 63 
Barley meal, 27, 41, 66, 92 
Barone, Roger de, account of, 123 
Bartholomew of Salernum, account 

of, 123 
Bartholomew of Salernum, Maister, 

quoted, 55, 123 
Basilic vein, 126; phlebotomy of, 


Bath, hot, treatment by, 72 
Bawn, Roger, quoted, 55, 122 
Bdellium, or Myrrh, 67, 128 
Bean as a styptic applied locally, 66 
Bean meal, 27 
Beans, 63 

Bedington known to Arderne, xxx 
Belleric myrobohms, 126 
Bergerac, arms of, 108 
Bergerac, town of, 108 
Bernard de Gordon quoted, 14, 38, 

55. 56 note, 60, 64, 73, 114, 125 
Bernard of Gordon, account of, 122 
Bible quoted, 7 


Bibliography, xxxiii-xxxv 

Black choler, 62 

Black Death, 109 

Black entrete, 53 

Black ointment, its composition, 54 

Black pepper, 92 

Black pitch plaster, 81 

Black poppy, 100, 101 

Black Prince, Edward the, xii, xxvii, 

2, 3, 130 

Black soap, 48, 50, 118 
Bladder for clyster, 26 
Bladder for enema, its preparation, 

Blakborne, Sir Henry, 109 ; cured 

of fistula, 2 

Blanche, wife of John of Gaunt, 107 
Bleeding, Arderne's method of ar- 
resting, 116 

Bleeding from the basilic vein, 54 
Bleeding-iron inferior to a lancet, 61 
Bleeding, the influence of the Moon 

on, 16, 17 

Bleeding, the times for, 61 
Blood r excess of, a cause of piles, 


Blood, how purified, 57 
Blood-iron, or phlebotome, 61, 70 
Blood-letter, a, 62 
Blood-letting- not undertaken by 

Arderne, 62 

Blood, means of staunching, 24 
Blood, medicinal use of human, 132 
Blood, the, runs freely, 60 
Blood, to staunch, 24, 25, 65, 66 
Blood, when to draw maiden's, 90 
Boar's dung, 66 
Boetius, 7, 23, 111 
Bole, armoniac, 27, 28, 36, 38, 40, 

63, 65, 67 

Bole powder, a styptic, 25 
Boli, meaning of, 116. 
Bolus armeniacus, a styptic, 116 
Bone, dead, treatment of, 43, 54 
Bone, mortification of, 54 
Bones, fistula of, evil signs in, 46, 


Books, Arderne's knowledge of, 122 
Bordeaux, 41, 108 
Brain, remedies to comfort, 102 
Bran decoction for a clyster, 38, 49, 

69, 75, 76, 77 
Bran ointment, 88 
Bread, barley, for piles, 63 
Breast, inflammation of, 12, 52 

Briggerac, town of, 1, 108 
Brimstone and soap ointment, 44, 

Briony root, 100; medicinal uses of, 


Brijwell near Tickhill, 2 
Broom ashes, 53 
Bruised leg, treatment of, 54, 98 
Bruising of limbs, 97 
Bruno mentioned, 119 
Bubo, nature of, 37 
Bubo, pun upon the word, 36, 37 
Bubo within the lure incurable, 37, 


Buboes and owls, 36, 37 
Burns, treatment of, 91 
Bursa pastoris or Shepherd's Purse, 

63, 74, 78, 125 
Butter, 30 

Buttocks, bandaging of, 25, 26, 70 
Buttocks, ulceration of, 39, 41 
Bujt, meaning of the word, 120 
Bujt of arm, swelling of, 49 
Bujt of knee, emposteme in, 47 

CALCOTHAR, meaning of the term, 


Calx vive, 47, 48 
Camomile, flowers of, 94 
Camomile for a clyster, 75, 76 
Camomile, oil of, 12, 26, 88 
Camomile, oil of, to prepare, 94 
Camphor for piles, 63 
Cancer and dysentery differential 

signs, 37 

Cancer of mouth, 86 
Cancer of rectum to be distinguished 

from dysentery, 39 
Cancer of the rectum, signs, 38; 

treatment, 38 ; incurable, 39 
Cancer of the yard, 92 
Cancer, treatment by licium, 81, 85 
Cancerous ulcers, 81, 86 
Canell or cinnamon, 63, 64, 127 
Canella, a styptic, 64 
Canon, the case of a, 52 
Caprifoile, juice of, 44, 81, 85 
Carbuncle, the medicinal use of, 128 
Carbuncle, treatment of, 52 
Carbuncles, 81 
Carleton, Notts., 107 
Carmelites, the church of the, 133 
Carmen, contra spasmum et crampe, 

Carome} friars, 100 



Carp, 49, 50, 51 

Cassia fistula, a bridle to opium, 101 

Cassia fistula for a clyster, 75 

Castile, king of, xi 

Castor, its source, 134 

Castoreum, 102 

Cato quoted, 8 

Caule3, croppej of, 73 

Cautery as a styptic, 66 

Cautery used, 45, 46, 51 

Celidone, juice of, 40, 41, 73 

Celidone, or the chelidonia majus, 
90, 119 

Centilegium of Ptolemy. 115 

Ceraseos, 130 

Cerebral symptoms in fistula, 14 

Ceruse, or carbonate of lead, 11, 27, 
65, 113, 117 

Chafing of skin, treatment of, 40 

Chalcanthum, meaning of the term, 
128, 131 

Chapped lips, an ointment for, 97 

Charm against cramp, 102 

Chauliac, Guy de, 55, 122, 123; 
classification of medical practi- 
tioners by, 119; formula for Ungt. 
Apostolicon, 130; classification 
of ulcers by, 131 ; quotes William 
of Salicet, 125; treatment of 
fistula by, xvii ; use of ink by, 

Chawelle}, the, 11, 113 

Chawylbone, 113 

Chessede, or chess-seed, 100, 134 

Chesterfield, 103 

Children, to cure pustules in the 
mouths of, 32 

Choler, 62 

Christmas Day, a man whose leg 
swelled on, 52 

Chronic disease, 21 

ChynnyngJ of the lure, 73 

Cicatrization of a wound, 27 

Cicuta or water hemlock, 101, 134 

" Ciliaoa passio," 58 

Cimbalarie, or pennywort, 130 

Cineris geneste, 53 

Cinnamon, 68 

Cinquefoil for piles, 63 

Cipresse, 63 

Citonior, oil of, 41 

Citrine ointment, 65 

Citrine3, 62, 125 

Clarence, rnarringe of Lionel Duke 
of, xxix, 102, 103 

"Clariticatio de vicio splenis," 

Gordon's, quoted, 60 
Clay and horsednng as a cement, 80, 


Clay used as a styptic, 66 
Clothing, the manner of a leech's, 6 
Clowes, William, xiv 
Clyffyng, meaning of the word, 127 
Clyster, 26 ; abdominal massage 

after, 77 
Clyster, administration of, needs 

skill, 76 

Clyster, amount to be given, 76 
Clyster, components of a simple, 75 
Clyster, date of the Treatise on, 

Clyster, for fistula, 11 ; formula for, 

Clyster, how to examine the results 

of, 77 

Clyster, leech to be skilled in ad- 
ministering, 75 
Clyster, Lombards skilled in giving, 


Clyster, method of administering, 76 
Clyster, mitigative, 65 
Clyster of bran, 38 
Clyster pipe, Arderne's form of, 74 
Clyster relieves ventosenej, 78 
Clysters for piles, 65 
Clysters, nutrient, 78 
Clysters periodic, 78 
Clysters, prognosis from, 77 
Clysters, a treatise on, 74-78 
Cluttered or clotted blood, 71 
Coclear, the shield, xviii, 24, 112 
Codde, fistula of, 32 
Coddes of the testicles, cure of 

fistula in, 2 

Colace or cabbage, 70, 129 
Cold a styptic, 66 
Cole} for piles, 63 
Colica passio, a clyster for, 75, 78 
Colic may come from tenesmus, 72 
Colic relieved by clysters, 76 
Colier, John, case of, 32 
Colier, John le, 109 
Colocynth pulp a cause of tenesmus, 


Colyar, William, 109 
Colyn, John, cured, 2 
Comfrey, 74 

Comyn, derivation and use of, 128 
Concave ulcer, 133 
Condyloma. 68 ; etymology of, 56 



Confection of Tapsimel, 31, 40 
Confectio sanguinis veneris, 90 
Connaught, grant of land in, x, 105 
Constantinus Africanus, 110, 123 
Constellations, influence of, on the 

body, 16, 17 

Constipation a cause of tenesmus, 72 
Constipation relieved by clysters, 76 
Contents, Table of, xxxvi-xxxvii 
Contusions, treatment of, 52 
Coprose, or green vitriol, 53, 64, 79, 


Coral for piles, a styptic, 64 
Coral, red, 66, 67 ; the medicinal use 

of, 127 

Corbeil, Giles of, account of, 124 
Corboliensis j3gidius, 59, 113 ; the 

treatise of, xiii ; account of, 124 
Coriander for piles, 63 
Coriander juice, 74 
Corrosive powders, rule for using, 87 
Cotton, teazed, 25, 67 
Covetousness, warning against, 21 
Cramp, charm against, 102 
Crayfish, 41 

Creoferoboron powder, 42, 44, 45, 46 
Creoferoboron, powder, not identi- 
fied, 119 

Crete, vitriol is found in the isle of, 17 
Crevise, the lobster, 41 
Crocus, a bridle to opium, 101 
Crocus oil, 68 

Crocus, or saffron, 69, 101, 129 
Croydon known to Arderne, xxx 
Cuckoo's bread, or wood sorrel, 129 
Cummin, 97 ; bad for piles, 63 
Cummin, externally a styptic, 67 ; 

internally opens veins, 67 
Cummin, powder of, 67 
Cupping for haemorrhoids, 62 
Cupping with scarification, 66 
Cure of fistula, 21 

Cure, time of, in fistula of fingers, 42 
Curse} of humours, 42, 93, 94 ; mean- 
ing of the term, 133 

DAMASCENE, JOHN, an alias of Sera- 
pion, 124 ; quoted, 55 ; his oint- 
ment, 80 

Danger signals in bleeding piles, 59 

Darnel, 100 

Dates of the treatises, xii 

Day, method of reckoning, 100 

Dead flesh, 44, 46, 53, 83, 87 

Deaf piles, 56 

Death of patients in autumn or 

harvest, 38 
De disciplina scholarium quoted, 23, 


De Eardene, x 

' De ingenio ' of Galen quoted, 82 
Dei Gratia, formula for the Ungt, 


Demetrius, king of Persia, 67, 128 
Denny, Hew, fishmonger, cured, 2 
Derby, Henry, Earl of, 1, 107, 108 
Derlyng, Hugo, cured of fistula, 1 
Diabrosi, piles due to, 58 
Diachylon plaster, 12; varieties of, 

Diaflosmus, confection of, 31, 32, 

92; explanation of, 117 
Diagredium, a cause of tenesmus, 

72 ; preparation of, 129 
Dialthsea, 12 

Diaquilon, 12; varieties of, 113 
Diarrhoea, 62 
Diatritonpipereon, 130 
Diet a cause of piles, 57 
Diet for fistula, 21 
Dilating forceps, Arderne's, 35 
Dioscorides, 97 ; account of, 133 
Disease, influence of mind on, 6, 7, 8 
Disease, influence of sun and moon 

upon, 21 

Disease, when acute and chronic, 21 
Distillation of juniper oil, 96 
Dock, red, 68 
Dominica oratio, 103 
Doves' dung, uses of, 50, 121 
Dragagant, or tragacanth, 64, 79, 

126, 131 
Dragagante is different from Dra- 

gante, 79 
Dragant, 79 ; the composition of, 


Dragaunt mucilage for piles, 64, 126 
Dragma, a talent, 3 
Dressing of wounds not to be too 

frequent, 87 

Dressings after fistula operations, 25 
Drink a cause of piles, 59 
Dropsy caused by piles, 57 
Dropsy, piles a preservative from, 57 
Dropsy, treatment of cold, 97 
Dung of dove, 50, 121 
Dung of horse, 80 
Dung of swine, medicinal use of, 

Dung of wild boar, 66 



Duration of the cure of fistula, 29 

Dysentery, 37, 62 

Dysentery and cancer, differential 

signs, 37, 39 
Dysentery to be distinguished from 

piles, 55 
Dyuelyn ointment, 53, 54 

EARS discharging, 81 
Ears, ulcers of, 81 

Edere terrestris, or ground ivy, 133 
Edward, Prince of Wale?, men- 
tioned, xxvii, 2, 3 
Egg, hard roasted, 69 
Egg, raw, as a dressing, 26, 28, 29, 

51, 53, 66, 67, 72, 83, 96 
Egg, white of, 25, 31, 32, 50, 51, 53 
Egg, yolk of, 11, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 

31, 35, 36, 38, 40, 54, 65, 72, 83, 


Eiren, white of, 31, 32, 67 
Emeroydes v. haemorrhoids, 55 et 


Emplastron apii, 5 1 
Emplastron Nerbon, 42, 87 
Emplastron sanguiboetes, 43, 44, 45, 


Emplastron sanguiboetes not identi- 
fied, 119 

Emplastrum diaflosmus, 31, 32 
Emplastr. vitriol, 81 
Emposteme in bu3t of knee, 47 
Emunctories of the body, 11, 113 
Encaustum, or purple ink, 128 
Endive for clyster, 72 
Enema, 26. See Clyster 
Enemata, a treatise on, 74-78 
Epistaxis, to arrest, 80 
Epithimation, meaning of the term, 


Epithimation of a wound, 52 
Erysipelas, 40 

Ethic patients, a help for, 95 
Euphorbium bad for piles, 63 
Evening the proper time to bleed, 

Everyngham, Sir Adam, 107; 

armorial bearings of, 108; cured 

of fistula, 1 
Excoriations of the skin, 36, 40, 43, 


Experience teaches, 38 
Experience, value of, 3 
Extractum nigrum, its composition, 

53, 54 

Eyes, cure of, 85, 86 

Eyes, treatment by licium, 85, 86 

FALCONERS use orpiment, 83 
False flewme, 58 
Farmacie is medicine, 68 
Feathers, burnt, a styptic, 25 
Feathers of fowl, burnt, 66 
Feeding by the rectum, 78 
Fees for an operation, 6 
Fees in the fourteenth century, 111 
Fees, Mondeville's advice about, xx, 

xxii, xxiii 
Fees to be paid before an operation, 


"Felon," meaning of the term, 121 
" Felon," treatment of, 52 
Fenigreke, 72, 130 
Ferris, Richard, xiv 
Festered gout, 21, 46, 47, 115 
Feu sauvage, 4, 27, 41, 91 
Fics, 56"; the French name for piles, 


Fics-herbe, 67 
Fig, a bloody, 41 
Figs, bleeding, in the hand, 92 
Figs cured, 92 
Figs in the yard, 92 
Fik, meaning of the term, 119 
Fingers, fistula of, 42 
Fire, analogy of the working of, 30 
Fire, Persian, or shingles, 133 
Fire, St. Anthony's, or ergotinism, 


Fire, wild, or erysipelas, 41, 91, 133 
Fishmonger, treatment of a London, 

Fistula, blind internal, operation for, 


Fistula, causes of, 11 
Fistula, complete, cure of, by liga- 
ture, 34 
Fistula, contemporary treatment of, 


Fistula, cure of, 21 
Fistula deemed incurable, xvi, 2, 4 
Fistula, definition of, 11, 20 
Fistula, dressings for, 25, 27, 34 
Fistula, duration of the cure of, 29, 


Fistula, examination of, 33 
Fistula, good signs for operating 

upon, 21 

Fistula, head symptoms in, 14 
Fistula in ano, duration of cure, 6 



Fistulo in ano, the fees for operating 

upon, 6, 111 
Fistula in ano. instruments for, 8, 9, 


Fistula in ano, prognosis of, 6 
Fistula in ano, treatise on, 1-49 
Fistula in men, prognosis of, 21 
Fistula, influence of diet on, 21 
Fistula, length of time for cure, 


Fistula, method of cutting, 23 
Fistula, method of fretting, 29 
Fistula, method of placing the 

patient for operation on, 34 
Fistula, mortification of, 35 
Fistula neglected by the old sur- 
geons, xvi, 2 
Fistula of arm, 20; bone, 47; breast, 

20 ; buttocks, 13 ; coddes, 2, 32 ; 

costes, 20; feet, 20, 21, 46; 

hands, 20 ; joints, 20 ; knees, 20; 

legs, 20, 21, 47; metacarpal 

bones, 4, 6 ; penile, 14 ; scrotal, 

13 ; thighs, 20 ; urethra, 14 
Fistula operation, dressings for, 25 ; 

opening of bowels after, 26, 29 
Fistula, sequelae of, 14 
Fistula, treatment after operation, 


Fistula, treatment by cutting, 21 
Fistula, treatment by licium, 85 
Fistula, treatment by ligature, 29 
Fistula, urethral, 21 
Fistula?, multiple, treatment of, 32 
Fistulae, situation of, 20 
Fistulate gout, 21, 27, 46, 47, 115 
Flanders known to Arderne, xii, 117 
Flanders, name of nightshade in, xii, 

32, 117 

Flayings of the skin, 36, 40, 43, 90 
Fleobotome, 47 
Flesh, dead or mortified, 44, 46, 54, 


Fleume, scab of salt. 82 
Flosmus in mullein, 31 
Flowers of camomile, 94 
Flowers of pomegranate, 74 
Fomentation, 70 
Fools and no true leeches, 87 
Fools' treatment of piles, 70 
Forceps for dilating anus, 35 
Forlong, the distance of a, 76 
" For why," the English rendering 

of Nam, 4, 111 
Four Masters, account of, 123 

Fowl's grease, 12 

Fraenum Ctesaris, the ligature, xvii, 

9,22, 24, 112 
France, a sleeping powder used in, 


France, pilgrims robbed in, 101 
Frankincense, 40 
Fraudulent apostemes, 81 
Fraudulent ulcers, 79, 86, 131 
French name for piles, figs, 55 
French soap, 118 
Frere Carome^, the White friars or 

Carmelites, 133 
Fretting a fistula, 29, 39 ; of skin, 


Friar minorite cures fistula, 3, 110 
Friars preachers cured of fistula, 2 
Frousingej, 13 ; meaning of, 114 
Fumitory, juice of, 63 
Fumitory, water of, 63 
Furfur, or Bran, 70, 129 
Furnivall, Dr., quoted, xxix 

GALANG, or ginger, 68, 129 

Galen, Arderne's knowledge of, 110 ; 
quoted, 3, 12, 57, 60, 80, 94 

Galenic writings known to Arderne, 

Gall bladder the prison of melan- 
choly, 60 

Galls, 63, 65, 67, 74 

Galls, powder of, 27 

Gariopontus of Salerno, 123 

Garlic, 50 

Garlic bad for piles, 63 

Garse, meaning of the word, 121 

Garsing a wound, 52, 55, 63 

Gascony, 1, 41 

Gascouy campaign, Arderne's know- 
ledge of, 108 - 

Gaunt, John of, x, xi, xiii, 107, 108 

Gaunt, Blanche, the wife of John of, 

Gawel or Myrrh, 74 

Gedelin, Notts., 107 

Geneste, ashes of, 53 

Gilbert the Englishman, or Gilbertus 
Anglicus, 113, 123 

Gilbertus, Maister, 73 

Gilbertyn, quoted, 11, 55, 113 

Giles of Corbeil, account of, 124 

Gilles de Corbeil, xiii, 113 

Ginger, 68 

Glass, powder of, 44, 54 

Glass, use of, in wounds, 44 



Glister. 26, 27, 29 
Glutaeal sinuses, 13 
Glysters, a treatise on, 74 
Goats' milk, 72 ; artificial, 72 
Goats' milk a good vehicle for 

myrobalans, 63 
Goats' tallow, 73 

Good Henry or ChenopodSum, 130 
Goose grease, 12 
Gordon, Bernard de, 114, 122 ; 

quoted, 59, 60, 61, 64, 83, 125 
Gout, a good plaster for, 96 
Gout, festered, 21, 115 
Gout, fistulate, 21, 46, 47 
Gout of the joints, 97 
Gout, treatment of, 96, 97 
Gray, Sir Reginald de, 2, 102, 109 
Gray, Sir Richard, founds a Carme- 
lite convent in London, 134 
Grease of hens, 72 
Great men, licium fails to cure, 86 
Great men, treatment of, 25, 86, 89 
Great wine, 63 
Greek, charm written in letters of, 

Greek physicians, use of the word 

haemorrhoids, 55 
Greek powder, 41 
Green ointment, 54 
Gruel for piles, 63 
Guido, Master, account of, 123 
Guild of Surgeons, xix 
Gum arabic, 27 
Gum arabic for piles, 64, 67 
Gums, inflammatioji of, 81 
Gums, swollen, 81 
Gunnas, a family of York, 109 
Gunnay, Thomas, 109 
Gunnays, John, 109 
Gunny, Thomas, cured, 2 
Guy de Chauliac, quoted 55, 122 ; 

account of, 123 ; use of ink by, 128 
Gymewej, the, 100 ; meaning of the 

word, 133 

Haematites, or lapis omoptoes, 63, 

Haemorrhage, means of stopping, 15, 

24, 116 
Haemorrhoids, French name for, 55 ; 

Greek name for, 55 ; Latin name 

for, 55 ; Londoners' name for, 55 
Haemorrhoids, a cause of tenesmus, 


Haemorrhoids, a treatise on, 55 
Haemorrhoids, attritos, 56 
Haemorrhoids, causes of, 56 
Haemorrhoids, condition of the 

urine in, 55 

Haemorrhoids, condylomatous, 56 
Haemorrhoids, danger signals in, 56 
Haemorrhoids, deaf, 56 
Haemorrhoids, definition of, 57 
Haemorrhoids, diet in, 63 
Haemorrhoids, dietetic causes of, 57 
Haemorrhoids, diseases caused by, 57 
Haemorrhoids, diseases prevented 

by, 57 
Haemorrhoids, distinguishable from 

dysentery, 58 
Haemorrhoids, distinguishable from 

passio iliaca, 58 

Haemorrhoids, drink a cause of, 59 
Haemorrhoids, due to anathemasy, 55 
Haemorrhoids, due to diabrosi, 55 
Haemorrhoids, due to melancholy, 

signs of, 60 

Haemorrhoids, due to rixi, 58 
Haemorrhoids, etymology of, 55 
Haemorrhoids, excess of blood a 

cause of, 56 
Haemorrhoids, means of stopping, 15, 

Haemorrhoids, melancholy, a cause 

of, 56 

Haemorrhoids, moralej, 56 
Haemorrhoids, mulberry, 56 
Haemorrhoids, ointment for, 91 
Haemorrhoids, operation upon 

thrornbosed, 70 

Haemorrhoids, phlebotomy in, 61 
Haemorrhoids, plethora a cause of, 


Haemorrhoids, prevented by phle- 
botomy, 62 
Haemorrhoids, produced by bleeding 

from internal saphenous vein, 61 
Haemorrhoids, purgation recom- 
mended in, 64 
Haemorrhoids, purgatives a cause of, 


Haemorrhoids, purgatives in, 62 
Haemorrhoids, purse-like, 71 
Haemorrhoids, remedies for, 63 
Haemorrhoids, restrained by bleeding 

from external saphenous vein, 61 
Haemorrhoids, scammony and aloes 

harmful in, 63 
Haemorrhoids, signs of, 56 



Haemorrhoids, soothing clyster for, 


Haemorrhoids, symptoms of, 57 
Haemorrhoids, treatment by clysters, 


Haemorrhoids, treated by cupping, 62 
Haemorrhoids, treatment by rubbing, 

Haemorrhoids, treatment by sweating 

Haemorrhoids, treatment in delicate 

folk, 64 
Haemorrhoids, treatment in the 

luxurious, 60 
Haemorrhoids, treatment in strong 

men, 64, 95 
Haemorrhoids, treatment of, by fools, 

Haemorrhoids, treatment of inflamed, 

69, 70 

Haemorrhoids, uses of, 57 
Haemorrhoids, or uve, 56 
Haemorrhoids, varieties of, 56 
Haemorrhoids, verucalej, 56 
Haemorrhoids, when excessive, 158 
Haemorrhoids, when temperate in 

amount, 58 

Hairs of hare as a styptic, 62, 66 
Hallelujah, or wood sorrel, 68, 129 
Haly, 16, 17, 115 
Hameldon, Sir Thomas, cured, 2 
Hand, figs of, cured, 92 
Hare's hairs burnt, 25, 66, 67 ; nojt 

burnt, 25, 67 
Hartshorn, 74 
Headache, cure for, 41 
Headache, symptoms in fistula, 14 
Headache, treatment of, 94 
Heat, a styptic, 66 
Hedera terrestris, sometimes the 

Yew, 90, 133 
Henry IV cured of prolapse, xii, 

74, 130 
Henry, Earl of Derby, death of, 107, 


Henry, Good, or chenopodium, 130 
Hen's feathers, burnt, a styptic, 25, 


Hen's grease, 72 
Herb pede lyon, 48, 120 
Herb Robert or geranium robertia- 

num, 121 

Hermodactilej powder, 81, 131 
Hiera pigre, explanation of the 

term, 130 


Hig (Hag) taper, 117 

Hippocrates quoted, 21, 57, 70 ; 

Arderne's knowledge of, 115 
Hippocratic writings known to 

Arderne, 110 
Hog, lard of, 96 
Holle, John of, cured, 2 
Hollow ulcers, 89 
Homily quoted, 7 
Honey, 44, 48, 49, 50, 65, 73, 75, 76, 

77, 81, 85, 92, 97 
Honey cotted with vinegar, 65 
Honey of Mullein, xxxii 
Honey scorned, 30, 31, 40, 65, 73 
Honey, use of, in wounds, 44 
Horse dung, 80 

Horse-kicks, injuries from, 52, 54 
Horsemint, 74 

Human powder, its composition, 132 
Humours, causes of, 93, 94 
Humours, the varieties of, 125 
Huntingdon, 102 
Hyoscyamus, 100, 101 
Hypoquistidos for piles, 63 

IDIOT, Arderne acts like an, 84 

Idiot surgeons, 133 

lera pigra, 130 

Iliaca passio to be distinguished 

from piles, 58 

Iliac passion, meaning of, 129 
Iliac passion the result of tenesmus, 


Iliac passion, signs of, 59 
Impatience of patients commented 

on, 55 

Incurable wounds, treatment of, 96 
Indi melancholy, 62 
Indi myrobalans, 126 
Inflammation a cause of tenesmus, 72 
Ink of Lombards, 67 
Ink, varieties of, 128 
Intercutaneous collections, cure of, 


Isaac the Jew, 110 
Isagoge Johannitii, 123 
Itch, treatment of, by Arderne, 111 
Itching, cure of, 40 

JACEA ALBA is scabious, 98 
Jacea nigra is matfelon, 98 
Jamarcii, Maister, quoted, 55 
Jamarcius, account of, 123 
Jamerius, quoted, 118 ; account of, 



Jamerius' human powder, 132 
Jasper, red, medicinal use of, 66, 127 
Joliannice, account of, 123 
Johannitius, the ' Isagoge' of, 110 ; 

account of, 123 
Joints, gout of, 97 
Joints of fingers, fistula of, 42 
Joyntour of the fingers, fistulas of, 46 
Juice of apiuin, 50, 72 
Juice of caprifoile, its uses, 81, 85 
Juice of celidon, 73 
Juice of coriander, 74 
Juice of livane, 73 
Juice of marigold, 52 
Juice of Mercury 93 
Juice of mullein, 64, 67 
Juice of nettle a styptic, 66 
Juice of nettle, the medicinal use of 


Juice of orpyne, 67 
Juice of plantayne for piles, 64 
Juice of porres (leeks), 45, 67 
Juice of rhubarb, 64 
Juice of scabious, 97 
Juice of solsequium, 52 
Juice of walwort, uses of, 97 
Juice of woodbine, 44 
Juniper ointment, 96 
Jusquiamus, juice of, 100, 101 ; 

seed, 100 ; treacle, 102 
Jusquiamus, or Henbane, 134 

Kanvaj or Canvas, 92 

Kebulij fleume, 62 

Kebulij myrobalans, 126 

Kilyuj vein, its anatomy, 57 

Knee, emposteme in the bujt of, 47 

Knees, fistulas of, 46 

Knife wound, to stop bleeding -from, 


Knife wounds, 89, 98, 100 
Kynnyng, meaning of the word, 127 

LAOHE knot, 29 

Ladanum, 63 

Ladies' name for Pulvis sanguinis 

veneris, 89 
Ladies, the leech not to meddle 

with, 5 

Lady, patient treated by, 44, 119 
Lady treats a case of swollen arm 


Laici, 103 

Lameleye, Rich de, 107 
Lampadidnawe in Wales, 107 

Lana succida, 12, 67, 113, 114 
Lancaster, Duke of, xi, xiii, xiv, 1 
Lanceola, description of, 116 
Lancet, 13, 15, 24, 32, 70, 71, 125 
Lancet and Razor, difference be- 
tween, 115 
Lancet preferable to a bleeding-iron, 


Lanfrank, treatment of fistula by, 

xvi ; ideal surgeon, xxv ; quoted, 

, 54, 55, 56, 57, 119; account of, 


Laon, king of, xi 
Lapis omoptoes for piles, 63, 126 
Lard, 34, 45, 48, 50, 51, 54, 69, 77, 

84, 97, 98, 99, 101 
Lard, shavings of, 51 
Lard, skin of, 47, 69, 97, 98 
Lard tents, 48 
Latin use of the term haemorrhoids, 


Leech, a witty, 28, 30 
Leech, breath of, hurtful to wounds 
after eating garlic and onions, 88 ; 
or commerce with menstruating 
women, 88 

Leech, intelligence of, 23, 28 
Leech should beware of arsenic, 83, 


Leech, the fellow of the, 22, 112 
Leech, the qualities required by 

Arderne in, 4-8 
Leech, the temptations of, 21 
Leech to be skilled in giving ene- 

mata, 75 
Leech to think for himself, 23, 34, 


Leech, uncunning, 37, 38, 42, 86 
Leeks a styptic, 67 
Leeks bad for piles, 63 
Legs, a case for fistula of, 46, 47 
Lende?, the, 34, 56 
Leonellus films regis Angliae, 102 
Lepra, 95 
Leprosy, piles a preventive from, 

Lettuce, 101 

Lexington, John de, 107 

Lice on falcons, to destroy, 83 

Licium, 81, 84, 85, 97 

Licium fails to cure a great man, 86 

Licium, preparation of, 44 

Licium, use of, in wounds, 44, 4G 

Lientery, 62 



Ligature, treatment of fistula l>y, 29 
Ligatures, leech to a keep a stock of, 


Lilium medicinse quoted, 38, 55 
Lily oil, 12 
Lily root, 68 
Limbs, bruises of, 97 
Lincoln, 102 
Linseed oil, 28 

Lionel Duke of Clarence, 103; mar- 
riage of, xxix 
Liquorice a good vehicle for myro- 

bolans, 62 

List bandages, 25, 26 
Litharge, 11 
Litharge of gold, 27 
Litharge of silver, 27 
Litharge, powder of, 54 
Lithargyrum, varieties of, 117 
Lithuanian crusade. 114, 128 
Liver, action of, on the bowels, 78 
Liver pain, 95 
Liver vein of the arm, 54 
Lobster, 41 

Lombards skilled in clysters. 76 
London, 102 
Londou, men of, call haemorrhoids 

piles, 55 
Longanon, meaning of the word, 


Longaon, 13, 14, 22, 32, 78 
Longaon, chynnyngs of, 71 
Longaon, to replace, 74 
Louis XIV of France cured of 

fistula, 111 
Lumbaniy ink, 67 
Lunse, Nota de cognitione signorum, 


Lupus, the urine in, 60 
Lupus, treatment by licium, 85 
Lure, xii, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25, 2i'., 2!', 

30, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39, 40, 56, 58, 

61, 64, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 

74, 77 

Lure, against the going out of, 74 
Lure, aposteme of, treatment for, 


Lure, arrest of bleeding from, 80 
Lure, bubo within, 37 
Lure, cancer of, 86 
Lure, flux of blood in, 55 
Lure, inflammation of the, 11 
Lure, itching of, 73 
Lure, meaning of the word, 109 
Lutum sapiem, 80 

Lutum sapiencise, the preparation of, 

Ly vane juice, 73 

M, meaning of the symbol, 113 

McCaw, Col., quoted, xi, xii, xxxii 

Macrobius quoted, 97, 133 

Mallard grease, 12 

Mallow, 49 

Mallow and swine's grease, plaster 

of, 11 

Mallow leaves, 68 
Mallow, varieties of, 113 
Mallows, an ointment of tame, 12 
Mallows for a clyster, 75 
Mammary abscess, a plaster for, 12 
Mammary abscess, treatment of, 52 
Mammary inflammation, a plaster 

for, 12 

Mandragora, 101 

Mania, piles a preservative from, 57 
Manipulug, 12, 113 
Manny, Sir Walter de, 108 
Mantua, 103 
Marice, 80, 85, 86 
Marice, arrest of bleeding from, 80 
Marice, cancer of, 86 
Marice, canker of, treated by licium, 


Marice, meaning of, 113 
Marigold, juice of, 52 
Marigold, or Calendula officinalis, 


Massage after a clyster, 77 
Massnge for chronic constipation, 


Masters in surgery superior to Bar- 
bers, xviii, xix, 71 
Masters, the Four, account of, 123 
Mastic, 63, 65, 67 
Mastic oil, to prepare, 95 
Masty, Sir John, 109 
Matfelon is jacea nigra, 98 
Mayor of Northampton, case of, 32 
Meal, barley, 41, 66 
Meal, dusty, 72, 129 
Meal, rye, 50 
Meal, wheat, 48 
Medicine, epochs in, ix 
Medicines not to be unduly complex, 

Medicines to be adapted to the 

patient, 25 
Mediolani, 102 
Medlars for piles, 63 



Megatechni, 110 
Mekisburg, Will de, 107 
Melancholia, piles a preservative 

from, 57 

Melancholy a cause of piles, 56 
Melancholy confined in the spleen, 

Melancholy confined in the ga'l 

bladder, 60 
Melancholy, indi, 62 
Melancholy, its cause, 57 
Melancholy, signs of, 60 
Melane, 102 

Melilote or Colewort, 73, 130 
Mel rosar, 28, 81 
' Mene,' meaning of, 108 
Mene, our Lord being, 3 
Menorrhagia, purgatives in, 62 
Menorrhagia, treatment of, 63 
Menstruating women harmful to 

wounds, 88, 132 
Menstruation provoked by bleeding 

from internal saphenous vein, 61 
Menstruation restrained by bleeding 

from the external saphenous vein, 


Merch, juice of, 30 
Mercurialis, juice of. 93 
Mercurialis, or Good Henry, 76, 


Mercury, 53 
Mesaraic veins, 78 
Mesue, the plaster of, 113 
Metacarpal bones, fistuloe of, 46 
Micrology, Master Richard's, quoted, 

55, 73 

Microtechni, 110 
Milk, a good vehicle for myrobalans, 


Milk, artifical goat's, 72 
Milk, goat's, a good vehicle for 

myrobalans, 63 
Milk, goat's, as a clyster, 72 
Milk, sour, for piles, 63 
Millefoile, or the Yarrow, 63, 125 
Milne, Dr. Stewart, quoted, 115, 

Mind, the effect of, on the body, 6, 

) O 

Minorite's cure for fistula, 3, 110 

Mint, 63 

Mirtield, John, xxix 

Mirobalans, a good purgative, 62, 

Mirobalans, for a clyster, 75 

Mirtellej, or garden bramble, 63, 

102, 135 
Molayne, or Verbascum Thapsus, 

30, 117 
Mondeville, Henri de, treatment of 

fistula by, xvii, xix ; the ideal 

surgeon of, xx ; formula for 

Ungt. Apostolicon, 130; on a 

hollow ulcer, 133; opinion of 

realgar, 132; on Propoleos, 134; 

use of ink by, 128 
Montford, John de, 109 
Montpellier, medical requirements 

at the University of, 110 
Moon, directions to find the house 

of, 16, 17 
Moon, influence of, on the body, 16, 

17, 21 
Moon, tables to find the house of, 

16, 17 

Moore, Dr. Norman, quoted, xxix 
Morale}, piles, 56 
Morfee, 57, 83, 95, 124 
Mormale, meaning of, 121 
Mormale, piles a preservative from, 


Mormale, treatment of, 53, 54 
Morphew, meaning of the term, 124 
Morphoea, 83 
Morphcea, piles a preservative from, 


Morstede, Thomas, xiv 
Mortification of fistula, 35 
Mouth, cancer of, 86 
Mouth, cancer of, treatment by 

licium, 85 

Mucilage of dragaunt for piles, 64 
Mucilage of gum-arabick for piles, 


Mucilage of tragacanth, 126 
Mugvvort or artemisia, 30, 49, 50, 


Mulberry piles, 56 
Mullein, honey of, xxxii 
Mullein, juice of, 30, 64, 67, 73 
Mullein, powers of, xxxi 
Mummy, the various- forms of, in 

medicinal use, 65, 67, 74, 127 
Mundification of a wound, 27 
Mutton fat, 73 
Myristica, 102, 135 
Myrrh, 27, 63 
Myrtle for piles, 63, 102, 135 

NAGHTSTACH, xi ; , 32 


Nail, dead, treatment of, 43, 44, 45 
Names of no value, 83 
Narbonne plaster, 42, 91 
Narboune, pun upon, 108 
Narbonne, town of, 1 
Narrow (streit) wounds, treatment 

of, 98 

Nasal polypus, 79 
Nastar, xxvii, 26, 27, 29, 35, 36, 65, 


Nastar, meaning of, 113 
Nastar of tree, 11, 26, 27, 29, 30, 67 
Neat's bladder, preparation of, for 

an enema, 75 
Neck, the source of all spasmodic 

diseases, 103 
Need hath no law, 62, 
Needle, the snouted, 9, 15, 24 
Neirbon, a pun upon, 91 
Neirbon, town of, 1 
Nenufare, 102, 135 
Nerbon plaster, 42, 91 
Nettle, 50 

Nettle juice, a styptic, 66 
Nettle, juice of red, 66, 79 
Nettle juice, the medicinal use of, 


Nettle tops, 66 
Newark, 41 

Newark, Arderne lived in, 1 
Nicaise, Prof. E., ix 
Nitre, 53 
Noli-me-tangere, meaning of the 

term, 125 

Noli-me-tangere, the urine in, 60 
No!i-me-tangere, treatment by 

licinm, 85 
Northampton, the Mayor of, cured, 

2, 32 
Northamptonshire, a patient from, 

with rectal cancer, 39 
Nose, arrest of bleeding from, 50 
Nose-bleeding, to stop, 66 
Nottingham, a case of, 100 
Nottingham, the Mayor of, 109 
Nutrient enemata, 78 
Nux moschata, or nutmeg, 102, 135 

OAK bark, 74 

Oculus lucidus, 85 

Oil of almonds, to prepare, 95 

Oil of camomile, to prepare, 26, 88, 


Oil of crocus, 65 
Oil of juniper, to prepare, 96 

Oil of mastic, to prepare, 95 

Oil of roses, 26, 73, 92, 93 

Oil of rue, 76. 

Oil of violets, 36, 67, 68, 69, 73, 93, 


Oil roset, an infusion of, 11 
Oil roset, its properties, 26, 93 
Ointment of mallows, 12 
Ointment for sleep, 101 
Ointment for spots on skin, 50 
Ointment of soap and brimstone, 

44, 46, 50 

Ointments, a method of melting, 90 
Old men, a help to, 95 
Oleum seriacum, preparation of, 91 
01. olivae, 26 
01. roset, 11, 113 

Olibanum or frankincense, 65, 127 
Olivai, 65 
Olive oil, 12, 26 
Onions, bad for piles, 63 
Operation, fees for, xx, xxii, xxiii, 

6, 15, 111 

Operation for fistula, 22 
Operations, an ointment to produce 

atucsthesia during, 101 
Opium, 69 

Opium, bridled by crocus, 101 
Opium, miconis, 101 
Opium, thebaic, 101 
Opium, the varieties of, 134 
Oratio Dominica, 103 
Orpiment used by falconers, 83 
Orpine, meaning of the word, 128 
Orpment, 73 
Orpyne, juice of, 67 
Ortment, a name for arsenic, 83 
Ostrich feather, the Prince of Wales', 

xxvii, 130 

Oumfray, Adam, cured of fistula, 2 
Owles and buboes, 27 
Oyster shell for melting ointments, 

27, 30, 70, 90 

P, meaning of the symbol, 113 

Panis cuculi, 67 

Pantechni, 110 

Pantegni, 110 

Pap, children's, 72 

Papaver albus, 101 

Papaver niger, 100 

Paralysis, treatment of, 96 

Parvencis, or the periwinkle, 125 

Passcnham, the seneschal of, x 

Passio iliaca, a clyster for, 75, 78 



Passio iliaca may come from tenes- 
mus, 72 ; meaning of, 129 

Passio iliaca, signs of, 59 

Passio iliaca to be distinguished 
from piles, 58 

Passional-ins Galeni, the authorship 
of, 123 

Passionary of Bartholomew of Sa- 
lerno, quoted, 55 

Passions of the spleen, piles a pre- 
servative from, 57 

Paternoster, 91, 103 

Patient, addresses to, 22 

Patients are now impatient, 58 

Payne, Dr. J. F., quoted, xxxii, 113, 

Pears for piles, 63 

Pede lyon, or lion's leaf, 48, 120 

Pellitory, 130 

Penile fistula, 14 

Penny used as a measure, 54 ; as a 
weight, 64 

Perinseal fistula, 13 

Periodic clysters, 78 

Peritory, 74, 76 

Perseverance, value of, 3 

Persia, king of, cured, 67, 128 

Persian fire, or shingles, 133 

Pestilence carbuncles, 81 

Pestilence, the first, 1, 107 

Pestilence, the second, 41, 119 

Petite consoude, or the daisy, 30, 

Petty morel, 31 

Peyters, town of, 1 j sack of, 108 

Phlebotome, 125 

Phlebotomy, after treatment of, 61 

Phlebotomy and astrology, 16, 17 

Phlebotomy at heel, 61 

Phlebotomy a preventive of piles, 

Phlebotomy, infrequent, a cause of 
piles, 57 

Phlebotomy in piles, 60 

Phlebotomy of vena salvatella, 61 

Phlebotomy, periodic, 61 

Phlebotomy, the hour for, 61 

Phlegm, false, 58 

Phthisis caused by piles, 57 

Pictagoras, 16, 17, 115 

Piles, a general name for rectal in- 
flammation, 55 

Piles, operation on thrombosed, 70 

Piles symptoms of, 57 

Pilgrims robbed in France, 101 

Pills to provoke sleep, 101 

Piper niger, 92 

Piskre, 114 

Pitch plaster, 81 

Plague blotches, 81 

Plantagenet, Henry, xiii 

Plantain for piles, 40, 63, 74 

Plantain, juice of, 63 

Plantain water, 63, 74 

Plaster, good for the gout, 96 

Plaster of mallow and swine's 

grease, 11 
Plaster of Parts, auripigmentum 

compared to, 82 
Platearius, quoted, 79 ; account of 

the family of, 131 
Pleurisy, piles a preservative from, 


Pliny, quoted, 97; account of, 133 
Ploge, 1, 107 

Poitiers, town of, 1 ; sack of, 108 
Polypus of nose, 79 
Pnintsgranate flowers, 74 
Popilion, 69, 76, 129 
Popliteal space contains only fat, 


Poppy, black, 100, 101 ; white, 10 1 
Populeon, or Aspen ointment, 129 
Populi, pulv. salus, 90 
Porcelane for piles, 63 
Porcelane, or purslane, 74, 126 
Porres, juice of, 45 
Porret, meaning of the word, 120 
Porrej or leeks, juice of, 67 
Porris, 45, 50, 74 
Pott, Percivall, xiv 
Poudre sanj pere, 26, 86 
Powder of litharge, 54 
Powder of walnut, 97 
Powder of white glass, 44, 54 
Prayer, the Lord's, 91, 103 
Prayers used as a measure of time, 

xxix, 91, 133 
Probe, xvii 

Prognosis, advantages of, 38 
Prognosis from amount of discharge 

in fistula, 36 

Prognosis from bleeding piles, 59 
Prognosis of fistuia in ano, 6, 15, 21 
Prognos's of fistula in fingers and 

toes, 42, 47 
Prognosis, reasons for assigning too 

long a time, 6 
Prolapse, King Henry IV cured of, 

xii, 74 



Prolapse of anus, xii, 74 
Prolapse of rectum, 74 
Propoleos, or bee bread, 101, 134 
Proud flesh, 44, 46, 51, 79, 80 
Pruritus ani, 73 
Psidie, or pomegranate, 27, 65, 74, 

67, 117, 127 
Psillium, 74 

Ptholomeus, or Ptolemy, the Physi- 
cian, 16, 17, 115 
Ptisik patients, a help for, 95 
Purlins, 113 
Pulv. alkunet, 90 
Pulv. alum, 67 

Pulv. alum jucarin combust, 27 
Pulv. arsenic, 85 
Pulv. corrosiv. 65 
Pulv. creoferoboron, 42, 44, 45, 46, 

Pulv. creoferoboron not identified, 


Pulv. cummin, 67 
Pulv. Diatritonpipereon, 130 
Pulv. grecus, preparation of, 41, 

Pulv. hermodactile}, perhaps colchi- 

cum, 81, 131 

Pulv. humanus, its composition, 132 
Pulv. incarnatyve, 53 
Pulv. litharg., 54 
Pul vis sanguis veneris, receipts for, 

Pulvis sine pari, 26, 28, 32, 34, 36, 

64, 65, 86, 87 

Pulvis sine pari failed once, 89 
Pulv. salus populi, 37, 40, 90 
Pulv. trisantalorum, 74, 130 
Pulv. vitriol: combust, 79 
Pun on the word Neirbon, 91 
Puns by Arderne, 118 
Purgatives a cause of piles, 57 
Purgatives a cause of tenesmus, 72 
Purgatives for piles, 62, 64 
Puschej, treatment of, 52, 90, 91 
Pustules cured by licium, 86 
Pustules of skin, 50 
Pustules, treatment of, 50, 51 
Putrid flesh destroyed by salus 

populi, 37, 42 

Putteuham, Sir Roger de, 109 
Pythagoras, 16, 17, 115 

QUARTAN ague, piles a preservative 

from, 57 
Quicklime, 64, 92 

Quicksilver, 40, 53 
Quid pro quo, 27, 51, 65, 69, 72 
Quinces for piles, 63 
Quinque-nervia, or Ribwort, for piles, 
63, 126 

RAGADIEJ, meaning of, 13, 114 

Rain water, 63, 74 

Raisins a good vehicle for myro- 

balans, 62 
Raisins, preparation of, for a laxative, 


Ranula, 81 

Razor, 15, 24, 32, 43, 47, 49, 71 
Razor and lancet,ditference between, 


Realgar, 82, 83, 132 
Rectal examination, importance of, 

Rectal feeding advocated by 

Arderne, 78, 131 
Rectal ulceration, 37-38 
Reddcleve-on-Soar, church of, 109 
Rerepigre, explanation of the word, 


Rerepigre fora clyster, 75 
Rhagades, a cause of tenesmus, 13, 

36, 73 

Rhazes, account of, 16, 17, 115 
Rhazes, the antidotary of, 100 
Rhazes, the plaster of, 113 
Rhazes, white ointment of, 119 
Rheum, what it is, 48 
Rhubarb, juice of, 40, 64, 68 
Ribald's potion, composition of, 110, 


Ribalds and Trowans in France, 100 
Ribwort for piles, 63 
Richard Anglicus, account of, 11, 

113, 123 

Richard, Maister, quoted, 55, 73 
Richmond, the honour of, 108 
Rigbone, meaning of, 115 
Rigbone, nerves of, 70 
Rigbone, the, 22, 34, 62, 70 
Rixi, piles due to, 58 
Rije, or Rue, 63 
Roger de Barone, or Varone, account 

of, 123 

Roger, Master, account of, 119, 123 
Rogerina, account of, 123 
Roland, Maister, of Parma, quoted, 

55; account of, 119, 123 
Rose oil, 26, 73 
Rose, red, 74 



Rose water, 28, 63 

Roses, oil of, preparation, 12, 92, 93 

Roset water, 65 

Rasis, or Rhazes, account of, 115 

Ruby, the medicinal use of, 66 

Running water, 74 

Ruprecht, Knecht, 121 

Ruptorye ointment, 14, 33 

Ruptorye ointment, formula for, 118 

Rye meal, 50, 51 

SALERXI, regimen sanitatis, quoted. 


Salerno, Gariopontus of, 123 
Salerno, position of medical women 

at, 119 

Salerno, the regimen, quoted, 119 
Salernum, Archimathseus of, 111 
Salernum, Bartholomew of, 123 ; 

formula for an Ungt. Apostolicon, 

Salicet, William de, ideal surgeon 

of, xxiv; quoted, 119, 121, 125; 

treatment of fistula, xvi; use of 

ink by, 128, 133 
Sal nitri, 53 
Salt, 49, 50 

Salt and water a good clyster, 76 
Salus populi ointment, 27, 28, 30, 


Salus populi, uses of, 37, 40 
Salvatella vein, explanation of, 121 
Sanguiboetes plaster, 43, 44, 45, 47 
Sanguiboetes plaster not identified, 

Sangtiinis veneris ' confectio, 90 ; 

pulv., 89 
Sanguis draconis, a styptic, 25, 27, 

28, 38, 63, 65, 66, 116 
Sanguis veneris, xxix, 26, 28, 33, 

34, 35, 36, 76, 84, 87, 89, 90, 132 
Sank damours is pulv. sang, veneris, 

Sank de pucell. is pulv. gang. 

veneris, 89 

Santalum for piles, 63 
Saphena vein, bleeding from, 55 
Saphena vein, innerj phlebotomy of, 

Saphena vein, outer, phlebotomy of, 


Saphena veins, anatomy of, 61 
Saphire, the medicinal use of, 127 
Saracenic soap, 118 
Sarcocolla, '27; explanation of, 117 

Savoy palace burnt, xi 

Scnb, the, 81, 82, 83 

Scabies, treatment of, by Arderne, 


Scabious is jacea alba, 98 
Scabious, juice of, 98 
Scabious, powers of, xxxi 
Scabious, valence of, to prepare, 97 
Scabious with a heavenly flower, 98 
Scammony, a cause of tenesmus, 63, 


Scammony bad for piles, 63 
Scarification for piles, 62 
Scarification, or garsing, 52, 55 
Scarifying a wound, 52, 55 
Scariola, or chicory, 129 
Scariole for clyster, 72 
Scarth of pot, or potsherd, 82 
Schefeld, John, cured of fistula, 2 
Scorned honey, 30, 40, 65, 73 
Scrope, Archdeacon of Richmond, 

Yorkshire, 114 
Scrope, Lord, 114 
Scrope, Master Giffray, 14 
Scrope, Sir Geoffrey, 114 
Scrope, Sir Henry le, 114 
Scrope, Stephen, 114 
Scrotal sinuses, 13 
Secrecy enjoined on leech lest bar- 
bers learn, 71 
Secrecy inculcated, 8, 15, 29, 30, 71, 

103, 114 

Secrets to be kept, 8 
Sengrene is rhubarb, 64 
" Sequere me," the probe, xvii, 8, 

15, 22, 33, 112 

Sequestrum, Arderue removes a, 85 
Serapion, also known as John 

Damascene, 124 
Serapion, the younger, 113 
Sharp, Samuel, x 
Shears, 26, 87, 92 
Sheep's tallow, 49, 73 
Sheffield, John, 2, 108 
Shelforde by Nottingham, the priest 

of, cured, 2 

Shins, treatment of injuries to, 88, 98 
Shirland, near Chesterfield, 2 
Shirland, Sir Reginald Grey of, 109 
Shooters' Hill known to Arderne, 


Signs of danger in bleeding piles, 50 
Silence, the value of, 6, 8 
Silk, white, leech to keep a stock of, 



Simple men, God reveals things to 

the, 2 

Siriacum oleum, 91 
Siringa, the syringe, 9, 112 
Skin, an ointment for spots on, 50 
Skin, flayings and excoriations of, 

36, 40, 43, 46, 51, 90 
Sklyse, a, 31 

Sleep, a powder to produce, 100 
Sleep, ointment and pills to provoke, 

Sleep, to awaken a man from, 101, 


Slip knot, 29 
Smalacli, juice of, 30 
Smalach, or parsley, 49, 117 
Snail, black, 53 
Snaith, 1 ; priory of, 108 
Sneezing of menstruous woman 

hurtful to wounds, 88 
Snouted needle, 9, 15, 24 
Soap and brimstone ointment, 44, 4G 
Soap and sulphur ointment, 46, 50 
Soap, black and white, 76, 118 
Solsequium, or endive, juice of, 52, 


Sour milk for piles, 63 
Spain, king of, xi 

Sparge, or cataputia minor, 30, 117 
Spasm, charm against, 102 
Spatome, or spatula, 31, 40, 48, 69. 

92, 93, 96 

Spleen, diseases of, 60 
Spleen pain, 95 
Spleen, piles a preservative from the 

passions of the, 57 
Spleen, the prison of melancholy, 60 
Spodin for piles, 63 
Sponge used for staunching blood, 

24, 25, 32, 70 
Sponges, 15, 24 
Spoon, the cochlear, 24 
Sprains, treatment of, 94, 97 
Squibula, 38, 76, 77, 78 
St. Anthony's fire, or ergotinism, 


Sternutories, 102 
Stick, injuries from, 54 
Stoke Bardolf, Notts., 107 
Stomach, abhominaciones of, 95, 133 
Stomach ache, 95 
Stomach, remedies to comfort, 95 
Stomach, the urine in diseases of, GO 
Stones, injuries from, 52, 54 
Stopporte in Cheshire, 109 

Storax, 63, 126 

Strains, treatment of, 94, 97 

Stupes, 25, 26, 28, 32, 44, 49, 67, 87, 


Styptic herbs, 63 
Styptic powder, 41 
Styptics, Arderne's use of, 116 
Styptics for blood, 15, 24, 25, 41, 

65, 66, 74 
Succus apii, 50 
Suffumigation, 74 
Sugar, 58 

Sulphur, 40, 46, 48 
Sulphur and soap ointment, 46, 50 
Sulphur water, 82 
Sumak for piles, 63, 67 
Sun, influence of, on disease. 21 
Sunburn, treatment of, 95 
Superfluous flesh, 79, 80 
Surgeon, the ideal, xix 
Surgeon, the qualities required in, 

by Arderne, 4 

Surgeons, dangers incurred by, xsvii 
Surgeons, the Master, xviii 
Sweating a treatment for piles, 63 
Swine's bladder, preparation of, for 

an enema, 75 
Swine's dung, medicinal use of, 

Swine's grease and mallow plaster, 


Swooning a result of tenesmus, 72 
Swooning of a patient after opera- 
tion, and treatment of, 32, 33 
Sword wounds, treatment of, 52 
Swyne's grease, 68, 69 
Syringe, use of, 33, 34, 95 
Syryng, 33, 34, 95 

TALLOW, 49, 90 

Tallow of goats, 73 ; hart, 90; pig, 
97 ; sheep, 73, 90, 92 

Tame mallows, 12 

Tanny powder, 27 

Tansy, 74 

Tapsibarbastus and mel com- 
pounded, 73 

Tapsimel, xxxii, 35, 36, 40, 65, 92, 

Tapsimel, preparation of, 23, 31 

Tapsivalencia, preparation of, xxxi, 

Tartar, 46 

Tartar of ale, 49 

Tartar water, receipt for, 52 



Techni of Hippocrates, 110 
Teeth, a remedy for disease of, 81 
Tenasmon, 39, 56, 71 
Tenasmon, prognosis of, 72 
Tenasmon, signs of, 71 
Tenasmon, treatment of, 72 
Tendiculum, the dilator, xvii, 9, 15, 

23, 24, 112 

Tenesmus, see Tenasmon, 71 
Tent, use of, for draining wounds* 


Tent, wooden, 48 
Tents, 34, 48, 100 
Tents of lard, 48 
Tents of linen, 32 
Tents, to anchor, 34 
Terebentyne, 31 
Terra sigilluta, or Lemnos earth, 27, 


Testicles, cure of fistula in, 2 
Testicles, means of cooling, 66 
Testudo nigra, 53 
Tetter, the, 83 
Theodoric, 113, 119 
Theriaca hyoscyami, 102 
Thread, leech to keep a stock of, 30 
Thread, the fourfold, 23 
Thrombosed piles, 71 
Thrush, treatment of, 32 
Thumbs, fistulse of, 42 
Thus albus, 63, 95 
Tickhill, near Bri 3 twell, 2, 108 
Time measured by recitation of 

prayers, xxix, 91 
Tinder, a styptic, 25, 66 
Toad, skin coloured like that of a, 


Tongs, Arderne's dilating, 35 
Toulouse, 1 ; capture of, 108 
Towell, 2; the meaning of the word, 


Treacle of castoreum, 102 
Treacle of hyoscyamus, 102 
Trisantalorum, or confection of san- 
dal, 130 

Trochistes, a plaster made into, 91 
Trowans and ribalds in France, 100 
Truant, meaning of the word, 134 
Turchill de Warwic, x 
Turpentine, 31, 37 
Tuxford in the Clay, 1, 107 
Twelve Apostles, ointment of the, 


ULCERATION, a cause of tenesmus, 72 

Ulceration, chronic, of leg, a case 

of, 53 

Ulceration of rectum, 37, 38 
Ulcers, cancerous, 81, 86 
Ulcers, fraudulent, 79 
Ulcers not all buboes, 36 
Ulcers not to be dressed too often, 87 
Ulcus concavurn, 133 
Ulcus undesiccable, 13, 114 
Unguentum 2Egyptiacuu), 119 
Unguentum album, 28, 40, 47, 54, 


Unguentum Apostolicon, 130 
Unguentum Apostolorum, formula 

for, 130 

Unguentum arabicum, 28, 35, 71,92 
Unguentum citrinum, 65 
Unguentum dyuelyn, 53, 54 
Unguentum fuscum, 50 
Unguentum Gratia Dei, 130 
Unguentum licium, 44 
Unguentum Neyrbone. 33, 34 
Unguentum nigrum, its composition 

and preparation of, 54 
Unguentum ruptorium, 14, 33, 118 
Unguentum sambuci, 114 
Unguentum tupsivalentium, 69 
Unguentum Veneris, 130 
Unguentum vetus, 74 
Unguentum viride, 27, 43, 44, 46, 

54, 119 

Unguentum viride grjeci, 53 
Universities, approximate dates of, 


Unkunnyng leeches, 37, 38, 42, 86 
Untholefulness of patients, comment 

on, 58 

Urethral fistula, 14, 32 
Urinary fistula, 14 
Urine, burning of the, 95 
Urine in disease of the stomach 

peassyue, i.e. green or eruginous, 


Urine in noli-me-tangere, 60 
Urine, the condition of, in piles, 59 
Urine the, in lupus, 60 
Uve, piles, 56 

VALENCE of scabious, 129 

Valence of scabious, to prepare, 97, 

Valence of scabious, why so called, 


Valence of tapsibarbastus, C9 
Valence of wormode, 98 



Valentia scabious, xxxi 

Varone, Roger de, account of, 123 

Veins, anatomy of saphenous, 61 

Vena basilica, 54 

Vena hepatica, explanation of the 

term, 121 

Vena hepatica of arm, 121 
Vena kilyuj, its anatomy, 57 
Vena mesaraica, 78 
Vena salvatella, anatomy of, 125 
Vena salvatella, bleeding from, 61 
Veneris pulv. sanguinis, xxix, 26, 

28, 33, 89, 90, 
Venomous apostemes, 81 
Ventose, or cupping instruments, 


Ventosyng, or cupping, 62 
Verbr.m caro factum est, 104, 135 
" Verbum caro factum," value of the 

words against evil, 135 
Verdigris, 49, 50 
Vermilion, 82 
Vertgrese, 65, 86 
Vertgrese, its properties, 82 
Verucale3 piles, 56 
Vervain, 63, 74 
Violet, 76 

Violet oil, 67, 69, 73 
Violet oil, a method of preparing, 


Virga pastoris, or the Teasel, 40, 119 
Virgins rare, 90 
Viride es, 82 
Viride graeci ungt, 53 
Virtues in woods, stones, and herbs, 


Vitriol, 64, 65, 40, 41 
Vitriol combust, 86 
Vitriol plaster, preparation of, 81 
Vitriol, uses of, 79, 80 
Vitriol, varieties of, 79 
Vitriole?, varieties of, 79 
Vitriolura arabicum, 79 
Vitriolum ciprinum, 79 
Vitriolum combustum, 79 
Vitriolum romanum, 79 

WALES', Prince of, plumes, xxvii 
Wales, Prince of (the Black Prince), 

mentioned, 2, 3 
Walwort, juice of, 25, 97 
Walwort, powder of, 25, 97 
Wai wort, the dwarf elder, 30, 49, 

50, 66, 116, 117, 133 
Walwort, the virtues of, 97 

Warsop, hamlet of, 107 

Water, cold, a styptic, 66 

Watercress, 76 

Water of almonds, to prepare, 95 

Water of alum, 82 

Water of plantain, 63, 74 

Water of sulphur, 82 

Wax, virgin, 30 

Welked, meaning of word, 129 

Wet cupping for piles, 62 

Weybread, or Plantain, 117 

Wheat bran for a clyster, 75 

Wheat flour, 32 

Wheaten meal, 48, 63 

Whey, a good vehicle for myro- 

balans, 62 
White Friars church, a, John 

Arderne buried in, 134 
White Friars, the church of the, 133 
White of egg, 54 

White ointment, varieties of, 54, 119 
White poppy, 101 
Whitlow, the, 42 
Wild fire, an ointment for, 91 
Wild fire, or eysipelas, 40, 133 
Wilton, Lord Grey of, cured of 

fistula, 2 

Wind relieved by a clyster, 28 
Wine, great, 63 
Wine to be used for wetting licium, 


Wiseman, Eichard, xiv 
Witty men, 28, 30 
Womb, 25, 26, 30, 39, 56, 59, 62, 63, 

77, 78, 97 

Womb, purging of, 71 
Wombe, meaning of, 113 
Women, medical, position of, at the 

school of Salerno, 119 
Women, menstruating, hurtful to 

wounds, 88, 132 
Woodall, John, xiv 
Woodbine, 30 
Woodbine, juice of, 44 
Woodbynd, or woodbine, 117 
Wooden tent, 48 
Woodsour or alleluia, 68 
Woods, stones and herbs, virtues' in, 

104, 135 
Wormode, or wormwood, 30, 117, 


Wormwood, valence of, 98 
Wound, signs of a mundified, 27 
Wounds, incurable, treatment of, 




Wounds not to be dressed too often, 


Wounds, the drier the better, 28 
Wounds, treatment of, 98, 100 
Wounds, when to be re-dressed, 88 
Wrayste, the, xvii, 9, 23, 24, 112 
Wyne, great, 63 

YARD, burning of, 96 

Ydropsy, piles a preservative from, 

Yera pigra, 130 

Yerd, cancer of, 92 
Yolks of egg, 11, 65. See Egg 
Ypocras, 21, 115 

Ypoquistid, or Hypocistis, for piles, 
63, 126 

3EKYNG, treatment of, 52 
Zingiber, 68 

3i3annie, or tares, 100, 134 
Zodiac and surgery, 16 
^ucaryne alum. 81 
3uccary, or sugar, 68 

Richard Clay & eiyns, limited London and Jiungay.